JoVE   
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Biology

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Neuroscience

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Immunology and Infection

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Bioengineering

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Applied Physics

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Chemistry

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Behavior

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Environment

|   

JoVE Science Education

General Laboratory Techniques

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

Model Organisms I

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

Model Organisms II

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

Essentials of
Neuroscience

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

Essentials of Developmental Biology

You have subscription access to videos in this collection through your user account.

In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (23)

Articles by Adah Almutairi in JoVE

 JoVE Bioengineering

Density Gradient Multilayered Polymerization (DGMP): A Novel Technique for Creating Multi-compartment, Customizable Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

1Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 2Biomedical Sciences Program, University of California, San Diego, 3Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego


JoVE 50018

Here we describe a unique strategy for creating biocompatible, layered matrices with continuous interfaces between distinct layers for tissue engineering. Such a scaffold could provide an ideal customizable environment to modulate cell behavior by various biological, chemical or mechanical cues

Other articles by Adah Almutairi on PubMed

Synthesis and Photochromic Properties of Molecules Containing [e]-annelated Dihydropyrenes. Two and Three Way Pi-switches Based on the Dimethyldihydropyrene-metacyclophanediene Valence Isomerization

The syntheses of several new simple negative, a simple positive, and multiple negative photochromes containing the dihydropyrene-cyclophanediene photochromic system are described. The photo-openings of the negative photochromes, the [e]-annelated benzo (7), naphtho (9), anthro (11), furano (19), and triphenyleno (15) derivatives of the parent 2,7-di-tert-butyl-trans-10b,10c-dimethyl-dihydropyrene (5), as well as its 4,5-dibromo derivative (13), are described to give the corresponding cyclophanedienes, as well as their photoclosures and thermal closures back to the dihydropyrenes. These are compared to the results obtained for the positive photochrome dibenzo[e,l]dihydropyrene (21) and to the bis(dihydropyreno)chrysene (44) and the (dihydropyrenobenzo)(benzo)metacyclophanediene (47) photochromes, which have more than one photochromic switch present and thus have more than a simple "on-off" state. Thermodynamic data are obtained for the thermal closing reactions. The anthrodihydropyrene (12) has the fastest thermal closing (tau(1/2) = 20 min), while the furanodihydropyrene (19') has the slowest (tau(1/2) = 63 h) at 46 degrees C. An electrochemical readout of the state of the switch is demonstrated for the benzodihydropyrene (7).

Helical Sexithiophenes: an Experimental and Theoretical Study Implicating the Alternating 2,2':3,3' Regioisomer As a Reliable Helical Motif

Perchlorinated sexithiophene regioisomer, 2,2' '' ''-diX-5,5',5' ',5' '',5' '' ',5' '' ''-hexachloro-[3,3';2',2' ';3' ',3' '';2' '',2' '' ';3' '' ',3' '' '']sexithiophene (compound 1), demonstrates a reliable helical conformation in the solid state, regardless of a broad range of substituents, X. The synthesis and composition of compound 1a (X = H) synthetically accommodates substituent diversity at the 2- and 2' '' ''-sites. X-ray crystal structures (X = H, Cl, Br) and theoretical geometry optimizations (X = H, Cl, Br, I, Me, Et, t-Bu, and Ph) both confirm that the helical state, a conformation likely dictated by internal torsional strain, is predominant and unaffected by substituent X. It is predicted (ACID/B3LYP/6-31G(d) calculations and UV-visible spectra) that the helical structure exists as a fully conjugated system.

Biodegradable PH-sensing Dendritic Nanoprobes for Near-infrared Fluorescence Lifetime and Intensity Imaging

Enhanced Cell Penetration of Acid-degradable Particles Functionalized with Cell-penetrating Peptides

Biopharmaceuticals, such as proteins and DNA, have demonstrated their potential to prevent and cure diseases. The success of such therapeutic agents hinges upon their ability to cross complex barriers in the body and reach their target intact. In order to reap the full benefits of these therapeutic agents, a delivery vehicle capable of delivering cargo to all cell types, both phagocytic and non-phagocytic, is needed. This article presents the synthesis and evaluation of a microparticle delivery vehicle capable of cell penetration and sub-cellular triggered release of an encapsulated payload. pH-sensitive polyacrylamide particles functionalized with a polyarginine cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) were synthesized. The incorporation of a CPP into the microparticles led to efficient uptake by non-phagocytic cells in culture. In addition, the CPP-modified particles showed no cytotoxic effects at concentrations used in this study. The results suggest that these particles may provide a vehicle for the successful delivery of therapeutic agents to various cell types.

