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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (2)
Articles by Andrea Martinez-Skinner in JoVE
Methods Development for Blood Borne Macrophage Carriage of Nanoformulated Antiretroviral Drugs
Shantanu Balkundi*, Ari S. Nowacek*, Upal Roy, Andrea Martinez-Skinner, JoEllyn McMillan, Howard E. Gendelman
Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center
Nanoparticles of indinavir, ritonavir, efavirenz and atazanavir were manufactured using wet milling, homogenization and ultrasonication. These nanoformulations, collectively termed nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy (nanoART), assessed macrophage-based drug delivery. Monocyte-derived macrophage nanoART uptake, retention and sustained release were determined. These preliminary studies suggest the potential of nanoART for clinical use.
Other articles by Andrea Martinez-Skinner on PubMed
Analyses of Nanoformulated Antiretroviral Drug Charge, Size, Shape and Content for Uptake, Drug Release and Antiviral Activities in Human Monocyte-derived Macrophages
Journal of Controlled Release : Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21108978
Long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) infection shows limitations in pharmacokinetics and biodistribution while inducing metabolic and cytotoxic aberrations. In turn, ART commonly requires complex dosing schedules and leads to the emergence of viral resistance and treatment failures. We posit that the development of nanoformulated ART could preclude such limitations and affect improved clinical outcomes. To this end, we wet-milled 20 nanoparticle formulations of crystalline indinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, and efavirenz, collectively referred to as "nanoART," then assessed their performance using a range of physicochemical and biological tests. These tests were based on cell-nanoparticle interactions using monocyte-derived macrophages and their abilities to uptake and release nanoformulated drugs and affect viral replication. We demonstrate that physical characteristics such as particle size, surfactant coating, surface charge, and most importantly shape are predictors of cell uptake and antiretroviral efficacy. These studies bring this line of research a step closer to developing nanoART that can be used in the clinic to affect the course of HIV-1 infection.
International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22267924
Nanoformulations of crystalline indinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, and efavirenz were manufactured by wet milling, homogenization or sonication with a variety of excipients. The chemical, biological, immune, virological, and toxicological properties of these formulations were compared using an established monocyte-derived macrophage scoring indicator system. Measurements of drug uptake, retention, release, and antiretroviral activity demonstrated differences amongst preparation methods. Interestingly, for drug cell targeting and antiretroviral responses the most significant difference among the particles was the drug itself. We posit that the choice of drug and formulation composition may ultimately affect clinical utility.