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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (15)
- Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology
- Experimental and Molecular Pathology
- Cancer Research
- DNA Repair
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- Advances in Genetics
- Journal of Biomolecular Screening
- PLoS Genetics
- BMC Systems Biology
- Nucleic Acids Research
- Journal of Nucleic Acids
- PloS One
- Molecular and Cellular Biology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Experimental Hematology
Articles by Alexander J. R. Bishop in JoVE
Dissection of a Mouse Eye for a Whole Mount of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium
Alison Claybon, Alexander J. R. Bishop
UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, Greehey Children's Cancer Research Institute and Department of Cellular and Structural Biology
A formal demonstration of the dissection of a mouse eye, resulting in a whole mount of the retinal pigment epithelium.
Other articles by Alexander J. R. Bishop on PubMed
Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology. 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12488587
Cancer develops when cells no longer follow their normal pattern of controlled growth. In the absence or disregard of such regulation, resulting from changes in their genetic makeup, these errant cells acquire a growth advantage, expanding into precancerous clones. Over the last decade, many studies have revealed the relevance of genomic mutation in this process, be it by misreplication, environmental damage, or a deficiency in repairing endogenous and exogenous damage. Here, we discuss homologous recombination as another mechanism that can result in a loss of heterozygosity or genetic rearrangements. Some of these genetic alterations may play a primary role in carcinogenesis, but they are more likely to be involved in secondary and subsequent steps of carcinogenesis by which recessive oncogenic mutations are revealed. Patients, whose cells display an increased frequency of recombination, also have an elevated frequency of cancer, further supporting the link between recombination and carcinogenesis.
Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12710940
Cancer develops when cells no longer follow their normal pattern of controlled growth. In the absence or disregard of such regulation, resulting from changes in their genetic makeup, these errant cells acquire a growth advantage, expanding into precancerous clones. Over the past decade many studies have revealed the relevance of genomic mutation in this process, be it by misreplication, environmental damage, or a deficiency in repairing endogenous and exogenous damage. Here we discuss the possibility of homologous recombination as an errant DNA repair mechanism that can result in loss of heterozygosity or genetic rearrangements. Some of these genetic alterations may play a primary role in carcinogenesis, but they are more likely to be involved in secondary and subsequent steps of carcinogenesis by which recessive oncogenic mutations are revealed. Patients, whose cells display an increased frequency of recombination, also have an elevated frequency of cancer, further supporting the link between recombination and carcinogenesis.
Atm-, P53-, and Gadd45a-deficient Mice Show an Increased Frequency of Homologous Recombination at Different Stages During Development
Cancer Research. Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14500365
Atm, p53, and Gadd45a form part of a DNA-damage cellular response pathway; the absence of any one of these components results in increased genomic instability. We conducted an in vivo examination of the frequency of spontaneous homologous recombination in Atm-, p53-, or Gadd45a-deficient mice. In the absence of p53, we observed the greatest increase in events, a lesser increase in the absence of Atm, and only a modest increase in the absence of Gadd45a. The striking observation was the difference in the time at which the spontaneous events occurred in atm and trp53 mutant mice. The frequency of homologous recombination in atm mutant mice was increased later during development. In contrast, p53 appears to have a role in suppressing homologous recombination early during development, when p53 is known to spontaneously promote p21 activity. The timing of the increased spontaneous recombination was similar in the Gadd45a- and p53-deficient mice. This temporal resolution suggests that Atm and p53 can act to maintain genomic integrity by different mechanisms in certain in vivo contexts.