Monitoring the Biodegradation of Dendritic Near-infrared Nanoprobes by in Vivo Fluorescence Imaging

Synthetic polymers and dendrimers have been widely used by the medical community to overcome biological barriers and enhance in vivo biomedical applications. Despite the widespread use of biomaterials it has been generally extremely difficult to monitor noninvasively their fate in vivo. Here we report multilayered nanoprobes, consisting of a near-infrared core, nanoencapsulated in a biodegradable dendrimer, and surrounded by a shell of polyethylene oxide. Covalent encapsulation of the near-infrared fluorophores in the dendritic scaffold conferred enhanced stability to the nanoprobe with added resistance to enzymatic oxidation and prolonged blood residence time. Insight into the time course of biodegradation of the dendritic aliphatic polyester nanoprobe was gained using noninvasive whole body in vivo fluorescence lifetime imaging. As the dendritic shell biodegrades the NIR probe becomes exposed, enabling monitoring of fluorescence lifetime changes in vivo.

Biodegradable Dendritic Positron-emitting Nanoprobes for the Noninvasive Imaging of Angiogenesis

A biodegradable positron-emitting dendritic nanoprobe targeted at alpha(v)beta(3) integrin, a biological marker known to modulate angiogenesis, was developed for the noninvasive imaging of angiogenesis. The nanoprobe has a modular multivalent core-shell architecture consisting of a biodegradable heterobifunctional dendritic core chemoselectively functionalized with heterobifunctional polyethylene oxide (PEO) chains that form a protective shell, which imparts biological stealth and dictates the pharmacokinetics. Each of the 8 branches of the dendritic core was functionalized for labeling with radiohalogens. Placement of radioactive moieties at the core was designed to prevent in vivo dehalogenation, a potential problem for radiohalogens in imaging and therapy. Targeting peptides of cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motifs were installed at the terminal ends of the PEO chains to enhance their accessibility to alpha(v)beta(3) integrin receptors. This nanoscale design enabled a 50-fold enhancement of the binding affinity to alpha(v)beta(3) integrin receptors with respect to the monovalent RGD peptide alone, from 10.40 nM to 0.18 nM IC(50). Cell-based assays of the (125)I-labeled dendritic nanoprobes using alpha(v)beta(3)-positive cells showed a 6-fold increase in alpha(v)beta(3) receptor-mediated endocytosis of the targeted nanoprobe compared with the nontargeted nanoprobe, whereas alpha(v)beta(3)-negative cells showed no enhancement of cell uptake over time. In vivo biodistribution studies of (76)Br-labeled dendritic nanoprobes showed excellent bioavailability for the targeted and nontargeted nanoprobes. In vivo studies in a murine hindlimb ischemia model for angiogenesis revealed high specific accumulation of (76)Br-labeled dendritic nanoprobes targeted at alpha(v)beta(3) integrins in angiogenic muscles, allowing highly selective imaging of this critically important process.

Engineering NIR Dyes for Fluorescent Lifetime Contrast

The excited state of an organic molecule is a crossroads which can lead to many directions, such as non-radiative emission as heat, fluorescence, intersystem crossing and phosphorescence. Due to the unpredictable nature of the excited molecular structure, manipulation of this represents significant challenges for physicists and chemists. However, the successful management of the excited state provides a number of benefits with innumerable applications to fields like photonics and medicine. One such property of the excited state with powerful ramifications in medical diagnostics is fluorescence lifetime.

