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In JoVE (1)
- Количественная оценка иммунных клеток в поврежденный спинной ткани шнура с помощью проточной цитометрии: Роман Используйте для метода очистки сотовый
Other Publications (26)
- Neurobiology of Aging
- The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
- Neurochemical Research
- Neurobiology of Disease
- Journal of Neurotrauma
- Journal of Neurotrauma
- Gene Expression
- Journal of Neurophysiology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Journal of Neurotrauma
- Journal of Neurotrauma
- Neurological Research
- Behavioural Brain Research
- Journal of Neurotrauma
- The European Journal of Neuroscience
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- Journal of Neuroinflammation
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Tissue Engineering. Part A
- PloS One
- Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
- Journal of Neurotrauma
- Brain : a Journal of Neurology
- PloS One
- Regenerative Medicine
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Articles by Aileen J. Anderson in JoVE
Количественная оценка иммунных клеток в поврежденный спинной ткани шнура с помощью проточной цитометрии: Роман Используйте для метода очистки сотовый
Hal X. Nguyen1,2,3,4, Kevin D. Beck5, Aileen J. Anderson1,2,3,4,6
1Institute for Memory Impairments and Neurological Disorders, University of California, 2Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, University of California, 3Anatomy & Neurobiology, University of California, 4Sue and Bill Gross Stem Cell Research Center, University of California, 5Section of Molecular Biology, University of California, 6Reeve-Irvine Research Center, University of California
Количественная оценка сотовой воспаление в поврежденной / патологических ЦНС с помощью проточной цитометрии осложняется липидов / миелина мусора, который может быть одинакового размера и грануляции в клетки, уменьшая чувствительность / точность. Мы продвинулись метод ячейки подготовки, чтобы удалить миелина мусора и улучшить сотовые обнаружения методом проточной цитометрии в поврежденный спинной мозг.
Other articles by Aileen J. Anderson on PubMed
Optimization of Techniques for the Maximal Detection and Quantification of Alzheimer's-related Neuropathology with Digital Imaging
Neurobiology of Aging. Mar-Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11804699
Prior to undertaking quantitative neuropathological studies of Alzheimer's disease, methods for detecting plaques and tangles must be optimized. While suitable antibodies have been developed with great sensitivity, specificity, and reliability, there is no standard pre-treatment protocol for key AD-related pathology. It is well known that formic acid treatment enhances the detection of beta-amyloid. But what concentration of formic acid is best; can similar methods enhance the detection of tau-related pathology? This study compared multiple antigen retrieval techniques (e.g. boiling in citrate or glycine buffer, microwaves, formic acid concentrations), to develop an optimal, standardized protocol for quantitative digital microscopy. Free-floating (40 microm) and paraffin-embedded (12 microm) sections of formalin fixed frontal cortex from mild, moderate, and severe AD cases (n = 18) were pretreated with fifteen different protocols and stained with each of the following antibodies: beta42, PHF-1, MC-1 and AT8. Random fields were digitally captured and images were thresholded to select for positively stained areas versus background (e.g. "load"). As previously reported, high concentrations of formic acid were extremely effective in enhancing the detection of beta-amyloid; as much as a 2-fold enhancement in Abeta "load" values were observed. Surprisingly, tau-related pathology detection also increased significantly following pretreatment. Depending on the antibody, between a 3-fold and 6-fold enhancement was possible relative to no pretreatment. Comparable results were found in paraffin-embedded sections. Similar enhancements in the detection of pathology were obtained following 99% formic acid exposure, microwaving in citrate buffer (pH 9.0) or exposure to 99% formic acid then boiling in citrate buffer (pH 6.0). Because the latter treatments were often harsh on the tissue and more difficult to control, we recommend a standard tissue pretreatment of 99% formic acid for seven minutes for both beta-amyloid and tau-related pathology.
The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12137220
Numerous mechanisms contribute to neural damage following central nervous system (CNS) injury. Inflammatory response has emerged as an important interaction between the CNS and the immune system in spinal cord injury that can have beneficial as well as detrimental consequences. This relationship has important implications for the development of therapeutic interventions for injuries and diseases of the spinal cord. This article details the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response, including cell-mediated and humoral pathways, and describes their relevance to the processes of degeneration and regeneration.
