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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (39)
- The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
- The Journal of General Virology
- AIDS (London, England)
- Journal of Virology
- Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
- Anesthesia and Analgesia
- The Journal of Experimental Medicine
- The Journal of General Virology
- Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- Cancer Research
- The Journal of General Virology
- Journal of Virology
- PloS One
- Journal of Virology
- Microbes and Infection / Institut Pasteur
- Microbes and Infection / Institut Pasteur
- Journal of Virology
- AIDS (London, England)
- Neurochemical Research
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Pediatric Psychology
- Journal of Virology
- PloS One
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- AIDS (London, England)
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- Journal of Virology
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Articles by Akiko Takeda in JoVE
Formadoras de Colônias celular Assay (CFC) para células hematopoiéticas humanas
Nayan J. Sarma, Akiko Takeda, Nabeel R. Yaseen
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine
O ensaio de células formadoras de colônia (CFC) é um ensaio in vitro em que células progenitoras hematopoéticas formar colônias em meio semi-sólido. Uma combinação de morfologia da colônia, morfologia celular e citometria de fluxo são utilizados para avaliar a capacidade dos progenitores a proliferar e se diferenciar ao longo dos diferentes linhagens hematopoiéticas.
Other articles by Akiko Takeda on PubMed
The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology. Apr, 1998 | Pubmed ID: 12501283
Thirty-six isolates of Leuconostoc spp. were isolated from yellow spots that occurred on the surface of vacuum-packaged ham. All isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci that produced gas from glucose and formed more than 90% of their lactate as D(-) isomer. These isolates could grow at 4 degrees C but not above 30 degrees C and most strains produced yellow spots on the ham. The isolates were divided into three groups by sugar fermentation patterns. Representative strains from three groups showed intergroup DNA homology values of above 88.8%, showing that these groups were composed of a single species. This organism was positioned at a separate branch in the genus Leuconostoc on the phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA sequences, which was assigned to Leuconostoc gelidum on the basis of DNA-DNA relatedness.
The Journal of General Virology. Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12029153
An efficient antigen expression system using a recombinant Sendai virus (SeV) has been established recently and its potential to induce resistance against immunodeficiency virus infections in macaques has been shown. SeV replication has been well characterized in mice, the natural host, but not in primates, including humans. Here, primary SeV replication was investigated in macaques. After intranasal immunization with a recombinant SeV expressing simian immunodeficiency virus Gag protein, SeV-Gag, robust gag expression was observed in the nasal mucosa and much lower but significant levels of gag expression were observed in the local retropharyngeal and submandibular lymph nodes (LN). Expression peaked within a week and lasted at least up to 13 days after immunization. SeV-Gag was isolated from nasal swabs consistently at day 4 but not at all at day 13. Gag expression was undetectable in the lung as well as in remote lymphoid tissues, such as the thymus, spleen and inguinal LN, indicating that the spread of the virus was more restricted in macaques than in mice. SeV-specific T cells were detectable in SeV-immunized macaques at day 7. Finally, no naive macaques showed significant levels of anti-SeV antibodies in the plasma, even after living in a cage together with an acutely SeV-infected macaque for 5 weeks, indicating that SeV transmission from SeV-infected macaques to naive ones was inefficient. None of the SeV-immunized macaques displayed appreciable clinical manifestations. These results support the idea that this system may be used safely in primates, including humans.
Oncogene. Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12185592
Human pancreatic cancers harbor mutations in the K-ras gene, and these mutations convert the gene oncogenic and constitutively active forms. However, in pancreatic cancer cells little is known about the activation of the downstream pathways of Ras, MEK-ERK and MEKK1-JNK, and their roles in cell survival and proliferation. An analysis of nine pancreatic cancer tissues revealed JNK activation in all tumor samples and ERK activation in three tumor samples. Colony formation assays by transfection of dominant negative mutants of Ras, ERK or MEKK1 into pancreatic cancer cell lines (BxPC-3, PANC-1, MIAPaCa-2 and AsPC-1) and an amnion-derived cell line (FL) revealed that DN-MEKK strongly inhibits the survival of colonies in pancreatic cancer cells, but not in FL cells. In vitro kinase assays and luciferase assays using the Gal4c-Jun system revealed that in pancreatic cancer cells DN-MEKK fails to inhibit JNK activation. In PANC-1 cells, c-Jun was found to be a major component of protein component binding to AP-1 site and CRE, but not in FL cells. The inhibitory effect of DN-MEKK in PANC-1 cells was thought to be the result of the inhibition of c-Jun DNA-binding. The difference of suppression in pancreatic cancer cells and non-pancreatic cancer cells suggested that the MEKK1 pathway mainly contributes to cell survival in pancreatic cancer cells and may provide an advantage for the gene therapy of pancreatic cancers using DN-MEKK expression vectors.
No Significant Enhancement of Protection by Tat-expressing Sendai Viral Vector-booster in a Macaque AIDS Model
AIDS (London, England). Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12799562
Protective Efficacy of an AIDS Vaccine, a Single DNA Priming Followed by a Single Booster with a Recombinant Replication-defective Sendai Virus Vector, in a Macaque AIDS Model
Journal of Virology. Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12915583
We previously demonstrated the excellent protective efficacy of DNA priming followed by Gag-expressing Sendai virus (SeV) boosting (DNA prime/SeV-Gag boost vaccine) against a pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV89.6PD) infection in macaques. Here we show that we established a practical, safer AIDS vaccine protocol, a single DNA priming followed by a single booster with a recently developed replication-defective F deletion SeV-expressing Gag, and show its protective efficacy against SHIV89.6PD infections.
