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In JoVE (1)
- Captura Primer Extensão: Recuperação Sequence alvejado a partir de Fontes de DNA altamente degradadas
Other Publications (15)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Nucleic Acids Research
- BMC Evolutionary Biology
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- The EMBO Journal
- Nucleic Acids Research
- Current Biology : CB
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- Nucleic Acids Research
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
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Articles by Adrian W. Briggs in JoVE
Captura Primer Extensão: Recuperação Sequence alvejado a partir de Fontes de DNA altamente degradadas
Adrian W. Briggs, Jeffrey M. Good, Richard E. Green, Johannes Krause, Tomislav Maricic, Udo Stenzel, Svante Pääbo
Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig
Nós apresentamos um método de recuperação de seqüência de DNA alvo antigo, que usamos para reconstruir o genoma mitocondrial completo de cinco indivíduos Neandertal. Comparação dessas seqüências com os seres humanos hoje sugere que os neandertais tinham um longo prazo o tamanho da população de baixa eficácia.
Other articles by Adrian W. Briggs on PubMed
Nature. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17108958
Neanderthals are the extinct hominid group most closely related to contemporary humans, so their genome offers a unique opportunity to identify genetic changes specific to anatomically fully modern humans. We have identified a 38,000-year-old Neanderthal fossil that is exceptionally free of contamination from modern human DNA. Direct high-throughput sequencing of a DNA extract from this fossil has thus far yielded over one million base pairs of hominoid nuclear DNA sequences. Comparison with the human and chimpanzee genomes reveals that modern human and Neanderthal DNA sequences diverged on average about 500,000 years ago. Existing technology and fossil resources are now sufficient to initiate a Neanderthal genome-sequencing effort.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17715061
High-throughput direct sequencing techniques have recently opened the possibility to sequence genomes from Pleistocene organisms. Here we analyze DNA sequences determined from a Neandertal, a mammoth, and a cave bear. We show that purines are overrepresented at positions adjacent to the breaks in the ancient DNA, suggesting that depurination has contributed to its degradation. We furthermore show that substitutions resulting from miscoding cytosine residues are vastly overrepresented in the DNA sequences and drastically clustered in the ends of the molecules, whereas other substitutions are rare. We present a model where the observed substitution patterns are used to estimate the rate of deamination of cytosine residues in single- and double-stranded portions of the DNA, the length of single-stranded ends, and the frequency of nicks. The results suggest that reliable genome sequences can be obtained from Pleistocene organisms.
From Micrograms to Picograms: Quantitative PCR Reduces the Material Demands of High-throughput Sequencing
Nucleic Acids Research. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18084031
Current efforts to recover the Neandertal and mammoth genomes by 454 DNA sequencing demonstrate the sensitivity of this technology. However, routine 454 sequencing applications still require microgram quantities of initial material. This is due to a lack of effective methods for quantifying 454 sequencing libraries, necessitating expensive and labour-intensive procedures when sequencing ancient DNA and other poor DNA samples. Here we report a 454 sequencing library quantification method based on quantitative PCR that effectively eliminates these limitations. We estimated both the molecule numbers and the fragment size distributions in sequencing libraries derived from Neandertal DNA extracts, SAGE ditags and bonobo genomic DNA, obtaining optimal sequencing yields without performing any titration runs. Using this method, 454 sequencing can routinely be performed from as little as 50 pg of initial material without titration runs, thereby drastically reducing costs while increasing the scope of sample throughput and protocol development on the 454 platform. The method should also apply to Illumina/Solexa and ABI/SOLiD sequencing, and should therefore help to widen the accessibility of all three platforms.
Mitochondrial Genomes Reveal an Explosive Radiation of Extinct and Extant Bears Near the Miocene-Pliocene Boundary
BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18662376
Despite being one of the most studied families within the Carnivora, the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the bear family (Ursidae) have long remained unclear. Widely divergent topologies have been suggested based on various data sets and methods.