Neurochemical Research. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12608703
The tumor necrosis factor-alpha death domain pathway contributes to cellular degeneration in a variety of conditions. This study investigates the hypothesis that this death domain pathway is progressively induced in the brain during the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD cases had increased levels of proapoptotic markers including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), TNF receptor type 1 (TNF-R1), TNF receptor-associated death domain (TRADD), and caspase-3, 2- to 10-fold higher (P < .01) than age-matched controls and 1 to 3 times higher than transitional cases. In striking contrast, potentially neuroprotective TNF receptor type 2 (TNF-R2), and Fas-associated death domain-like interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (FLICE) inhibitor protein (FLIP) were decreased in AD as compared with age-matched control cases (P < .01). Overall, there was an elevation in proapoptotic elements, including a 5-fold increase in TNF-R1 and a 12-fold decrease in FLIP in AD brains. These changes may translate to increased degenerative potential because the downstream effector caspase-3 and product of the TNF pathway was also increased in parallel with enhanced TNF proapoptotic conditions. Our findings suggest that the TNF death receptor pathway and caspases are activated in the early stages of neuronal degeneration in AD.
Fas and Fas Ligand Are Associated with Neuritic Degeneration in the AD Brain and Participate in Beta-amyloid-induced Neuronal Death
Neurobiology of Disease. Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12742739
It has recently been suggested that neuronal cell death in response to many brain insults may be mediated by the upregulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family members and their ligands. In the present study, we investigated whether the expression of the TNFR family death domain receptor, Fas, and its ligand, FasL, is altered in association with neuropathology and activated caspase markers in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain, and Abeta-induced neuronal cell death in vitro. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examined Fas and FasL expression in AD and control brain, and Abeta-treated primary neurons, using immunocytochemistry and Western blots. Neurons in both AD brain and Abeta-treated cultures exhibited FasL upregulation and changes in immunoreactivity for Fas receptor. Further, FasL expression was remarkably elevated in senile plaques and neurofilament-positive dystrophic neurites, and in association with caspase activation and neuritic apoptosis in AD brain. Based on these and previous data regarding protection of primary neuronal cultures from Abeta(1-42)-induced apoptosis by blockade of Fas-associated death domain signaling, we also tested the hypothesis that dynamic regulation of Fas and FasL may contribute to Abeta-mediated neuronal cell death. Accordingly, neuronal cultures derived from mice carrying inactivating mutations in Fas (Faslpr) or FasL (Fasgld) exhibited protection from Abeta(1-42)-induced cell death. These findings suggest that Fas-FasL interactions may contribute to mechanisms of neuronal loss and neuritic degeneration in AD.
Journal of Neurotrauma. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15684772
Previous studies have shown that a cellular inflammatory response is initiated, and inflammatory cytokines are synthesized, following experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the complement cascade, a major component of both the innate and adaptive immune response, is also activated following experimental SCI. We investigated the pathways, cellular localization, timecourse, and degree of complement activation in rat spinal cord following acute contusion-induced SCI using the New York University (NYU) weight drop impactor. Mild and severe injuries (12.5 and 50 mm drop heights) at 1, 7, and 42 days post injury time points were evaluated. Classical (C1q and C4), alternative (Factor B) and terminal (C5b-9) complement pathways were strongly activated within 1 day of SCI. Complement protein immunoreactivity was predominantly found in cell types vulnerable to degeneration, neurons and oligodendrocytes, and was not generally observed in inflammatory or astroglial cells. Surprisingly, immunoreactivity for complement proteins was also evident 6 weeks after injury, and complement activation was observed as far as 20 mm rostral to the site of injury. Axonal staining by C1q and Factor B was also observed, suggesting a potential role for the complement cascade in demyelination or axonal degeneration. These data support the hypothesis that complement activation plays a role in SCI.
Upregulation of Complement Inhibitors in Association with Vulnerable Cells Following Contusion-induced Spinal Cord Injury
Journal of Neurotrauma. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15785233
We have previously described the activation of the classical, alternative, and terminal complement cascade pathways after acute contusion spinal cord injury using the New York University (NYU) weight-drop impactor. In the present study, we examined the induction of protein regulators of the complement cascade, factor H (FH), and clusterin, in the same experimental paradigm. The spinal cord of laminectomized adult rats was subjected to mild or severe injury using impactor weight-drop heights of 12.5 and 50 mm, respectively. The spinal cords of control and injured animals were evaluated at 1, 7, and 42 days after injury. Immunocytochemistry revealed a robust increase in the numbers and intensity of staining of FH, and clusterin-positive cells in the injured cord at all three time points, with the highest increases observed at 1 and 42 days after injury. FH and clusterin-positive cells were observed among neurons as well as oligodendrocytes. The increased expression was detected both rostrally and caudally from the injury site, in the latter case at distances up to 20 mm. The precise biological significance of injury-induced upregulation of these proteins remains to be determined. However, FH and clusterin are potent regulators of complement activity targeting upstream (FH) and downstream (clusterin) molecules of the pro-inflammatory cascade, which could be of vital importance in preventing a "runaway" inflammatory reaction in the injured spinal cord.