DNA Repair. Feb, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14706343
Ku70 and Ku86 together with DNA-PKcs form the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex that is involved in DNA double-strand break repair by nonhomologous end joining. We investigated the effect of Ku86 mutation on intrachromosomal homologous recombination (HR) resulting in deletions in vivo in mice. We quantified such deletion events using a phenotypic pigmentation assay. Deletion of one copy of a 70 kb DNA duplication in the pink-eyed unstable (pun) allele results in reversion to the wildtype pink-eyed dilution (p) gene, allowing black pigment accumulation in cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We found that the frequency of homologous recombination was significantly reduced in Ku86 deficient mice. Furthermore, the proliferation of cells in which recombination events occurred was reduced and developmentally delayed in the Ku86 deficient mice. These data indicate a role for Ku86 directly or indirectly in homologous recombination in vivo.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14769959
Large-scale genomic rearrangements such as DNA deletions play a role in the etiology of cancer. The frequency of DNA deletions can be elevated by exposure to carcinogens or by mutations in genes involved in the maintenance of genomic integrity. The in vivo DNA deletion assay allows a visual detection of deletion events within the pink-eyed unstable (pun) locus in developing mouse embryos. A deletion of one copy of a duplicated 70-kb DNA fragment within the pun locus restores the pink-eyed dilute (p) gene, which encodes a protein responsible for the assembly of a black color melanin complex. Deletion events occurring in premelanocytes cause visible black patches (fur-spots) on the light gray fur of offspring and black pigmented cells (eye-spots) on the unpigmented retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). In the fur-spot assay, 10-d-old pups are observed for black spots on the fur. In the eye-spot assay, mice are sacrificed at d 20, eyes are removed, and the wholemount RPE slides are prepared for eye-spot analysis. The frequency, size, and position relative to the optic nerve of the eye-spots are determined. This assay can be used to study the effect of environmental chemicals and physical agents as well as the genetic control of DNA deletions in vivo.
Advances in Genetics. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17452246
DNA alterations of every type are associated with the incidence of carcinogenesis, often on the genomic scale. Although homologous recombination (HR) is an important pathway of DNA repair, evidence is accumulating that deleterious genomic rearrangements can result from HR. It therefore follows that HR events may play a causative role in carcinogenesis. HR is elevated in response to carcinogens. HR may also be increased or decreased when its upstream regulation is perturbed or components of the HR machinery itself are not fully functional. This chapter summarizes research findings that demonstrate an association between HR and carcinogenesis. Increased or decreased frequencies of HR have been found in cancer cells and cancer-prone hereditary human disorders characterized by mutations in genes playing a role in HR, such as ATM, Tp53, BRCA, BLM, and WRN genes. Another evidence linking perturbations in HR and carcinogenesis is provided by studies showing that exposure to carcinogens results in an increased frequency of HR resulting in DNA deletions in yeast, human cells, or mice.
An Analysis of Normalization Methods for Drosophila RNAi Genomic Screens and Development of a Robust Validation Scheme
Journal of Biomolecular Screening. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18753689
Genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screening allows investigation of the role of individual genes in a process of choice. Most RNAi screens identify a large number of genes with a continuous gradient in the assessed phenotype. Screeners must decide whether to examine genes with the most robust phenotype or the full gradient of genes that cause an effect and how to identify candidate genes. The authors have used RNAi in Drosophila cells to examine viability in a 384-well plate format and compare 2 screens, untreated control and treatment. They compare multiple normalization methods, which take advantage of different features within the data, including quantile normalization, background subtraction, scaling, cellHTS2 (Boutros et al. 2006), and interquartile range measurement. Considering the false-positive potential that arises from RNAi technology, a robust validation method was designed for the purpose of gene selection for future investigations. In a retrospective analysis, the authors describe the use of validation data to evaluate each normalization method. Although no method worked ideally, a combination of 2 methods, background subtraction followed by quantile normalization and cellHTS2, at different thresholds, captures the most dependable and diverse candidate genes. Thresholds are suggested depending on whether a few candidate genes are desired or a more extensive systems-level analysis is sought. The normalization approaches and experimental design to perform validation experiments are likely to apply to those high-throughput screening systems attempting to identify genes for systems-level analysis.