UV and Near-IR Triggered Release from Polymeric Nanoparticles

A new light-sensitive polymer containing multiple light-sensitive triggering groups along the backbone and incorporating a quinone-methide self-immolative moiety was developed and formulated into nanoparticles encapsulating a model pharmaceutical Nile Red. Triggered burst release of the payload upon irradiation and subsequent degradation of the nanoparticles were observed. This system is designed to be versatile where the triggering group can be sensitive to a number of wavelengths.

Multiresponse Strategies to Modulate Burst Degradation and Release from Nanoparticles

Logic gate nanoparticles, where two chemical transformations take place one after the other, were successfully formulated from a newly synthesized random co-polymer. This polymer, poly([2,2'-(propane-2,2-diylbis(oxy))bis(ethane-2,1-diyl) diacrylate ]-co-[hexane-1,6-diyl diacrylate]-4,4' trimethylene dipiperidine), (poly-β-aminoester ketal-2) contains two pH responsive moieties within its backbone. As nanoparticles they function akin to an AND logic gate. The β-aminoester backbone moiety provides a pH triggered solubility switch, only when this switch is "ON" does the ketal moiety also turn "ON" to undergo rapid acid catalyzed hydrolysis. These AND logic gate polymeric nanoparticles were prepared using an oil in water emulsion method. Their degradation in the pH range of 7.4-5 was monitored by dynamic light scattering and showed excellent stability at pH 7.4 and rapid degradation at pH 5. Our results indicate that the prepared logic gate nanoparticles may prove valuable in delivering therapeutics and diagnostics to cells and diseased tissue.

NMR-derived Models of Amidopyrine and Its Metabolites in Complexes with Rabbit Cytochrome P450 2B4 Reveal a Structural Mechanism of Sequential N-dealkylation

To understand the molecular basis of sequential N-dealkylation by cytochrome P450 2B enzymes, we studied the binding of amidopyrine (AP) as well as the metabolites of this reaction, desmethylamidopyrine (DMAP) and aminoantipyrine (AAP), using the X-ray crystal structure of rabbit P450 2B4 and two nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques: saturation transfer difference (STD) spectroscopy and longitudinal (T(1)) relaxation NMR. Results of STD NMR of AP and its metabolites bound to P450 2B4 were similar, suggesting that they occupy similar niches within the enzyme's active site. The model-dependent relaxation rates (R(M)) determined from T(1) relaxation NMR of AP and DMAP suggest that the N-linked methyl is closest to the heme. To determine the orientation(s) of AP and its metabolites within the P450 2B4 active site, we used distances calculated from the relaxation rates to constrain the metabolites to the X-ray crystal structure of P450 2B4. Simulated annealing of the complex revealed that the metabolites do indeed occupy similar hydrophobic pockets within the active site, while the N-linked methyls are free to rotate between two binding modes. From these bound structures, a model of N-demethylation in which the N-linked methyl functional groups rotate between catalytic and noncatalytic positions was developed. This study is the first to provide a structural model of a drug and its metabolites complexed to a cytochrome P450 based on NMR and to provide a structural mechanism for how a drug can undergo sequential oxidations without unbinding. The rotation of the amide functional group might represent a common structural mechanism for N-dealkylation reactions for other drugs such as the local anesthetic lidocaine.

Application of Fiber-optic Attenuated Total Reflection-FT-IR Methods for in Situ Characterization of Protein Delivery Systems in Real Time

A fiber-optic coupled attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FT-IR spectroscopy technique was applied to the study of two different therapeutic delivery systems, acid degradable hydrogels and nanoparticles. Real time exponential release of a model protein, human serum albumin (HSA), was observed from two different polymeric hydrogels formulated with a pH sensitive cross-linker. Spectroscopic examination of nanoparticles formulated with an acid degradable polymer shell and encapsulated HSA exhibited vibrational signatures characteristic of both particle and payload when exposed to lowered pH conditions, demonstrating the ability of this methodology to simultaneously measure phenomena arising from a system with a mixture of components. In addition, thorough characterization of these pH sensitive delivery vehicles without encapsulated protein was also accomplished in order to separate the effects of the payload during degradation. When in situ, real time detection in combination with the ability to specifically identify different components in a mixture without involved sample preparation and minimal sample disturbance is provided, the versatility and suitability of this type of experiment for research in the pharmaceutical field is demonstrated.