Gene Expression. 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15892452
There is growing evidence that exercise benefits recovery of neuromuscular function from spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the effect of exercise on gene expression in the spinal cord is poorly understood. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to compare thoracic and lumbar regions of spinal cord of either exercising (voluntary wheel running for 21 days) or sedentary rats. The expression data were filtered using statistical tests for significance, and K-means clustering was then used to segregate lists of significantly changed genes into sets based upon expression patterns across all experimental groups. Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein were also measured after voluntary exercise, across different regions of the spinal cord. BDNF mRNA increased with voluntary exercise, as has been previously shown for other forms of exercise, contributed to by increases in both exon I and exon III. The exercise-induced gene expression changes identified by microarray analysis are consistent with increases in pathways promoting neuronal health, signaling, remodeling, cellular transport, and development of oligodendrocytes. Taken together these data suggest cellular pathways through which exercise may promote recovery in the SCI population.
BDNF-induced Facilitation of Afferent-evoked Responses in Lamina II Neurons is Reduced After Neonatal Spinal Cord Contusion Injury
Journal of Neurophysiology. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15901762
We previously reported that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a pronociceptive neurotransmitter, induces synaptic facilitation of excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) in lamina II neurons of neonatal rats up to P14 in a N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent manner. Here we used the patch-clamp technique to study synaptic and NMDA-evoked responses in transverse spinal slices in the lumbar enlargement as well as the ability of BDNF to modify these responses from 1 day to 6 wk after neonatal contusion. In older uninjured animals (>P14), BDNF continued to evoke synaptic facilitation although superfusion of NMDA (in TTX) induced inward current of significantly smaller amplitude than that observed in younger rats. After contusion injury, BDNF was unable to facilitate dorsal root-evoked EPSCs in lamina II neurons despite the finding that NMDA-evoked currents were only slightly smaller than those observed in age-matched uninjured animals. These findings suggest that although BDNF-induced facilitation of the AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated response to dorsal root stimulation is maintained in the mature dorsal horn from intact rats, BDNF may no longer elicit these pronociceptive actions after neonatal contusion injury. The lack of change in NMDA-evoked currents in contused cords suggests that diminished NMDA receptor function is not the major cause of the decline in BDNF action after contusion. It seems more likely that diminished trkB expression and enhanced expression of truncated trkB receptors in the contused cord play a significant role in determining the reduced effect of BDNF under these conditions.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16172374
We report that prospectively isolated, human CNS stem cells grown as neurospheres (hCNS-SCns) survive, migrate, and express differentiation markers for neurons and oligodendrocytes after long-term engraftment in spinal cord-injured NOD-scid mice. hCNS-SCns engraftment was associated with locomotor recovery, an observation that was abolished by selective ablation of engrafted cells by diphtheria toxin. Remyelination by hCNS-SCns was found in both the spinal cord injury NOD-scid model and myelin-deficient shiverer mice. Moreover, electron microscopic evidence consistent with synapse formation between hCNS-SCns and mouse host neurons was observed. Glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytic differentiation was rare, and hCNS-SCns did not appear to contribute to the scar. These data suggest that hCNS-SCns may possess therapeutic potential for CNS injury and disease.
