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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (4)
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Articles by Aja M. Rieger in JoVE
संशोधित Annexin सेल मौत के सटीक आकलन के लिए आयोडाइड वी / Propidium Apoptosis परख
Aja M. Rieger1, Kimberly L. Nelson1, Jeffrey D. Konowalchuk1, Daniel R. Barreda1,2
1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, 2Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Sciences, University of Alberta
कोशिका मृत्यु के मूल्यांकन के लिए एक सही तरीका वर्णित है. प्रोटोकॉल पारंपरिक Annexin / वी propidium आयोडाइड (पीआई) प्रोटोकॉल, जो 40% सेल लाइनों और पशु मॉडल की एक व्यापक रेंज से प्राथमिक कोशिकाओं में झूठी सकारात्मक घटनाओं के लिए प्रदर्शन सुधार पर है.
Other articles by Aja M. Rieger on PubMed
Conventional Apoptosis Assays Using Propidium Iodide Generate a Significant Number of False Positives That Prevent Accurate Assessment of Cell Death
Journal of Immunological Methods. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20381494
The advent of flow cytometry-based applications has significantly impacted the study of cellular apoptosis. Propidium iodide (PI) is a commonly used viability stain in these studies. Unfortunately, we find that conventional Annexin V/PI protocols lead to a significant number of false positive events (up to 40%), which are associated with PI staining of RNA within the cytoplasmic compartment. Both primary cells and cell lines are affected, with large cells (nuclear: cytoplasmic ratios <0.5) showing the highest occurrence. This distribution spans a wide range of animal models including mice, swine, avian, and teleost fish and potentially affects up to 1016 out of 1019 of peer-reviewed papers published in this area since 1995. We show that the primary ramifications from these findings relate to cells experiencing changes in RNA content. Virally infected cells, for example, are qualified as undergoing apoptosis in response to infection based on conventional staining protocols; in fact, these cells are alive and actively producing viral RNA that can serve to produce additional infectious viral particles. Based on our observations we propose a modified protocol, show that it overcomes previous drawbacks for this technique, and that it will allow for more accurate assessment of cell death across various platforms.
Macrophage Activation Differentially Modulates Particle Binding, Phagocytosis and Downstream Antimicrobial Mechanisms
Developmental and Comparative Immunology. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20600280
Phagocytosis provides a critical first line of defense against invading pathogens. Engagement of particles through receptor-mediated binding precedes internalization and induction of cellular antimicrobial responses. Phagocytes have the capacity to differentially regulate binding and internalization processes through changes in their receptor profile and modulation of downstream events. This is necessary for the intricate control of phagocytic antimicrobial responses. Several methods are available for evaluation of phagocytosis. Unfortunately, none allow for accurate quantitation of both binding and internalization events. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a novel phagocytosis assay based on a multi-spectral imaging flow cytometry platform. This assay discriminates between internalized and surface-bound particles in a statistically robust manner and allows multi-parametric analysis of phagocytosis and downstream anti-microbial responses. We also devised a novel approach for examination of phagolysosome fusion, which provides an improved capacity for quantitative assessment of phagolysosome fusion in mixed populations of intact cells. Importantly, our approaches are likely amenable to a broad range of comparative model systems based on our examination of murine RAW 264.7 cells and a goldfish primary kidney macrophage (PKM) model system. The latter allowed us to examine the evolutionary conservation of phagocytic antimicrobial responses in a lower vertebrate model. While it has been previously reported that mixed populations of these macrophage cultures are phagocytic, it remained unclear if sub-populations within them contributed differentially to this activity. In accordance with higher vertebrate models, we found that differentiation along the macrophage pathway leads to an increased capacity for phagocytosis in goldfish PKM. Interestingly, cellular activation differentially regulated particle internalization in PKM monocyte and mature macrophage subsets. We also found differential regulation of phagolysosome fusion and downstream production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI). The temporal activation of specific phagocytic antimicrobial responses at distinct stages of PKM differentiation suggests specialization within the macrophage compartment early in evolution, geared to meet specific host immunity requirements within specialized niches.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21414350
Early activation and coordination of innate defenses are critical for effective responses against infiltrating pathogens. Rapid engagement of immune cells provides a critical first line of defense soon after pathogen infiltration. Activation leads to a well-orchestrated set of events that sees the induction and regulation of intracellular and extracellular antimicrobial defenses. An array of regulatory mediators, highly toxic soluble molecules, degradative enzymes and antimicrobial peptides provides maximal protection against a wide range of pathogens while limiting endogenous damage to host tissues. In this review we highlight recent advances in our understanding of innate cellular antimicrobial responses of teleost fish and discuss their implications to cell survival, immunomodulation and death. The evolutionary conservation of these responses is a testament to their effectiveness against pathogen infiltration and their commitment to effective maintenance of host homeostasis. Importantly, recent developments in teleost fish systems have identified novel host defense strategies that may be unique to this lower vertebrate group or may point to previously unknown innate mechanisms that also play a significant role in higher vertebrate host immunity.
Pivotal Advance: Peritoneal Cavity B-1 B Cells Have Phagocytic and Microbicidal Capacities and Present Phagocytosed Antigen to CD4+ T Cells
Journal of Leukocyte Biology. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22058420
Breaking the long-held paradigm that primary B cells are not phagocytic, several studies have demonstrated recently that B cells from fish, amphibians, and reptilians have a significant phagocytic capacity. Whether such capacity has remained conserved in certain mammalian B cell subsets is presently an enigma. Here, we report a previously unrecognized ability of PerC B-1a and B-1b lymphocytes to phagocytose latex beads and bacteria. In contrast, B-2 lymphocytes had an almost negligible ability to internalize these particles. Upon phagocytosis, B-1a and B-1b cells were able to mature their phagosomes into phagolysosomes and displayed the ability to kill internalized bacteria. Importantly, B-1a and B-1b cells effectively present antigen recovered from phagocytosed particles to CD4(+) T cells. However, these cells showed a much lower competence to present soluble antigen or antigen from large, noninternalized particles. B-1 B cells presented particulate and soluble antigen to CD4(+) T cells more efficiently than macrophages, whereas DCs were the most potent APCs. The novel phagocytic and microbicidal abilities identified in B-1 B lymphocytes strengthen the innate nature that has long been attributed to these cells. In the context of adaptive immunity, we show that these innate immune processes are relevant, as they enable B-1 B cells to present phagocytosable particulate antigen. These capacities position these cells at the crossroads that link innate with adaptive immune processes. In a broader context, these newly identified capacities of B-1 B cells further support the previously recognized functional, developmental, and evolutionary relationships between these cells and macrophages.