Evaluation of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-specific Immune Responses Induced by a Defective Proviral DNA Vaccine in Macaques
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14583643
Orexin a Elicits Arousal Electroencephalography Without Sympathetic Cardiovascular Activation in Isoflurane-anesthetized Rats
Anesthesia and Analgesia. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14633539
We studied the effects of intracerebroventricular injection of the novel neuropeptide orexin A on electroencephalogram (EEG) and autonomic nervous system activity in rats under isoflurane anesthesia. The administration of orexin A changed burst suppression patterns to arousal patterns on the EEG at 1.0 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) isoflurane and decreased the burst suppression ratio at 1.5 MAC isoflurane. However, orexin A did not influence the heart rate or mean arterial blood pressure at either isoflurane concentration. These findings demonstrated that orexin A elicited anesthetic arousal under isoflurane anesthesia in terms of EEG pattern without sympathetic cardiovascular activation in the rat. IMPLICATIONS: The novel neuropeptides orexins induce arousal associated with activation of the sympathetic nervous system in conscious rats. It is not known whether orexins affect the electroencephalogram (EEG), autonomic nerve activity, or both under anesthesia. Orexin A induced EEG arousal without sympathetic cardiovascular activation in the isoflurane-anesthetized rat. Orexin A might influence the depth of anesthesia.
CD45-associated Protein Inhibits CD45 Dimerization and Up-regulates Its Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Activity
Blood. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14715639
CD45, a receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP), plays an essential role in lymphocyte development and immune responses. Recent evidence suggests that dimerization of CD45 down-regulates its function. However, the mechanisms by which CD45 dimerization is regulated remain unclear, and there is no direct evidence that the PTP activity of CD45 dimers is less than that of monomers. CD45 in lymphocytes associates with CD45-AP (CD45-associated protein). Here we show that T cells from CD45-AP-null mice have a much higher level of CD45 dimers than those of wild-type mice, suggesting that CD45-AP inhibits CD45 dimer formation. This was confirmed with the use of a novel CD45-AP-null T-cell line, ALST-1, that we established from a spontaneous thymic tumor found in a CD45-AP-null mouse. Transfected CD45-AP inhibited CD45 dimer formation in ALST-1 cells in proportion to the amount of CD45-AP expressed. Finally, with the use of microsomal fractions from both mouse thymocytes and ALST-1 transfectants, the PTP activity of CD45 was found to be significantly lower in CD45-AP-negative cells than in CD45-AP-positive cells. Therefore, our results support a model in which binding of CD45-AP to inactive CD45 dimers converts them to active monomers.
Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-based Control of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Replication in a Preclinical AIDS Vaccine Trial
The Journal of Experimental Medicine. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15210746
Recently, encouraging AIDS vaccine trials in macaques have implicated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in the control of the simian human immunodeficiency virus SHIV89.6P that induces acute CD4(+) T cell depletion. However, none of these vaccine regimens have been successful in the containment of replication of the pathogenic simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) that induce chronic disease progression. Indeed, it has remained unclear if vaccine-induced CTL can control SIV replication. Here, we show evidence suggesting that vaccine-induced CTLs control SIVmac239 replication in rhesus macaques. Eight macaques vaccinated with DNA-prime/Gag-expressing Sendai virus vector boost were challenged intravenously with SIVmac239. Five of the vaccinees controlled viral replication and had undetectable plasma viremia after 5 wk of infection. CTLs from all of these five macaques rapidly selected for escape mutations in Gag, indicating that vaccine-induced CTLs successfully contained replication of the challenge virus. Interestingly, analysis of the escape variant selected in three vaccinees that share a major histocompatibility complex class I haplotype revealed that the escape variant virus was at a replicative disadvantage compared with SIVmac239. These findings suggested that the vaccine-induced CTLs had "crippled" the challenge virus. Our results indicate that vaccine induction of highly effective CTLs can result in the containment of replication of a highly pathogenic immunodeficiency virus.
Loss of Virus-specific CD4(+) T Cells with Increases in Viral Loads in the Chronic Phase After Vaccine-based Partial Control of Primary Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Replication in Macaques
The Journal of General Virology. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15218180
Virus-specific cellular immune responses play an important role in the control of immunodeficiency virus replication. However, preclinical trials of vaccines that induce virus-specific cellular immune responses have failed to contain simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in macaques. A defective provirus DNA vaccine system that efficiently induces virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses has previously been developed. The vaccinated macaques showed reduced viral loads, but failed to contain SIVmac239 replication. In this study, macaques that showed partial control of SIV replication were followed up to see if or how they lost this control in the chronic phase. Two of them showed increased viral loads about 4 or 8 months after challenge and finally developed AIDS. Analysis of SIV-specific T-cell levels by detection of SIV-specific gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production revealed that these two macaques maintained SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells, even after loss of control, but lost SIV-specific CD4(+) T cells when plasma viral loads increased. The remaining macaque kept viral loads at low levels and maintained SIV-specific CD4(+) T cells, as well as CD8(+) T cells, for more than 3 years. Additional analysis using macaques vaccinated with a Gag-expressing Sendai virus vector also found loss of viraemia control, with loss of SIV-specific CD4(+) T cells in the chronic phase of SIV infection. Thus, SIV-specific CD4(+) T cells that were able to produce IFN-gamma in response to SIV antigens were preserved by the vaccine-based partial control of primary SIV replication, but were lost with abrogation of control in the chronic phase.