Cell. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18692465
A complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence was reconstructed from a 38,000 year-old Neandertal individual with 8341 mtDNA sequences identified among 4.8 Gb of DNA generated from approximately 0.3 g of bone. Analysis of the assembled sequence unequivocally establishes that the Neandertal mtDNA falls outside the variation of extant human mtDNAs, and allows an estimate of the divergence date between the two mtDNA lineages of 660,000 +/- 140,000 years. Of the 13 proteins encoded in the mtDNA, subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase of the mitochondrial electron transport chain has experienced the largest number of amino acid substitutions in human ancestors since the separation from Neandertals. There is evidence that purifying selection in the Neandertal mtDNA was reduced compared with other primate lineages, suggesting that the effective population size of Neandertals was small.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19608918
Analysis of Neandertal DNA holds great potential for investigating the population history of this group of hominins, but progress has been limited due to the rarity of samples and damaged state of the DNA. We present a method of targeted ancient DNA sequence retrieval that greatly reduces sample destruction and sequencing demands and use this method to reconstruct the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes of five Neandertals from across their geographic range. We find that mtDNA genetic diversity in Neandertals that lived 38,000 to 70,000 years ago was approximately one-third of that in contemporary modern humans. Together with analyses of mtDNA protein evolution, these data suggest that the long-term effective population size of Neandertals was smaller than that of modern humans and extant great apes.
The EMBO Journal. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19661919
Recent advances in high-thoughput DNA sequencing have made genome-scale analyses of genomes of extinct organisms possible. With these new opportunities come new difficulties in assessing the authenticity of the DNA sequences retrieved. We discuss how these difficulties can be addressed, particularly with regard to analyses of the Neandertal genome. We argue that only direct assays of DNA sequence positions in which Neandertals differ from all contemporary humans can serve as a reliable means to estimate human contamination. Indirect measures, such as the extent of DNA fragmentation, nucleotide misincorporations, or comparison of derived allele frequencies in different fragment size classes, are unreliable. Fortunately, interim approaches based on mtDNA differences between Neandertals and current humans, detection of male contamination through Y chromosomal sequences, and repeated sequencing from the same fossil to detect autosomal contamination allow initial large-scale sequencing of Neandertal genomes. This will result in the discovery of fixed differences in the nuclear genome between Neandertals and current humans that can serve as future direct assays for contamination. For analyses of other fossil hominins, which may become possible in the future, we suggest a similar 'boot-strap' approach in which interim approaches are applied until sufficient data for more definitive direct assays are acquired.
Nucleic Acids Research. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20028723
DNA sequences determined from ancient organisms have high error rates, primarily due to uracil bases created by cytosine deamination. We use synthetic oligonucleotides, as well as DNA extracted from mammoth and Neandertal remains, to show that treatment with uracil-DNA-glycosylase and endonuclease VIII removes uracil residues from ancient DNA and repairs most of the resulting abasic sites, leaving undamaged parts of the DNA fragments intact. Neandertal DNA sequences determined with this protocol have greatly increased accuracy. In addition, our results demonstrate that Neandertal DNA retains in vivo patterns of CpG methylation, potentially allowing future studies of gene inactivation and imprinting in ancient organisms.
Current Biology : CB. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20045327
The recovery of DNA sequences from early modern humans (EMHs) could shed light on their interactions with archaic groups such as Neandertals and their relationships to current human populations. However, such experiments are highly problematic because present-day human DNA frequently contaminates bones [1, 2]. For example, in a recent study of mitochondrial (mt) DNA from Neolithic European skeletons, sequence variants were only taken as authentic if they were absent or rare in the present population, whereas others had to be discounted as possible contamination [3, 4]. This limits analysis to EMH individuals carrying rare sequences and thus yields a biased view of the ancient gene pool. Other approaches of identifying contaminating DNA, such as genotyping all individuals who have come into contact with a sample, restrict analyses to specimens where this is possible [5, 6] and do not exclude all possible sources of contamination. By studying mtDNA in Neandertal remains, where contamination and endogenous DNA can be distinguished by sequence, we show that fragmentation patterns and nucleotide misincorporations can be used to gauge authenticity of ancient DNA sequences. We use these features to determine a complete mtDNA sequence from a approximately 30,000-year-old EMH from the Kostenki 14 site in Russia.
Science (New York, N.Y.). May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20448178
Neandertals, the closest evolutionary relatives of present-day humans, lived in large parts of Europe and western Asia before disappearing 30,000 years ago. We present a draft sequence of the Neandertal genome composed of more than 4 billion nucleotides from three individuals. Comparisons of the Neandertal genome to the genomes of five present-day humans from different parts of the world identify a number of genomic regions that may have been affected by positive selection in ancestral modern humans, including genes involved in metabolism and in cognitive and skeletal development. We show that Neandertals shared more genetic variants with present-day humans in Eurasia than with present-day humans in sub-Saharan Africa, suggesting that gene flow from Neandertals into the ancestors of non-Africans occurred before the divergence of Eurasian groups from each other.