PLoS Genetics. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19543366
Damage initiates a pleiotropic cellular response aimed at cellular survival when appropriate. To identify genes required for damage survival, we used a cell-based RNAi screen against the Drosophila genome and the alkylating agent methyl methanesulphonate (MMS). Similar studies performed in other model organisms report that damage response may involve pleiotropic cellular processes other than the central DNA repair components, yet an intuitive systems level view of the cellular components required for damage survival, their interrelationship, and contextual importance has been lacking. Further, by comparing data from different model organisms, identification of conserved and presumably core survival components should be forthcoming. We identified 307 genes, representing 13 signaling, metabolic, or enzymatic pathways, affecting cellular survival of MMS-induced damage. As expected, the majority of these pathways are involved in DNA repair; however, several pathways with more diverse biological functions were also identified, including the TOR pathway, transcription, translation, proteasome, glutathione synthesis, ATP synthesis, and Notch signaling, and these were equally important in damage survival. Comparison with genomic screen data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed no overlap enrichment of individual genes between the species, but a conservation of the pathways. To demonstrate the functional conservation of pathways, five were tested in Drosophila and mouse cells, with each pathway responding to alkylation damage in both species. Using the protein interactome, a significant level of connectivity was observed between Drosophila MMS survival proteins, suggesting a higher order relationship. This connectivity was dramatically improved by incorporating the components of the 13 identified pathways within the network. Grouping proteins into "pathway nodes" qualitatively improved the interactome organization, revealing a highly organized "MMS survival network." We conclude that identification of pathways can facilitate comparative biology analysis when direct gene/orthologue comparisons fail. A biologically intuitive, highly interconnected MMS survival network was revealed after we incorporated pathway data in our interactome analysis.
BMC Systems Biology. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20353594
A genomic catalogue of protein-protein interactions is a rich source of information, particularly for exploring the relationships between proteins. Numerous systems-wide and small-scale experiments have been conducted to identify interactions; however, our knowledge of all interactions for any one species is incomplete, and alternative means to expand these network maps is needed. We therefore took a comparative biology approach to predict protein-protein interactions across five species (human, mouse, fly, worm, and yeast) and developed InterologFinder for research biologists to easily navigate this data. We also developed a confidence score for interactions based on available experimental evidence and conservation across species.
Nucleic Acids Research. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20660013
Recent studies suggest that PARP1 inhibitors, several of which are currently in clinical trial, may selectively kill BRCA1/2 mutant cancers cells. It is thought that the success of this therapy is based on immitigable lethal DNA damage in the cancer cells resultant from the concurrent loss or inhibition of two DNA damage repair pathways: single-strand break (SSB) repair and homologous recombination repair (HRR). Presumably, inhibition of PARP1 activity obstructs the repair of SSBs and during DNA replication, these lesions cause replication fork collapse and are transformed into substrates for HRR. In fact, several previous studies have indicated a hyper-recombinogenic phenotype in the absence of active PARP1 in vitro or in response to DNA damaging agents. In this study, we demonstrate an increased frequency of spontaneous HRR in vivo in the absence of PARP1 using the p(un) assay. Furthermore, we found that the HRR events that occur in Parp1 nullizygous mice are associated with a significant increase in large, clonal events, as opposed to the usually more frequent single cell events, suggesting an effect in replicating cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrates that PARP1 inhibits spontaneous HRR events, and supports the model of DNA replication transformation of SSBs into HRR substrates.
Mouse WRN Helicase Domain Is Not Required for Spontaneous Homologous Recombination-Mediated DNA Deletion
Journal of Nucleic Acids. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20847942
Werner syndrome is a rare disorder that manifests as premature aging and age-related diseases. WRN is the gene mutated in WS, and is one of five human RecQ helicase family members. WS cells exhibit genomic instability and altered proliferation, and in vitro studies suggest that WRN has a role in suppressing homologous recombination. However, more recent studies propose that other RecQ helicases (including WRN) promote early events of homologous recombination. To study the role of WRN helicase on spontaneous homologous recombination, we obtained a mouse with a deleted WRN helicase domain and combined it with the in vivo pink-eyed unstable homologous recombination system. In this paper, we demonstrate that WRN helicase is not necessary for suppressing homologous recombination in vivo contrary to previous reports using a similar mouse model.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21249227
In vitro cell culture experiments with primary cells have reported that cell proliferation is retarded in the presence of ambient compared to physiological O₂ levels. Cancer is primarily a disease of aberrant cell proliferation, therefore, studying cancer cells grown under ambient O₂ may be undesirable. To understand better the impact of O₂ on the propagation of cancer cells in vitro, we compared the growth potential of a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines under ambient (21%) or physiological (3%) O₂.