Journal of Neurotrauma. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15665610
Recently, locomotor training has been shown to improve overground locomotion in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). This has triggered renewed interest in the role of exercise in rehabilitation after SCI. However, there are no mouse models for voluntary exercise and recovery of function following SCI. Here, we report voluntary wheel running improves recovery from a SCI in mice. C57Bl/10 female mice received a 60-kdyne T9 contusion injury with an IH impactor after 3 weeks of voluntary wheel running or 3 weeks of standard single housing conditions. Following a 7-day recovery period, running mice were returned to their running wheels. Weekly open-field behavior measured locomotor recovery using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale and the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) locomotor rating scale, a scale recently developed specifically for mice. Initial experiments using standard rung wheels show that wheel running impaired recovery, but subsequent experiments using a modified flat-surface wheel show improved recovery with exercise. By 14 days post SCI, the modified flat-surface running group had significantly higher BBB and BMS scores than the sedentary group. A repeated measures ANOVA shows locomotor recovery of modified flat-surface running mice was significantly improved compared to sedentary animals (p < 0.05). Locomotor assessment using a ladder beam task also shows a significant improvement in the modified flat-surface runners (p < 0.05). Finally, fibronectin staining shows no significant difference in lesion size between the two groups. These data represent the first mouse model showing voluntary exercise improves recovery after SCI.
Basso Mouse Scale for Locomotion Detects Differences in Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury in Five Common Mouse Strains
Journal of Neurotrauma. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16689667
Genetically engineered mice are used extensively to examine molecular responses to spinal cord injury (SCI). Inherent strain differences may confound behavioral outcomes; therefore, behavioral characterization of several strains after SCI is warranted. The Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan Locomotor Rating Scale (BBB) for rats has been widely used for SCI mice, but may not accurately reflect their unique recovery pattern. This study's purpose was to develop a valid locomotor rating scale for mice and to identify strain differences in locomotor recovery after SCI. We examined C57BL/6, C57BL/10, B10.PL, BALB/c, and C57BL/6x129S6 F1 strains for 42 days after mild, moderate, and severe contusive SCI or transection of the mid thoracic spinal cord. Contusions were created using the Ohio State University electromagnetic SCI device which is a displacement-driven model, and the Infinite Horizon device, which is a force-driven model. Attributes and rankings for the Basso Mouse Scale for Locomotion (BMS) were determined from frequency analyses of seven locomotor categories. Mouse recovery differed from rats for coordination, paw position and trunk instability. Disagreement occurred across six expert raters using BBB (p < 0.05) but not BMS to assess the same mice. BMS detected significant differences in locomotor outcomes between severe contusion and transection (p < 0.05) and SCI severity gradations resulting from displacement variations of only 0.1 mm (p < 0.05). BMS demonstrated significant face, predictive and concurrent validity. Novice BMS raters with training scored within 0.5 points of experts and demonstrated high reliability (0.92-0.99). The BMS is a sensitive, valid and reliable locomotor measure in SCI mice. BMS revealed significantly higher recovery in C57BL/10, B10.PL and F1 than the C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains after moderate SCI (p < 0.05). The differing behavioral response to SCI suggests inherent genetic factors significantly impact locomotor recovery and must be considered in studies with inbred or genetically engineered mouse strains.
Human Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Following Transplantation into Spinal Cord Injured Mice: Association with Recovery of Locomotor Function
Neurological Research. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16808875
Stem cells are under intense investigation as potential therapeutics for central nervous system (CNS) injury and disease. However, several reports have suggested that stem cells grown as neurospheres and transplanted into an injured environment preferentially differentiate into astrocytes, contributing to glial scar. Further, the relationship between functional recovery and cell transplantation has not been empirically investigated in early studies. Using severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice to minimize xenograft rejection, we report that prospectively isolated human fetal CNS-derived stem cells grown as neurospheres (hCNS-SCns) survive, migrate and express differentiation markers for neurons and oligodendrocytes after long-term engraftment in spinal cord injured (SCI) NOD-scid mice. Only rarely do these cells differentiate into glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes, with no apparent contribution to glial scar. hCNS-SCns engraftment was associated with recovery of locomotor function. After long-term engraftment and stable behavioral plateaus in recovery were achieved (4 months post-transplantation), locomotor improvements were abolished by selective ablation of human cells with diphtheria toxin (DT). These data suggest that hCNS-SCns survival is required for locomotor recovery, possibly via differentiation and integration of human cells in the mouse host or continuous supply of trophic or other support necessary for gains in host cell function.