Stimulation of Virus-specific T Cell Responses by Dendritic Cell Vaccination in the Chronic Phase of Simian AIDS Models
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15507782
Virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses play an important role in the control of immunodeficiency virus infections. Therapeutic immunization with antigen-pulsed dendritic cells (DC) may be a promising strategy for stimulating CTL. However, decreases in DC number and function have been suggested in the host persistently infected with the virus, and this may constitute an obstacle to DC-based immunotherapy in the chronic phase. In this study, we show that virus-specific CTL responses were augmented by therapeutic immunization with inactivated virus-pulsed autologous DC in rhesus macaques that had maintained prophylactic vaccine-based control of virus replication for more than 3 years after simian or simian-human immunodeficiency virus challenge. Our results indicate the potential of DC in the chronic phase for efficiently stimulating CTL in vivo, suggesting the feasibility of therapeutic DC immunization for replenishing virus-specific CTL responses in the chronic phase after the prophylactic vaccine-based control of primary immunodeficiency virus infection.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jan, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14561764
The nucleoporin Nup98 gene is frequently rearranged in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). In most cases this results in fusion of the N terminus of Nup98 to the DNA binding domain of a homeodomain transcription factor. The prototype of these fusions, Nup98-HOXA9, is associated with human AML and induces AML in mouse models. To understand the mechanisms by which Nup98-HOXA9 causes AML, we expressed it in myeloid cells and identified its target genes using high density oligonucleotide microarrays. The analysis was performed in triplicate and was confirmed by quantitative real time PCR. Of the 102 Nup98-HOXA9 target genes identified, 92 were up-regulated, and only 10 were down-regulated, suggesting a transcriptional activation function. A similar analysis of wild-type HOXA9 revealed 13 target genes, 12 of which were up-regulated, and 1 was down-regulated. In contrast, wild-type Nup98 had no effect on gene expression, demonstrating that the HOXA9 DNA binding domain is required for gene regulation. Co-transfection experiments using a luciferase reporter linked to the promoter of one of the Nup98-HOXA9 target genes confirmed up-regulation at the transcriptional level by Nup98-HOXA9 but not by either HOXA9 or Nup98. These data indicate that Nup98-HOXA9 is an aberrant transcription factor whose activity depends on the HOXA9 DNA binding domain but has a stronger and wider transcriptional effect than HOXA9. Several of the genes regulated by Nup98-HOXA9 are associated with increased cell proliferation and survival as well as drug metabolism, providing insights into the pathogenesis and epidemiology of Nup98-HOXA9-induced AML.
Carrier-independent Nuclear Import of the Transcription Factor PU.1 Via RanGTP-stimulated Binding to Nup153
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15632149
PU.1 is a transcription factor of the Ets family with important functions in hematopoietic cell differentiation. Using green fluorescent protein-PU.1 fusions, we show that the Ets DNA binding domain of PU.1 is necessary and sufficient for its nuclear localization. Fluorescence and ultrastructural nuclear import assays showed that PU.1 nuclear import requires energy but not soluble carriers. PU.1 interacted directly with two nucleoporins, Nup62 and Nup153. The binding of PU.1 to Nup153, but not to Nup62, increased dramatically in the presence of RanGMPPNP, indicating the formation of a PU.1.RanGTP.Nup153 complex. The Ets domain accounted for the bulk of the interaction of PU.1 with Nup153 and RanGMPPNP. Because Nup62 is located close to the midplane of the nuclear pore complex whereas Nup153 is at its nuclear side, these findings suggest a model whereby RanGTP propels PU.1 toward the nuclear side of the nuclear pore complex by increasing its affinity for Nup153. This notion was confirmed by ultrastructural studies using gold-labeled PU.1 in permeabilized cells.
Induction of Gag-specific T-cell Responses by Therapeutic Immunization with a Gag-expressing Sendai Virus Vector in Macaques Chronically Infected with Simian-human Immunodeficiency Virus
Vaccine. May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15837216
Recent prophylactic vaccine trials inducing virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses have shown control of primary infections of a pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in macaques. In the chronic phase, therapeutic immunization replenishing virus-specific CD8+ T-cells is likely to contribute to sustained control of virus replication. In this study, we have administered a recombinant Sendai virus (SeV) vector into five rhesus macaques that had received prophylactic vaccinations and had controlled SHIV replication for more than 1 year after challenge. Our results indicate that virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses can be expanded and broadened by therapeutic immunization with SeV vectors in the chronic phase after prophylactic vaccine-based control of primary immunodeficiency virus infections.
Reversion in Vivo After Inoculation of a Molecular Proviral DNA Clone of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus with a Cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte Escape Mutation
Journal of Virology. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16103206
Vaccine-based control of the replication of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), SIVmac239, in macaques has recently been shown. In the process of the control, a mutant virus escaping from epitope-specific cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses was rapidly selected and contained. In this study, we show that the wild-type virus appeared and became predominant in the absence of the epitope-specific CTL after inoculation of naive macaques with a molecular clone DNA of the CTL escape mutant SIV. This is the first report describing reversion in vivo from an inoculated, molecular proviral DNA clone of immunodeficiency virus with a CTL escape mutation.