Inflammation Responsive Logic Gate Nanoparticles for the Delivery of Proteins

Oxidative stress and reduced pH are important stimuli targets for intracellular delivery and for delivery to diseased tissue. However, there is a dearth of materials able to deliver bioactive agents selectively under these conditions. We employed our recently developed dual response strategy to build a polymeric nanoparticle that degrades upon exposure to two stimuli in tandem. Our polythioether ketal based nanoparticles undergo two chemical transformations; the first is the oxidation of the thioether groups along the polymer backbone of the nanoparticles upon exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS). This transformation switches the polymeric backbone from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and thus allows, in mildly acidic environments, the rapid acid-catalyzed degradation of the ketal groups also along the polymer backbone. Dynamic light scattering and payload release studies showed full particle degradation only in conditions that combined both oxidative stress and acidity, and these conditions led to higher release of encapsulated protein within 24 h. Nanoparticles in neutral pH and under oxidative conditions showed small molecule release and swelling of otherwise intact nanparticles. Notably, cellular studies show absence of toxicity and efficient uptake of nanoparticles by macrophages followed by cytoplasmic release of ovalbumin. Future work will apply this system to inflammatory diseases.

Low Power, Biologically Benign NIR Light Triggers Polymer Disassembly

Near infrared (NIR) irradiation can penetrate up to 10 cm deep into tissues and be remotely applied with high spatial and temporal precision. Despite its potential for various medical and biological applications, there is a dearth of biomaterials that are responsive at this wavelength region. Herein we report a polymeric material that is able to disassemble in response to biologically benign levels of NIR irradiation upon two-photon absorption. The design relies on the photolysis of the multiple pendant 4-bromo7-hydroxycoumarin protecting groups to trigger a cascade of cyclization and rearrangement reactions leading to the degradation of the polymer backbone. The new material undergoes a 50% Mw loss after 25 sec of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation by single photon absorption and 21 min of NIR irradiation via two-photon absorption. Most importantly, even NIR irradiation at biologically benign laser power is sufficient to cause significant polymer disassembly. Furthermore, this material is well tolerated by cells both before and after degradation. These results demonstrate for the first time a NIR sensitive material with potential to be used for in vivo applications.

Density Gradient Multilayer Polymerization for Creating Complex Tissue

An adaptable density gradient multilayer polymerization (DGMP) method facilitates simple fabrication of complex multicompartment scaffolds with structurally continuous interfaces. Solvent density liquid-liquid phase segregation compartmentalizes varied mechanical and chemical cues independently. Bulk photopolymerization produces stratified three-dimensional and two-dimensional matrices. Cells attach to patterned adhesion peptides on biomimetic 2D substrates.

Photochemical Mechanisms of Light-triggered Release from Nanocarriers

Over the last three decades, a handful of photochemical mechanisms have been applied to a large number of nanoscale assemblies that encapsulate a payload to afford spatio-temporal and remote control over activity of the encapsulated payload. Many of these systems are designed with an eye towards biomedical applications, as spatio-temporal and remote control of bioactivity would advance research and clinical practice. This review covers five underlying photochemical mechanisms that govern the activity of the majority of photoresponsive nanocarriers: 1. photo driven isomerization and oxidation, 2. surface plasmon absorption and photothermal effects, 3. photo driven hydrophobicity changes, 4. photo driven polymer backbone fragmentation and 5. photo driven de-crosslinking. The ways in which these mechanisms have been incorporated into nanocarriers and how they affect release are detailed, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each system.

Increasing Materials' Response to Two-photon NIR Light Via Self-immolative Dendritic Scaffolds

Photoactivation using two photons of NIR allows non-invasive biological manipulation. We applied the principle of dendritic amplification to improve the materials' sensitivity to NIR light. Light induced uncaging or release of L-glutamic acid was 2.8 fold higher when incorporating 4-bromo-7-hydroxycoumarin (Bhc) with self-immolative dendrimers compared with Bhc directly conjugated to L-glutamic acid.