Adaptation of a Ladder Beam Walking Task to Assess Locomotor Recovery in Mice Following Spinal Cord Injury
Behavioural Brain Research. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17197044
Locomotor impairments after spinal cord injury (SCI) are often assessed using open-field rating scales. These tasks have the advantage of spanning the range from complete paralysis to normal walking; however, they lack sensitivity at specific levels of recovery. Additionally, most supplemental assessments were developed in rats, not mice. For example, the horizontal ladder beam has been used to measure recovery in the rat after SCI. This parametric task results in a videotaped archival record of the event, is easily administered, and is unambiguously scored. Although a ladder beam apparatus for mice is available, its use in the assessment of recovery in SCI mice is rare, possibly because normative data for uninjured mice and the type of step misplacements injured mice exhibit is lacking. We report the development of a modified ladder beam instrument and scoring system to measure hindlimb recovery in vertebral T9 contusion spinal cord injured mice. The mouse ladder beam allows for the use of standard parametric statistical tests to assess locomotor recovery. Ladder beam performance is consistent across four strains of mice, there are no sex differences, and inter-rater reliability between observers is high. The ladder beam score is proportional to injury severity and can be used to easily separate mice capable of weight-supported stance up to mice with consistent forelimb to hindlimb coordination. Critically, horizontal ladder beam testing discriminates between mice that score identically in terms of stepping frequency in open-field testing.
Behavioral, Histological, and Ex Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Graded Contusion Spinal Cord Injury in Mice
Journal of Neurotrauma. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17439350
This study characterized the Infinite Horizon (IH) Impactor for use in mouse models of contusion spinal cord injury (SCI), and investigated the feasibility and reliability of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a method to accurately measure lesion volume after mouse contusion SCI. Eight-week-old female C57Bl/6 mice received a mild (30 kilodyne), moderate (50 kilodyne), or severe (70 kilodyne) contusion injury at the T9 vertebral level. Uninjured control mice received a T9 laminectomy only. Functional recovery was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) and Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) open-field locomotor rating scales. Next, 4% paraformaldehyde-perfused spinal cords were collected between the T6 and T12 spinal roots, and stored in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 4 degrees C until MRI analysis. MRI lesion volumes were determined using T1-weighted images on a 7-Tesla MRI. Histology was performed on 20-microm polyester wax-embedded sections processed from the same spinal cords for stereological determination of fibronectin lesion volume and myelin basic protein spared white matter volume. Area of spared white matter at the epicenter was also analyzed. The results demonstrated that the IH Impactor produced precise, graded contusion SCI in mice. Lesion volumes were positively correlated with force of impact, and negatively correlated with spared white matter and functional recovery. Additionally, similar lesion volumes were detected using fibronectin staining and MRI analysis, although MRI may be more sensitive for milder injuries. These results give researchers more options in how to analyze spinal cord injuries in animal models.
Wheel Running Following Spinal Cord Injury Improves Locomotor Recovery and Stimulates Serotonergic Fiber Growth
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17439482
Exercise, through manual step training, robotic step training or voluntary wheel running, is emerging as a promising therapy after spinal cord injury (SCI). Animal models provide a tool to investigate the mechanisms by which physical activity influences recovery from SCI. In the present study, we extend previous experiments showing improved recovery after SCI with both pre- and post-injury running in a flat-surface running wheel and investigate mechanisms of recovery. We tested a clinically relevant model using post-injury wheel running, in which we provided mice with access to wheels either 3 days or 7 days/week. Open field behavior, observed for 15 weeks following moderate T9 contusion injury, showed a significant linear increase in locomotor improvements across groups, sedentary, 3-day runners and 7-day runners. Kinematic analysis of treadmill walking revealed that both wheel-running groups, 3 and 7 days/week, improved stepping ability compared with sedentary controls. Stereological quantification of neuron number in the injured segment of the spinal cord revealed no differences between the groups. However, stereological quantification of serotonin immunostaining using isotropic virtual planes showed increases in serotonin fiber length caudal to the lesion in the running groups. These observations suggest that improvement in function may be related to changes in serotonin fibers immediately caudal to the injury epicenter.
Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Promote Neurotoxicity Through Release of Matrix Metalloproteinases, Reactive Oxygen Species, and TNF-alpha
Journal of Neurochemistry. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17561941
As the first immune cells to infiltrate the nervous system after traumatic PNS and CNS injury, neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PMNs) may promote injury by releasing toxic soluble factors that may affect neuronal survival. Direct neurotoxicity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cytokines released by PMNs was investigated by culturing dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells with PMN-conditioned media containing MMP inhibitor (GM6001), ROS scavengers, or tumor necrosis factor alphaR (TNF-alphaR) neutralizing antibody. Although DRGs exposed to PMN-conditioned media had 53% fewer surviving neurons than controls, neuronal cell loss was prevented by GM6001 (20 micromol/L), catalase (1000 U/mL), or TNF-alphaR neutralizing antibody (1.5 microg/mL), elevating survival to 77%, 94%, and 95%, respectively. In accordance with protection by GM6001, conditioned media collected from MMP-9 null PMNs was less neurotoxic than that collected from wild-type PMNs. Additionally, MMP inhibition reduced PMN-derived ROS; removal of ROS reduced PMN-derived MMP-9 activity; and TNF-alpha inhibition reduced both PMN-derived MMP-9 activity and ROS in PMN cultures. Our data provide the first direct evidence that PMN-driven neurotoxicity is dependent on MMPs, ROS, and TNF-alpha, and that these factors may regulate PMN release of these soluble factors or interact with one another to mediate PMN-driven neurotoxicity.
Characterization of Early and Terminal Complement Proteins Associated with Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes in Vitro and in Vivo After Spinal Cord Injury
Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18578885
The complement system has been suggested to affect injury or disease of the central nervous system (CNS) by regulating numerous physiological events and pathways. The activation of complement following traumatic CNS injury can also result in the formation and deposition of C5b-9 membrane attack complex (C5b-9/MAC), causing cell lysis or sublytic effects on vital CNS cells. Although complement proteins derived from serum/blood-brain barrier breakdown can contribute to injury or disease, infiltrating immune cells may represent an important local source of complement after injury. As the first immune cells to infiltrate the CNS within hours post-injury, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) may affect injury through mechanisms associated with complement-mediated events. However, the expression/association of both early and terminal complement proteins by PMNs has not been fully characterized in vitro, and has not observed previously in vivo after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI).
Deficiency in Complement C1q Improves Histological and Functional Locomotor Outcome After Spinal Cord Injury
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19091977
Although studies have suggested a role for the complement system in the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI), that role remains poorly defined. Additionally, the relative contribution of individual complement pathways in SCI is unknown. Our initial studies revealed that systemic complement activation was strongly influenced by genetic background and gender. Thus, to investigate the role of the classical complement pathway in contusion-induced SCI, male C1q knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice on a complement sufficient background (BUB) received a mild-moderate T9 contusion injury with the Infinite Horizon impactor. BUB C1q KO mice exhibited greater locomotor recovery compared with BUB WT mice (p<0.05). Improved recovery observed in BUB C1q KO mice was also associated with decreased threshold for withdrawal from a mild stimulus using von Frey filament testing. Surprisingly, quantification of microglia/macrophages (F4/80) by FACS analysis showed that BUB C1q KO mice exhibited a significantly greater percentage of macrophages in the spinal cord compared with BUB WT mice 3 d post-injury (p<0.05). However, this increased macrophage response appeared to be transient as stereological assessment of spinal cord tissue obtained 28 d post-injury revealed no difference in F4/80-positive cells between groups. Stereological assessment of spinal cord tissue showed that BUB C1q KO mice had reduced lesion volume and an increase in tissue sparing compared with BUB WT mice (p<0.05). Together, these data suggest that initiation of the classical complement pathway via C1q is detrimental to recovery after SCI.
Tissue Engineering. Part A. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19382871
Bridges for treatment of the injured spinal cord must stabilize the injury site to prevent secondary damage and create a permissive environment that promotes regeneration. The host response to the bridge is central to creating a permissive environment, as the cell types that respond to the injury have the potential to secrete both stimulatory and inhibitory factors. We investigated multiple channel bridges for spinal cord regeneration and correlated the bridge structure to cell infiltration and axonal elongation. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) bridges were fabricated by a gas foaming/particulate leaching process. Channels within the bridge had diameters of 150 or 250 microm, and the main body of the bridge was highly porous with a controllable pore size. Upon implantation in a rat spinal cord hemisection site, cells infiltrated into the bridge pores and channels, with the pore size influencing the rate of infiltration. The pores had significant cell infiltration, including fibroblasts, macrophages, S-100beta-positive cells, and endothelial cells. The channels of the bridge were completely infiltrated with cells, which had aligned axially, and consisted primarily of fibroblasts, S-100beta-positive cells, and endothelial cells. Reactive astrocytes were observed primarily outside of the bridge, and staining for chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans was decreased in the region surrounding the bridge relative to studies without bridges. Neurofilament staining revealed a preferential growth of the neural fibers within the bridge channels relative to the pores. Multiple channel bridges capable of supporting cellular infiltration, creating a permissive environment, and directing the growth of neural fibers have potential for promoting and directing spinal cord regeneration.