Involvement of Multiple Epitope-specific Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte Responses in Vaccine-based Control of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Replication in Rhesus Macaques
Journal of Virology. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16439550
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses are crucial for the control of immunodeficiency virus replication. Possible involvement of a dominant single epitope-specific CTL in control of viral replication has recently been indicated in preclinical AIDS vaccine trials, but it has remained unclear if multiple epitope-specific CTLs can be involved in the vaccine-based control. Here, by following up five rhesus macaques that showed vaccine-based control of primary replication of a simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVmac239, we present evidence indicating involvement of multiple epitope-specific CTL responses in this control. Three macaques maintained control for more than 2 years without additional mutations in the provirus. However, in the other two that shared a major histocompatibility complex haplotype, viral mutations were accumulated in a similar order, leading to viral evasion from three epitope-specific CTL responses with viral fitness costs. Accumulation of these multiple escape mutations resulted in the reappearance of plasma viremia around week 60 after challenge. Our results implicate multiple epitope-specific CTL responses in control of immunodeficiency virus replication and furthermore suggest that sequential accumulation of multiple CTL escape mutations, if allowed, can result in viral evasion from this control.
NUP98-HOXA9 Induces Long-term Proliferation and Blocks Differentiation of Primary Human CD34+ Hematopoietic Cells
Cancer Research. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16818636
NUP98-HOXA9, the chimeric protein resulting from the t(7;11)(p15;p15) chromosomal translocation, is a prototype of several NUP98 fusions that occur in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia. We examined its effect on differentiation, proliferation, and gene expression in primary human CD34+ hematopoietic cells. Colony-forming cell (CFC) assays in semisolid medium combined with morphologic examination and flow cytometric immunophenotyping revealed that NUP98-HOXA9 increased the numbers of erythroid precursors and impaired both myeloid and erythroid differentiation. In continuous liquid culture, cells transduced with NUP98-HOXA9 exhibited a biphasic growth curve with initial growth inhibition followed by enhanced long-term proliferation, suggesting an increase in the numbers of primitive self-renewing cells. This was confirmed by a dramatic increase in the numbers of long-term culture-initiating cells, the most primitive hematopoietic cells detectable in vitro. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of NUP98-HOXA9 on hematopoietic cell proliferation and differentiation, oligonucleotide microarray analysis was done at several time points over 16 days, starting at 6 hours posttransduction. The early growth suppression was preceded by up-regulation of IFNbeta1 and accompanied by marked up-regulation of IFN-induced genes, peaking at 3 days posttransduction. In contrast, oncogenes such as homeobox transcription factors, FLT3, KIT, and WT1 peaked at 8 days or beyond, coinciding with increased proliferation. In addition, several putative tumor suppressors and genes associated with hematopoietic differentiation were repressed at later time points. These findings provide a comprehensive picture of the changes in proliferation, differentiation, and global gene expression that underlie the leukemic transformation of human hematopoietic cells by NUP98-HOXA9.
Vaccine-based, Long-term, Stable Control of Simian/human Immunodeficiency Virus 89.6PD Replication in Rhesus Macaques
The Journal of General Virology. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17251584
The X4-tropic simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) 89.6P (or 89.6PD) causes rapid CD4(+) T-cell depletion leading to an acute crash of the host immune system, whereas pathogenic R5-tropic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, like HIV-1 infection in humans, results in chronic disease progression in macaques. Recent pre-clinical vaccine trials inducing cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses have succeeded in controlling replication of the former but shown difficulty in control of the latter. Analysis of the immune responses involved in consistent control of SHIV would contribute to elucidation of the mechanism for consistent control of SIV replication. This study followed up rhesus macaques that showed vaccine-based control of primary SHIV89.6PD replication and found that all of these controllers maintained viraemia control for more than 2 years. SHIV89.6PD control was observed in vaccinees of diverse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes and was maintained without rapid selection of CTL escape mutations, a sign of particular CTL pressure. Despite the vaccine regimen not targeting Env, all of the SHIV controllers showed efficient elicitation of de novo neutralizing antibodies by 6 weeks post-challenge. These results contrast with our previous observation of particular MHC-associated control of SIV replication without involvement of neutralizing antibodies and suggest that vaccine-based control of SHIV89.6PD replication can be stably maintained in the presence of multiple functional immune effectors.
Long-term Control of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Replication with Central Memory CD4+ T-cell Preservation After Nonsterile Protection by a Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-based Vaccine
Journal of Virology. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17344296
Induction of virus-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses is a promising strategy for AIDS vaccine development. However, it has remained unclear if or how long-term viral containment and disease control are attainable by CTL-based nonsterile protection. Here, we present three rhesus macaques that successfully maintained Env-independent vaccine-based control of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac239 replication without disease progression for more than 3 years. SIV-specific neutralizing antibody induction was inefficient in these controllers. Vaccine-induced Gag-specific CTLs were crucial for the chronic as well as the primary viral control in one of them, whereas those Gag-specific CTL responses became undetectable and CTLs specific for SIV antigens other than Gag, instead, became predominant in the chronic phase in the other two controllers. A transient CD8(+) cell depletion experiment 3 years postinfection resulted in transient reappearance of plasma viremia in these two animals, suggesting involvement of the SIV non-Gag-specific CTLs in the chronic SIV control. This sustained, neutralizing antibody-independent viral control was accompanied with preservation of central memory CD4(+) T cells in the chronic phase. Our results suggest that prophylactic CTL vaccine-based nonsterile protection can result in long-term viral containment by adapted CTL responses for AIDS prevention.