Physical and Chemical Strategies for Therapeutic Delivery by Using Polymeric Nanoparticles

A significant challenge that most therapeutic agents face is their inability to be delivered effectively. Nanotechnology offers a solution to allow for safe, high-dose, specific delivery of pharmaceuticals to the target tissue. Nanoparticles composed of biodegradable polymers can be designed and engineered with various layers of complexity to achieve drug targeting that was unimaginable years ago by offering multiple mechanisms to encapsulate and strategically deliver drugs, proteins, nucleic acids, or vaccines while improving their therapeutic index. Targeting of nanoparticles to diseased tissue and cells assumes two strategies: physical and chemical targeting. Physical targeting is a strategy enabled by nanoparticle fabrication techniques. It includes using size, shape, charge, and stiffness among other parameters to influence tissue accumulation, adhesion, and cell uptake. New methods to measure size, shape, and polydispersity will enable this field to grow and more thorough comparisons to be made. Physical targeting can be more economically viable when certain fabrication techniques are used. Chemical targeting can employ molecular recognition units to decorate the surface of particles or molecular units responsive to diseased environments or remote stimuli. In this review, we describe sophisticated nanoparticles designed for tissue-specific chemical targeting that use conjugation chemistry to attach targeting moieties. Furthermore, we describe chemical targeting using stimuli responsive nanoparticles that can respond to changes in pH, heat, and light.

An Extracellular MRI Polymeric Contrast Agent That Degrades at Physiological PH

Macromolecular contrast agents have the potential to assist magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) due to their high relaxivity, but are not clinically useful because of toxicity due to poor clearance. We have prepared a biodegradable ketal-based polymer contrast agent which is designed to degrade rapidly at physiological pH by hydrolysis, facilitating renal clearance. In vitro, the agent degraded more rapidly at lower pH, with complete fragmentation after 24 h at pH 7.4. In vitro relaxivity measurements showed a direct correlation between molecular weight and relaxivity. We compared our polymer contrast agent with commercially available Magnevist in vivo by MRI imaging, as well as measuring the Gd concentration in blood. Our results show that our polymer contrast agent gives a higher contrast and intensity in the same organs and areas as Magnevist and is cleared from the blood at a similar rate. We aim to improve our polymer contrast agent design to develop it for use as a MRI contrast agent, and explore its use as a platform for other imaging modalities.

Triggered Rapid Degradation of Nanoparticles for Gene Delivery

Effective gene delivery tools offer the possibility of addressing multiple diseases; current strategies rely on viruses or polyplexes. Encapsulation of DNA within nanoparticles is an attractive alternative method for gene delivery. We investigated the use of our recently developed Logic Gate Nanoparticle for gene delivery. The nanoparticles, composed of a dual pH response random copolymer (poly-β-aminoester ketal-2), can undergo a two-step "in series" response to endosomal pH. The first sep is a hydrophobic-hydrophilic switch, which is followed immediately by rapid degradation. Rapid fragmentation is known to increase cytoplasmic delivery from nanoparticles. Therefore, we hypothesized that our Logic Gate Nanoparticles would enable increased gene delivery and expression relative to nanoparticles that degrade more slowly such as PLGA-based nanoparticles. Passive nanoparticle entry into cells was demonstrated by delivering Cy5-labeled pDNA encoding EGFP into HCT116, a colon carcinoma cell line. Flow cytometry analysis showed that cells are positive for Cy5-DNA-nanoparticles and produced EGFP expression superior to PLGA nanoparticles. Inhibition of V-ATPases using bafilomycin A1 demonstrates that expression of EGFP is dependent on low endosomal pH. The advanced Logic Gate Nanoparticles offer new therapeutic possibilities in gene delivery and other applications where rapid release is important.

Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-based Magnetic Resonance Method to Monitor Release Kinetics from Polymeric Particles with High Resolution

A new method to precisely monitor rapid release kinetics from polymeric particles using super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, specifically by measuring spin-spin relaxation time (T(2)), is reported. Previously, we have published the formulation of logic gate particles from an acid-sensitive poly-β-aminoester ketal-2 polymer. Here, a series of poly-β-aminoester ketal-2 polymers with varying hydrophobicities were synthesized and used to formulate particles. We attempted to measure fluorescence of released Nile red to determine whether the structural adjustments could finely tune the release kinetics in the range of minutes to hours; however, this standard technique did not differentiate each release rate of our series. Thus, a new method based on encapsulation of iron oxide nanoparticles was developed, which enabled us to resolve the release kinetics of our particles. Moreover, the kinetics matched the relative hydrophobicity order determined by octanol-water partition coefficients. To the best of our knowledge, this method provides the highest resolution of release kinetics to date.