Science (New York, N.Y.). May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20448179
It is now possible to perform whole-genome shotgun sequencing as well as capture of specific genomic regions for extinct organisms. However, targeted resequencing of large parts of nuclear genomes has yet to be demonstrated for ancient DNA. Here we show that hybridization capture on microarrays can successfully recover more than a megabase of target regions from Neandertal DNA even in the presence of approximately 99.8% microbial DNA. Using this approach, we have sequenced approximately 14,000 protein-coding positions inferred to have changed on the human lineage since the last common ancestor shared with chimpanzees. By generating the sequence of one Neandertal and 50 present-day humans at these positions, we have identified 88 amino acid substitutions that have become fixed in humans since our divergence from the Neandertals.
Road Blocks on Paleogenomes--polymerase Extension Profiling Reveals the Frequency of Blocking Lesions in Ancient DNA
Nucleic Acids Research. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20587499
Although the last few years have seen great progress in DNA sequence retrieval from fossil specimens, some of the characteristics of ancient DNA remain poorly understood. This is particularly true for blocking lesions, i.e. chemical alterations that cannot be bypassed by DNA polymerases and thus prevent amplification and subsequent sequencing of affected molecules. Some studies have concluded that the vast majority of ancient DNA molecules carry blocking lesions, suggesting that the removal, repair or bypass of blocking lesions might dramatically increase both the time depth and geographical range of specimens available for ancient DNA analysis. However, previous studies used very indirect detection methods that did not provide conclusive estimates on the frequency of blocking lesions in endogenous ancient DNA. We developed a new method, polymerase extension profiling (PEP), that directly reveals occurrences of polymerase stalling on DNA templates. By sequencing thousands of single primer extension products using PEP methodology, we have for the first time directly identified blocking lesions in ancient DNA on a single molecule level. Although we found clear evidence for blocking lesions in three out of four ancient samples, no more than 40% of the molecules were affected in any of the samples, indicating that such modifications are far less frequent in ancient DNA than previously thought.
Nature. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21179161
Using DNA extracted from a finger bone found in Denisova Cave in southern Siberia, we have sequenced the genome of an archaic hominin to about 1.9-fold coverage. This individual is from a group that shares a common origin with Neanderthals. This population was not involved in the putative gene flow from Neanderthals into Eurasians; however, the data suggest that it contributed 4-6% of its genetic material to the genomes of present-day Melanesians. We designate this hominin population 'Denisovans' and suggest that it may have been widespread in Asia during the Late Pleistocene epoch. A tooth found in Denisova Cave carries a mitochondrial genome highly similar to that of the finger bone. This tooth shares no derived morphological features with Neanderthals or modern humans, further indicating that Denisovans have an evolutionary history distinct from Neanderthals and modern humans.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22065436
There is a widespread need for methods to enrich DNA samples for sequences of interest prior to high-throughput sequencing and to reduce the costs associated with a shotgun approach. While useful for targeting megabase-sized regions in a few samples, hybridization capture approaches such as those using microarrays currently involve bulky handling steps, long incubation times, and high per-sample costs. In contrast, the primer extension capture (PEC) method allows direct selection of small genomic regions from DNA sources within 2 h, with low costs for use with parallel samples. PEC promises useful applications in studies such as ancient DNA or forensic sequencing, taxonomic surveying of metagenomic samples, or genomic mapping of repetitive elements.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22237532
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized ancient DNA research, especially when combined with high-throughput target enrichment methods. However, attaining high sequencing depth and accuracy from samples often remains problematic due to the damaged state of ancient DNA, in particular the extremely low copy number of ancient DNA and the abundance of uracil residues derived from cytosine deamination that lead to miscoding errors. It is therefore critical to use a highly efficient procedure for conversion of a raw DNA extract into an adaptor-ligated sequencing library, and equally important to reduce errors from uracil residues. We present a protocol for NGS library preparation that allows highly efficient conversion of DNA fragments into an adaptor-ligated form. The protocol incorporates an option to remove the vast majority of uracil miscoding lesions as part of the library preparation process. The procedure requires only two spin column purification steps and no gel purification or bead handling. Starting from an aliquot of DNA extract, a finished, highly amplified library can be generated in 5 h, or under 3 h if uracil removal is not required.