Analysis of Host-mediated Repair Mechanisms After Human CNS-stem Cell Transplantation for Spinal Cord Injury: Correlation of Engraftment with Recovery
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19517014
Human central nervous system-stem cells grown as neurospheres (hCNS-SCns) self-renew, are multipotent, and have potential therapeutic applications following trauma to the spinal cord. We have previously shown locomotor recovery in immunodeficient mice that received a moderate contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and hCNS-SCns transplantation 9 days post-injury (dpi). Engrafted hCNS-SCns exhibited terminal differentiation to myelinating oligodendrocytes and synapse-forming neurons. Further, selective ablation of human cells using Diphtheria toxin (DT) abolished locomotor recovery in this paradigm, suggesting integration of human cells within the mouse host as a possible mechanism for the locomotor improvement. However, the hypothesis that hCNS-SCns could alter the host microenvironment as an additional or alternative mechanism of recovery remained unexplored; we tested that hypothesis in the present study.
Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19050701
The regeneration of tissues with complex architectures requires strategies that promote the appropriate cellular processes, and can direct their organization. Plasmid-loaded multiple channel bridges were engineered for spinal cord regeneration with the ability to support and direct cellular processes and promote gene transfer at the injury site. The bridges were manufactured with a gas foaming technique, and had multiple channels with controllable diameter and encapsulated plasmid. Initial studies investigating bridge implantation subcutaneously (SC) indicated transgene expression in vivo for 44 days, with gene expression dependent upon the pore size of the bridge. In the rat spinal cord, bridges implanted into a lateral hemisection supported substantial cell infiltration, aligned cells within the channels, axon growth across the channels, and high levels of transgene expression at the implant site with decreasing levels rostral and caudal. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the transfected cells at the implant site were present in both the pores and channels of the bridge and were mainly identified as Schwann cells, fibroblasts, and macrophages, in descending order of transfection. This synergy between gene delivery and the scaffold architecture may enable the engineering of tissues with complex architectures.
Comparison of Immunopathology and Locomotor Recovery in C57BL/6, BUB/BnJ, and NOD-SCID Mice After Contusion Spinal Cord Injury
Journal of Neurotrauma. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19831737
Studies of cell transplantation therapeutics in animal models of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) are often hampered by partial or complete rejection of the graft by the host. Pharmacological immunosuppression is rarely sufficient to prevent rejection. Further, the immunological niche created by both the host immune response and immunosuppressant drugs could hypothetically influence the proliferation, differentiation, and fate of transplanted progenitor/stem cells. To avoid these confounds, we have previously used the constitutively immunodeficient non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mouse as a model for transplantation studies following SCI. In the current study, we compare behavioral and histological recovery in NOD-SCID, C57BL/6, and BUB/BnJ mice of both sexes to better facilitate interpretation of data from studies using NOD-SCID mice. Of the strains examined, NOD-SCID mice exhibited the greatest locomotor recovery in the open field; no sex differences were detected in locomotor recovery in any of the strains. Stereologic estimation of the number of infiltrated neutrophils showed more cells in C57BL/6 mice than NOD-SCID mice, with BUB/BnJ mice having an intermediate number. The volume of macrophages/microglia did not differ between strains or sexes, though more rostral-caudal spreading was observed in C57BL/6 and BUB/BnJ than NOD-SCID mice. No significant differences were detected in lesion volume. Taken together these findings demonstrate that relative to other strains, NOD-SCID mice have both similar primary lesion volume and cellular inflammatory parameters after SCI, and support the applicability of the model for neurotransplantation studies.