A Conditional Mouse Model for Measuring the Frequency of Homologous Recombination Events in Vivo in the Absence of Essential Genes
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21709021
The ability to detect and repair DNA damage is crucial to the prevention of various diseases. Loss of function of genes involved in these processes is known to result in significant developmental defects and/or predisposition to cancer. One such DNA repair mechanism, homologous recombination, has the capacity to repair a wide variety of lesions. Knockout mouse models of genes thought to be involved in DNA repair processes are frequently lethal, making in vivo studies very difficult, if not impossible. Therefore, we set out to develop an in vivo conditional mouse model system to facilitate investigations into the involvement of essential genes in homologous recombination. To test our model, we measured the frequency of spontaneous homologous recombination using the pink-eyed unstable mouse model, in which we conditionally excised either Blm or full-length Brca1 (breast cancer 1, early onset). These two genes are hypothesized to have opposing roles in homologous recombination. In summary, our in vivo data supports in vitro studies suggesting that BLM suppresses homologous recombination, while full-length BRCA1 promotes this process.
Mutant P53 Disrupts Role of ShcA Protein in Balancing Smad Protein-dependent and -independent Signaling Activity of Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β)
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22039050
Biomarkers are lacking for identifying the switch of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) from tumor-suppressing to tumor-promoting. Mutated p53 (mp53) has been suggested to switch TGF-β to a tumor promoter. However, we found that mp53 does not always promote the oncogenic role of TGF-β. Here, we show that endogenous mp53 knockdown enhanced cell migration and phosphorylation of ERK in DU145 prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, ectopic expression of mp53 in p53-null PC-3 prostate cancer cells enhanced Smad-dependent signaling but inhibited TGF-β-induced cell migration by down-regulating activated ERK. Reactivation of ERK by the expression of its activator, MEK-1, restored TGF-β-induced cell migration. Because TGF-β is known to activate the MAPK/ERK pathway through direct phosphorylation of the adaptor protein ShcA and MAPK/ERK signaling is pivotal to tumor progression, we investigated whether ShcA contributed to mp53-induced ERK inhibition and the conversion of the role of TGF-β during carcinogenesis. We found that mp53 expression led to a decrease of phosphorylated p52ShcA/ERK levels and an increase of phosphorylated Smad levels in a panel of mp53-expressing cancer cell lines and in mammary glands and tumors from mp53 knock-in mice. By manipulating ShcA levels to regulate ERK and Smad signaling in human untransformed and cancer cell lines, we showed that the role of TGF-β in regulating anchorage-dependent and -independent growth and migration can be shifted between growth suppression and migration promotion. Thus, our results for the first time suggest that mp53 disrupts the role of ShcA in balancing the Smad-dependent and -independent signaling activity of TGF-β and that ShcA/ERK signaling is a major pathway regulating the tumor-promoting activity of TGF-β.
Mice Heterozygous for CREB Binding Protein Are Hypersensitive to γ-radiation and Invariably Develop Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative Neoplasm
Experimental Hematology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22198154
Myelodysplastic syndrome is a complex family of preleukemic diseases in which hematopoietic stem cell defects lead to abnormal differentiation in one or more blood lineages. Disease progression is associated with increasing genomic instability and a large proportion of patients go on to develop acute myeloid leukemia. Primarily a disease of the elderly, it can also develop after chemotherapy. We have previously reported that CREB binding protein (Crebbp) heterozygous mice have an increased incidence of hematological malignancies, and others have shown that CREBBP is one of the genes altered by chromosomal translocations found in patients suffering from therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome. This led us to investigate whether hematopoietic tumor development in Crebbp(+/-) mice is preceded by a myelodysplastic phase and whether we could uncover molecular mechanisms that might contribute to its development. We report here that Crebbp(+/-) mice invariably develop myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm within 9 to 12 months of age. They are also hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and show a marked decrease in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activity after irradiation. In addition, protein levels of XRCC1 and APEX1, key components of base excision repair machinery, are reduced in unirradiated Crebbp(+/-) cells or upon targeted knockdown of CREBBP levels. Our results provide validation of a novel myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm mouse model and, more importantly, point to defective repair of DNA damage as a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of this currently incurable disease.