CD45-associated Protein Promotes the Response of Primary CD4 T Cells to Low-potency T-cell Receptor (TCR) Stimulation and Facilitates CD45 Association with CD3/TCR and Lck
Immunology. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17428310
Although it is clear that the CD45 tyrosine phosphatase is required for efficient T-cell activation and T-cell development, the factors that regulate CD45 function remain uncertain. Previous data have indicated that there is an association of CD45 with CD4 and the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex controlled by the variable ectodomain of CD45 and, following activation, by high- and low-potency peptides. This suggests that controlling substrate access to CD45 may be an important regulatory mechanism during T-cell activation. In the present study we have examined the role of the transmembrane adapter-like molecule CD45-associated protein (CD45-AP) in regulating the association of CD45 with CD3/TCR and lck, and in regulating primary CD4(+) T-lymphocyte activation. In CD4(+) T cells from CD45-AP-deficient mice, coimmunoprecipitation of CD45 with the CD3/TCR complex, in addition to lck, is significantly reduced compared with wild-type T cells. Functionally, this correlates with a decreased proliferative response, a decrease in interleukin (IL)-2 production, and a decrease in calcium flux upon stimulation with a low-potency altered peptide ligand. However, the response of CD45-AP-deficient T cells to stimulation with a high-avidity agonist peptide was largely intact, except for a modest decrease in IL-2 production. These data suggest that CD45-AP promotes or stabilizes the association of CD45 with substrates and regulates the threshold of T-cell activation.
PloS One. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17579714
Unlike most acute viral infections controlled with the appearance of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), primary HIV infections are not met with such potent and early antibody responses. This brings into question if or how the presence of potent antibodies can contribute to primary HIV control, but protective efficacies of antiviral antibodies in primary HIV infections have remained elusive; and, it has been speculated that even NAb induction could have only a limited suppressive effect on primary HIV replication once infection is established. Here, in an attempt to answer this question, we examined the effect of passive NAb immunization post-infection on primary viral replication in a macaque AIDS model.
Induction of CD8+ Cells Able to Suppress CCR5-tropic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac239 Replication by Controlled Infection of CXCR4-tropic Simian-human Immunodeficiency Virus in Vaccinated Rhesus Macaques
Journal of Virology. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17728225
Recent recombinant viral vector-based AIDS vaccine trials inducing cellular immune responses have shown control of CXCR4-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) replication but difficulty in containment of pathogenic CCR5-tropic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in rhesus macaques. In contrast, controlled infection of live attenuated SIV/SHIV can confer the ability to contain SIV superchallenge in macaques. The specific immune responses responsible for this control may be induced by live virus infection but not consistently by viral vector vaccination, although those responses have not been determined. Here, we have examined in vitro anti-SIV efficacy of CD8+ cells in rhesus macaques that showed prophylactic viral vector vaccine-based control of CXCR4-tropic SHIV89.6PD replication. Analysis of the effect of CD8+ cells obtained at several time points from these macaques on CCR5-tropic SIVmac239 replication in vitro revealed that CD8+ cells in the chronic phase after SHIV challenge suppressed SIV replication more efficiently than those before challenge. SIVmac239 superchallenge of two of these macaques at 3 or 4 years post-SHIV challenge was contained, and the following anti-CD8 antibody administration resulted in transient CD8+ T-cell depletion and appearance of plasma SIVmac239 viremia in both of them. Our results indicate that CD8+ cells acquired the ability to efficiently suppress SIV replication by controlled SHIV infection, suggesting the contribution of CD8+ cell responses induced by controlled live virus infection to containment of HIV/SIV superinfection.
Inhibition of Infectious Murine Leukemia Virus Production by Fv-4 Env Gene Products Exerting Dominant Negative Effect on Viral Envelope Glycoprotein
Microbes and Infection / Institut Pasteur. Nov-Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18023391
Fv-4 is a mouse gene that confers resistance against ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) infection on mice. While receptor interference by the Fv-4 env gene product, Fv-4 Env, that can bind to the ecotropic MLV receptor has been shown to play an important role in the resistance, other mechanisms have also been suggested because it confers extremely efficient, complete resistance in vivo. Here, we have examined the effect of Fv-4 Env on infectious MLV production. Infectious MLV titers in supernatants obtained after transfection with a Friend MLV (FMLV) Env-expressing plasmid from MLV gag-pol producer cells harboring a retroviral vector were largely reduced by coexpression of Fv-4 Env. Syncytia formation mediated by R-peptide-deleted FMLV Env in NIH 3T3 cells was impaired by Fv-4 Env coexpression. Similarly, Fv-4 Env inhibited infectious amphotropic MLV production and syncytia formation mediated by R-peptide-deleted amphotropic MLV Env. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed interaction of Fv-4 Env with amphotropic MLV Env as well as FMLV Env. These results indicate that Fv-4 Env inhibits infectious ecotropic and amphotropic MLV production by exerting dominant negative effect on MLV Env, suggesting contribution of this inhibitory effect to the resistance against ecotropic MLV infection in Fv-4-expressing mice.