Biocompatible Polymeric Nanoparticles Degrade and Release Cargo in Response to Biologically Relevant Levels of Hydrogen Peroxide

Oxidative stress is caused predominantly by accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and distinguishes inflamed tissue from healthy tissue. Hydrogen peroxide could potentially be useful as a stimulus for targeted drug delivery to diseased tissue. However, current polymeric systems are not sensitive to biologically relevant concentrations of H(2)O(2) (50-100 μM). Here we report a new biocompatible polymeric capsule capable of undergoing backbone degradation and thus release upon exposure to such concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Two polymeric structures were developed differing with respect to the linkage between the boronic ester group and the polymeric backbone: either direct (1) or via an ether linkage (2). Both polymers are stable in aqueous solution at normal pH, and exposure to peroxide induces the removal of the boronic ester protecting groups at physiological pH and temperature, revealing phenols along the backbone, which undergo quinone methide rearrangement to lead to polymer degradation. Considerably faster backbone degradation was observed for polymer 2 over polymer 1 by NMR and GPC. Nanoparticles were formulated from these novel materials to analyze their oxidation triggered release properties. While nanoparticles formulated from polymer 1 only released 50% of the reporter dye after exposure to 1 mM H(2)O(2) for 26 h, nanoparticles formulated from polymer 2 did so within 10 h and were able to release their cargo selectively in biologically relevant concentrations of H(2)O(2). Nanoparticles formulated from polymer 2 showed a 2-fold enhancement of release upon incubation with activated neutrophils, while controls showed a nonspecific response to ROS producing cells. These polymers represent a novel, biologically relevant, and biocompatible approach to biodegradable H(2)O(2)-triggered release systems that can degrade into small molecules, release their cargo, and should be easily cleared by the body.

A Single UV or Near IR Triggering Event Leads to Polymer Degradation into Small Molecules

We report two polymers with UV- and NIR-removable end caps that respond to a single light activated event by complete cleavage of the polymer backbone via a self-immolative mechanism. Two photocleavable protecting groups were used to cap the polymers; o-nitrobenzyl alcohol (ONB) and bromo-coumarin (Bhc). GPC and (1)H NMR confirmed complete degradation of the ONB-containing polymer in response to UV. The polymers were formulated into nanoparticles; fluorescence measurements of encapsulated Nile red confirmed release upon photolysis of the endcaps. Contrary to previous work using a similar backbone structure that degrades upon hydrolysis, here, the disassembly process and burst release of the payload are only activated on demand, illustrating the powerful capacity of light to trigger release from polymeric nanoparticles. Our design allows the signal to be amplified in a domino effect to fully degrade the polymer into small molecules. Thus, polymers and nanoparticles can reach maximal degradation without having to use intense and/or long periods of irradiation.

Antigen-loaded PH-sensitive Hydrogel Microparticles Are Taken Up by Dendritic Cells with No Requirement for Targeting Antibodies

Particle-based delivery of encapsulated antigens has great potential for improving vaccine constructs. In this study, we show that antigen-loaded, pH-sensitive hydrogel microparticles are taken up and presented by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in vitro and are taken up by dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes in vivo. This uptake is irrespective of targeting antibodies. BMDCs in vitro and DCs in vivo also display upregulation of activation markers CD80 and CD86 when treated with microparticles, again with no difference in conjugated antibodies, even the agonistic CD40 antibody. We further show that these particles induce enhanced expansion of cytokine-producing CD8 T cells in response to challenge with ovalbumin-expressing vesicular stomatitis virus, in both an accelerated vaccination strategy using pre-loaded BMDCs and a traditional mouse immunization setting.

Waiting
simple hit counter