Quantitative Analysis of Cellular Inflammation After Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: Evidence for a Multiphasic Inflammatory Response in the Acute to Chronic Environment
Brain : a Journal of Neurology. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20085927
Traumatic injury to the central nervous system results in the disruption of the blood brain/spinal barrier, followed by the invasion of cells and other components of the immune system that can aggravate injury and affect subsequent repair and regeneration. Although studies of chronic neuroinflammation in the injured spinal cord of animals are clinically relevant to most patients living with traumatic injury to the brain or spinal cord, very little is known about chronic neuroinflammation, though several studies have tested the role of neuroinflammation in the acute period after injury. The present study characterizes a novel cell preparation method that assesses, quickly and effectively, the changes in the principal immune cell types by flow cytometry in the injured spinal cord, daily for the first 10 days and periodically up to 180 days after spinal cord injury. These data quantitatively demonstrate a novel time-dependent multiphasic response of cellular inflammation in the spinal cord after spinal cord injury and are verified by quantitative stereology of immunolabelled spinal cord sections at selected time points. The early phase of cellular inflammation is comprised principally of neutrophils (peaking 1 day post-injury), macrophages/microglia (peaking 7 days post-injury) and T cells (peaking 9 days post-injury). The late phase of cellular inflammation was detected after 14 days post-injury, peaked after 60 days post-injury and remained detectable throughout 180 days post-injury for all three cell types. Furthermore, the late phase of cellular inflammation (14-180 days post-injury) did not coincide with either further improvements, or new decrements, in open-field locomotor function after spinal cord injury. However, blockade of chemoattractant C5a-mediated inflammation after 14 days post-injury reduced locomotor recovery and myelination in the injured spinal cord, suggesting that the late inflammatory response serves a reparative function. Together, these data provide new insight into cellular inflammation of spinal cord injury and identify a surprising and extended multiphasic response of cellular inflammation. Understanding the role of this multiphasic response in the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury could be critical for the design and implementation of rational therapeutic treatment strategies, including both cell-based and pharmacological interventions.
Human Neural Stem Cells Differentiate and Promote Locomotor Recovery in an Early Chronic Spinal Cord Injury NOD-scid Mouse Model
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20806064
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in partial or complete paralysis and is characterized by a loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes, axonal injury, and demyelination/dysmyelination of spared axons. Approximately 1,250,000 individuals have chronic SCI in the U.S.; therefore treatment in the chronic stages is highly clinically relevant. Human neural stem cells (hCNS-SCns) were prospectively isolated based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting for a CD133(+) and CD24(-/lo) population from fetal brain, grown as neurospheres, and lineage restricted to generate neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. hCNS-SCns have recently been transplanted sub-acutely following spinal cord injury and found to promote improved locomotor recovery. We tested the ability of hCNS-SCns transplanted 30 days post SCI to survive, differentiate, migrate, and promote improved locomotor recovery.
Achieving Stable Human Stem Cell Engraftment and Survival in the CNS: is the Future of Regenerative Medicine Immunodeficient?
Regenerative Medicine. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21548741
There is potential for a variety of stem cell populations to mediate repair in the diseased or injured CNS; in some cases, this theoretical possibility has already transitioned to clinical safety testing. However, careful consideration of preclinical animal models is essential to provide an appropriate assessment of stem cell safety and efficacy, as well as the basic biological mechanisms of stem cell action. This article examines the lessons learned from early tissue, organ and hematopoietic grafting, the early assumptions of the stem cell and CNS fields with regard to immunoprivilege, and the history of success in stem cell transplantation into the CNS. Finally, we discuss strategies in the selection of animal models to maximize the predictive validity of preclinical safety and efficacy studies.
Multifunctional, Multichannel Bridges That Deliver Neurotrophin Encoding Lentivirus for Regeneration Following Spinal Cord Injury
Biomaterials. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22130565
Therapeutic strategies following spinal cord injury must address the multiple barriers that limit regeneration. Multiple channel bridges have been developed that stabilize the injury following implantation and provide physical guidance for regenerating axons. These bridges have now been employed as a vehicle for localized delivery of lentivirus. Implantation of lentivirus loaded multiple channel bridges produced transgene expression that persisted for at least 4 weeks. Expression was maximal at the implant at the earliest time point, and decreased with increasing time of implantation, as well as rostral and caudal to the bridge. Immunohistochemical staining indicated transduction of macrophages, Schwann cells, fibroblasts, and astrocytes within the bridge and adjacent tissue. Subsequently, the delivery of lentivirus encoding the neurotrophic factors NT-3 or BDNF significantly increased the extent of axonal growth into the bridge relative to empty scaffolds. In addition to promoting axon growth, the induced expression of neurotrophic factors led to myelination of axons within the channels of the bridge, where the number of myelinated axons was significantly enhanced relative to control. Combining gene delivery with biomaterials to provide physical guidance and create a permissive environment can provide a platform to enhance axonal growth and promote regeneration.