Abrogation of AIDS Vaccine-induced Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte Efficacy in Vivo Due to a Change in Viral Epitope Flanking Sequences
Microbes and Infection / Institut Pasteur. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18316225
A current promising AIDS vaccine strategy is to elicit CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses that broadly recognize highly-diversified HIVs. In our previous vaccine trial eliciting simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac239 Gag-specific CTL responses, a group of Burmese rhesus macaques possessing a major histocompatibility complex haplotype 90-120-Ia have shown vaccine-based viral control against a homologous SIVmac239 challenge. Vaccine-induced Gag(206-216) epitope-specific CTL responses exerted strong selective pressure on the virus in this control. Here, we have evaluated in vivo efficacy of vaccine-induced Gag(206-216)-specific CTL responses in two 90-120-Ia-positive macaques against challenge with a heterologous SIVsmE543-3 that has the same Gag(206-216) epitope sequence with SIVmac239. Despite efficient Gag(206-216)-specific CTL induction by vaccination, both vaccinees failed to control SIVsmE543-3 replication and neither of them showed mutations within the Gag(206-216) epitope. Further analysis indicated that Gag(206-216)-specific CTLs failed to show responses against SIVsmE543-3 infection due to a change from aspartate to glutamate at Gag residue 205 immediately preceding the amino terminus of Gag(206-216) epitope. Our results suggest that even vaccine-induced CTL efficacy can be abrogated by a single amino acid change in viral epitope flanking region, underlining the influence of viral epitope flanking sequences on CTL-based AIDS vaccine efficacy.
Transmission of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Carrying Multiple Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte Escape Mutations with Diminished Replicative Ability Can Result in AIDS Progression in Rhesus Macaques
Journal of Virology. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18337572
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses frequently select for immunodeficiency virus mutations that result in escape from CTL recognition with viral fitness costs. The replication in vivo of such viruses carrying not single but multiple escape mutations in the absence of the CTL pressure has remained undetermined. Here, we have examined the replication of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) with five gag mutations selected in a macaque possessing the major histocompatibility complex haplotype 90-120-Ia after its transmission into 90-120-Ia-negative macaques. Our results showed that even such a "crippled" SIV infection can result in persistent viral replication, multiple reversions, and AIDS progression.
Determination of a Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Restricting Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Gag241-249 Epitope
AIDS (London, England). May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18453861
Isoflurane Inhibits Protein Kinase Cgamma and Calcium/calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Ii-alpha Translocation to Synaptic Membranes in Ischemic Mice Brains
Neurochemical Research. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18473171
Volatile anesthetics isoflurane possibly improves the ischemic brain injury. However, its molecular actions are still unclear. In ischemia, protein kinase C (PKC)gamma and calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-alpha are persistently translocated from cytosol to cell membranes, and diminish these translocation suggested to be neuroprotective. We thus tested a hypothesis that isoflurane inhibits PKCgamma and CaMKII-alpha translocation after ischemic brain insults. C57Bl/6J male mice were made to inhale 1 or 2 MAC isoflurane, after which 3 or 5 min cerebral ischemia was induced by decapitation. The sampled cerebrum cortex was then homogenized and centrifuged into crude synaptosomal fractions (P2), cytosolic fractions (S3), and particulate fractions (P3). CaMKII-alpha and PKCgamma levels of these fractions were analyzed by immunoblotting. PKCgamma and CaMKII-alpha are translocated to synaptic membrane from cytosol by cerebral ischemia, although isoflurane significantly inhibited such translocation. These results may explain in part the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of isoflurane.
Gag-specific Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-based Control of Primary Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Replication in a Vaccine Trial
Journal of Virology. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18667518
Gag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) exert strong suppressive pressure on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication. However, it has remained unclear whether they can actually contain primary viral replication. Recent trials of prophylactic vaccines inducing virus-specific T-cell responses have indicated their potential to confer resistance against primary SIV replication in rhesus macaques, while the immunological determinant for this vaccine-based viral control has not been elucidated thus far. Here we present evidence implicating Gag-specific CTLs as responsible for the vaccine-based primary SIV control. Prophylactic vaccination using a Gag-expressing Sendai virus vector resulted in containment of SIVmac239 challenge in all rhesus macaques possessing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype 90-120-Ia. In contrast, 90-120-Ia-positive vaccinees failed to contain SIVs carrying multiple gag CTL escape mutations that had been selected, at the cost of viral fitness, in SIVmac239-infected 90-120-Ia-positive macaques. These results show that Gag-specific CTL responses do play a crucial role in the control of wild-type SIVmac239 replication in vaccinees. This study implies the possibility of Gag-specific CTL-based primary HIV containment by prophylactic vaccination, although it also suggests that CTL-based AIDS vaccine efficacy may be abrogated in viral transmission between MHC-matched individuals.
Evaluation of the Immunogenicity of Replication-competent V-knocked-out and Replication-defective F-deleted Sendai Virus Vector-based Vaccines in Macaques
Vaccine. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18930099
Viral vectors are promising vaccine tools for eliciting antigen-specific T-cell responses. We previously showed the potential of recombinant Sendai virus (SeV) vectors to induce virus-specific T-cell responses in macaque AIDS models. Here, we have evaluated the immunogenicity of replication-competent V-knocked-out and replication-defective F-deleted SeV vectors in macaques. Intranasal replication-competent and replication-defective SeV immunizations both elicited robust systemic antigen-specific T-cell responses, whereas the responses induced by the former were more durable than those by the latter. However, even the latter-induced T-cell responses remained detectable in a local, retropharyngeal lymph node two months after the immunization. These findings are useful for establishment of a vaccine protocol using SeV vectors.
Polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell Induction in Neutralizing Antibody-triggered Control of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
Journal of Virology. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19297503
Rapid depletion of memory CD4(+) T cells and delayed induction of neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses are characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections. Although it was speculated that postinfection NAb induction could have only a limited suppressive effect on primary HIV replication, a recent study has shown that a single passive NAb immunization of rhesus macaques 1 week after SIV challenge can result in reduction of viral loads at the set point, indicating a possible contribution of postinfection NAb responses to virus control. However, the mechanism accounting for this NAb-triggered SIV control has remained unclear. Here, we report rapid induction of virus-specific polyfunctional T-cell responses after the passive NAb immunization postinfection. Analysis of SIV Gag-specific responses of gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-2, macrophage inflammatory protein 1beta, and CD107a revealed that the polyfunctionality of Gag-specific CD4(+) T cells, as defined by the multiplicity of these responses, was markedly elevated in the acute phase in NAb-immunized animals. In the chronic phase, despite the absence of detectable NAbs, virus control was maintained, accompanied by polyfunctional Gag-specific T-cell responses. These results implicate virus-specific polyfunctional CD4(+) T-cell responses in this NAb-triggered virus control, suggesting possible synergism between NAbs and T cells for control of HIV/SIV replication.
Brief Report: Nature and Implications of Personal Projects Among Adolescents with and Without Diabetes
Journal of Pediatric Psychology. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19372267
We examined the relation of adolescent goals to psychological well-being and diabetes health.
Impact of Cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte Memory Induction Without Virus-specific CD4+ T-Cell Help on Control of a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge in Rhesus Macaques
Journal of Virology. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19587045
Despite many efforts to develop AIDS vaccines eliciting virus-specific T-cell responses, whether induction of these memory T cells by vaccination before human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exposure can actually contribute to effective T-cell responses postinfection remains unclear. In particular, induction of HIV-specific memory CD4(+) T cells may increase the target cell pool for HIV infection because the virus preferentially infects HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells. However, virus-specific CD4(+) helper T-cell responses are thought to be important for functional CD8(+) cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) induction in HIV infection, and it has remained unknown whether HIV-specific memory CD8(+) T cells induced by vaccination without HIV-specific CD4(+) T-cell help can exert effective responses after virus exposure. Here we show the impact of CD8(+) T-cell memory induction without virus-specific CD4(+) T-cell help on the control of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge in rhesus macaques. We developed a prophylactic vaccine by using a Sendai virus (SeV) vector expressing a single SIV Gag(241-249) CTL epitope fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Vaccination resulted in induction of SeV-EGFP-specific CD4(+) T-cell and Gag(241-249)-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses. After a SIV challenge, the vaccinees showed dominant Gag(241-249)-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses with higher effector memory frequencies in the acute phase and exhibited significantly reduced viral loads. These results demonstrate that virus-specific memory CD8(+) T cells induced by vaccination without virus-specific CD4(+) T-cell help could indeed facilitate SIV control after virus exposure, indicating the benefit of prophylactic vaccination eliciting virus-specific CTL memory with non-virus-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses for HIV control.
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19696924
NUP98-HOXA9 is the prototype of a group of oncoproteins associated with acute myeloid leukemia. It consists of an N-terminal portion of NUP98 fused to the homeodomain of HOXA9 and is believed to act as an aberrant transcription factor that binds DNA through the homeodomain. Here we show that NUP98-HOXA9 can regulate transcription without binding to DNA. In order to determine the relative contributions of the NUP98 and HOXA9 portions to the transforming ability of NUP98-HOXA9, the effects of NUP98-HOXA9 on primary human CD34+ cells were dissected and compared to those of wild-type HOXA9. In contrast to previous findings in mouse cells, HOXA9 had only mild effects on the differentiation and proliferation of primary human hematopoietic cells. The ability of NUP98-HOXA9 to disrupt the differentiation of primary human CD34+ cells was found to depend primarily on the NUP98 portion, whereas induction of long-term proliferation required both the NUP98 moiety and an intact homeodomain. Using oligonucleotide microarrays in primary human CD34+ cells, a group of genes was identified whose dysregulation by NUP98-HOXA9 is attributable primarily to the NUP98 portion. These include RAP1A, HEY1, and PTGS2 (COX-2). Their functions may reflect the contribution of the NUP98 moiety of NUP98-HOXA9 to leukemic transformation. Taken together, these results suggest that the effects of NUP98-HOXA9 on gene transcription and cell transformation are mediated by at least two distinct mechanisms: one that involves promoter binding through the homeodomain with direct transcriptional activation, and another that depends predominantly on the NUP98 moiety and does not involve direct DNA binding.
Genetica. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18648989
Molecular organization and nucleotide sequences of the 5S rRNA gene and NTS were investigated in freshwater fish, bitterlings (Acheilognathinae), including 10 species/subspecies of four genera, Acheilognathus, Pseudoperilampus, Rhodeus, and Tanakia, to understand the evolutionary trait of 5S rDNA arrays. Southern hybridization analysis revealed a general trend with tandem repeats of 5S rDNA in all the examined bitterlings. Sequence analysis demonstrated a conserved 120 bp sequence of the 5S rRNA gene and a short NTS of 56-67 bp with two distinct portions, a conserved (5'-flanking portion; at positions -1 to -38) and a variable part (3'-flanking portion), in 6 of 10 species/subspecies examined. The conserved NTS region was most likely an external promoter so far observed in various vertebrates, whereas the variable NTS region could be divided into two types due to its nucleotide polymorphisms. Molecular phylogeny using the 5S rRNA gene and NTS sequences suggested the occurrence of 5S rDNA duplication before speciation and a concerted evolution for the gene and conserved NTS regions, but a birth-and-death process to maintain the variable NTS region. Thus, the 5S rDNA in the examined bitterlings might have evolved under a mixed process of evolution.
Inhibition of CRM1-mediated Nuclear Export of Transcription Factors by Leukemogenic NUP98 Fusion Proteins
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20233715
NUP98 is a nucleoporin that plays complex roles in the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of macromolecules. Rearrangements of the NUP98 gene in human leukemia result in the expression of numerous fusion oncoproteins whose effect on nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins on CRM1-mediated nuclear export. NUP98-HOXA9, a prototypic NUP98 fusion, inhibited the nuclear export of two known CRM1 substrates: mutated cytoplasmic nucleophosmin and HIV-1 Rev. In vitro binding assays revealed that NUP98-HOXA9 binds CRM1 through the FG repeat motif in a Ran-GTP-dependent manner similar to but stronger than the interaction between CRM1 and its export substrates. Two NUP98 fusions, NUP98-HOXA9 and NUP98-DDX10, whose fusion partners are structurally and functionally unrelated, interacted with endogenous CRM1 in myeloid cells as shown by co-immunoprecipitation. These leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins interacted with CRM1, Ran, and the nucleoporin NUP214 in a manner fundamentally different from that of wild-type NUP98. NUP98-HOXA9 and NUP98-DDX10 formed characteristic aggregates within the nuclei of a myeloid cell line and primary human CD34+ cells and caused aberrant localization of CRM1 to these aggregates. These NUP98 fusions caused nuclear accumulation of two transcription factors, NFAT and NFkappaB, that are regulated by CRM1-mediated export. The nuclear entrapment of NFAT and NFkappaB correlated with enhanced transcription from promoters responsive to these transcription factors. Taken together, the results suggest a new mechanism by which NUP98 fusions dysregulate transcription and cause leukemia, namely, inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export with aberrant nuclear retention of transcriptional regulators.
AIDS (London, England). Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21045637
In our prior study on a prophylactic T-cell-based vaccine, some vaccinated macaques controlled a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge. These animals allowed viremia in the acute phase but showed persistent viral control after the setpoint. Here, we examined the breadth of postchallenge virus-specific cellular immune responses in these SIV controllers.
Effects of Different Types of Anesthetic Agents on Cellular Protein Kinase C-γ Dynamics in Mouse Brain
Pharmacology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21389746
Although protein kinase C-γ (PKC-γ) is a target for the effects of volatile anesthetics, the molecular mechanisms of the kinase function during their action remain unclear. We examined the effects of different types of anesthetics on PKC-γ knockout mice. Furthermore, we investigated the dynamics of the kinase in brain cells obtained from mice anesthetized with these anesthetics.
Dominant Induction of Vaccine Antigen-specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses After Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21531211
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses are crucial for the control of human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) replication. A promising AIDS vaccine strategy is to induce CTL memory resulting in more effective CTL responses post-viral exposure compared to those in natural HIV infections. We previously developed a CTL-inducing vaccine and showed SIV control in some vaccinated rhesus macaques. These vaccine-based SIV controllers elicited vaccine antigen-specific CTL responses dominantly in the acute phase post-challenge. Here, we examined CTL responses post-challenge in those vaccinated animals that failed to control SIV replication. Unvaccinated rhesus macaques possessing the major histocompatibility complex class I haplotype 90-088-Ij dominantly elicited SIV non-Gag antigen-specific CTL responses after SIV challenge, while those induced with Gag-specific CTL memory by prophylactic vaccination failed to control SIV replication with dominant Gag-specific CTL responses in the acute phase, indicating dominant induction of vaccine antigen-specific CTL responses post-challenge even in non-controllers. Further analysis suggested that prophylactic vaccination results in dominant induction of vaccine antigen-specific CTL responses post-viral exposure but delays SIV non-vaccine antigen-specific CTL responses. These results imply a significant influence of prophylactic vaccination on CTL immunodominance post-viral exposure, providing insights into antigen design in development of a CTL-inducing AIDS vaccine.
Impact of Vaccination on Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Immunodominance and Cooperation Against Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Replication in Rhesus Macaques
Journal of Virology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22072784
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses play a central role in viral suppression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Prophylactic vaccination resulting in effective CTL responses after viral exposure would contribute to HIV control. It is important to know how CTL memory induction by vaccination affects postexposure CTL responses. We previously showed vaccine-based control of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge in a group of Burmese rhesus macaques sharing a major histocompatibility complex class I haplotype. Gag(206-216) and Gag(241-249) epitope-specific CTL responses were responsible for this control. In the present study, we show the impact of individual epitope-specific CTL induction by prophylactic vaccination on postexposure CTL responses. In the acute phase after SIV challenge, dominant Gag(206-216)-specific CTL responses with delayed, naive-derived Gag(241-249)-specific CTL induction were observed in Gag(206-216) epitope-vaccinated animals with prophylactic induction of single Gag(206-216) epitope-specific CTL memory, and vice versa in Gag(241-249) epitope-vaccinated animals with single Gag(241-249) epitope-specific CTL induction. Animals with Gag(206-216)-specific CTL induction by vaccination selected for a Gag(206-216)-specific CTL escape mutation by week 5 and showed significantly less decline of plasma viral loads from week 3 to week 5 than in Gag(241-249) epitope-vaccinated animals without escape mutations. Our results present evidence indicating significant influence of prophylactic vaccination on postexposure CTL immunodominance and cooperation of vaccine antigen-specific and non-vaccine antigen-specific CTL responses, which affects virus control. These findings provide great insights into antigen design for CTL-inducing AIDS vaccines.