Translate this page to:
In JoVE (3)
- Preparation of Single-Cell Suspensions from Mouse Spleen with the gentleMACS Dissociator
- Standardized Preparation of Single-Cell Suspensions from Mouse Lung Tissue using the gentleMACS Dissociator
- Generation of Single-Cell Suspensions from Mouse Neural Tissue
Other Publications (25)
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- Virchows Archiv : an International Journal of Pathology
- Matrix Biology : Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
- Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
- Pathology, Research and Practice
- European Journal of Cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
- The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings / the Society for Investigative Dermatology, Inc. [and] European Society for Dermatological Research
- Toxicology in Vitro : an International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
- Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
- The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- The Journal of Investigative Dermatology
- Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
- Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
- International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer
- Analytical Biochemistry
- Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
- RNA (New York, N.Y.)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Nature Immunology
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
Articles by Andreas Bosio in JoVE
Preparation of Single-Cell Suspensions from Mouse Spleen with the gentleMACS Dissociator
Melanie Jungblut, Karen Oeltze, Irene Zehnter, Doris Hasselmann, Andreas Bosio
This video describes a simple, time-saving technique for automated tissue dissociation using the gentleMACS Dissociator to prepare single-cell suspensions of mouse splenocytes.
Standardized Preparation of Single-Cell Suspensions from Mouse Lung Tissue using the gentleMACS Dissociator
Melanie Jungblut, Karen Oeltze, Irene Zehnter, Doris Hasselmann, Andreas Bosio
Dissociating cells from specific tissue types requires specific parameters for tissue agitation to obtain a high volume of viable, culturable cells. The Miltenyi gentleMACS dissociator optimizes this task with a simple, practical protocol. In this publication the use of this apparatus on lung tissue is explained.
Generation of Single-Cell Suspensions from Mouse Neural Tissue
Sandra Pennartz, Sandy Reiss, Rebecca Biloune, Doris Hasselmann, Andreas Bosio
Dissociating cells from specific tissue types requires specific parameters for tissue aggitation to obtain a high volume of viable, culturable cells. The Miltenyi gentleMACS Dissociator optimizes this task with a simple, practical protocol. In this publication the use of this apparatus on nerual tissue is explained.
Other articles by Andreas Bosio on PubMed
Kinetics of Gene Expression Profiling in Swiss 3T3 Cells Exposed to Aqueous Extracts of Cigarette Smoke
Carcinogenesis. May, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12016146
Previous studies from different laboratories have demonstrated that cigarette smoke (CS) harbours a strong oxidative stress potential, which broadly impacts exposed cells. Many of these studies have been devoted to identifying differentially expressed genes in exposed cells. Emerging DNA microarray techniques provide a sophisticated tool to characterize gene expression on a more comprehensive basis. Here, we report on kinetic studies performed to characterize gene expression profiles in Swiss 3T3 cells exposed to aqueous extracts of CS ('smoke-bubbled phosphate-buffered saline') up to 24 h through glass chips containing 513 different cDNA probes. The results obtained display a distinct expression pattern of up regulated and repressed genes, which was most evident after 4-8 h of exposure. The CS-related stress response involves mainly antioxidant response genes coding for, e.g. haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1), metallothionein 1/2 (MT1/2) and heat shock proteins (HSPs); genes coding for transcription factors, e.g. JunB and CAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP); cell cycle-related genes, e.g. gadd34 and gadd45; and notably, genes described as mediators of an inflammatory/immune-regulatory response, e.g. st2, kc and id3. From a kinetic perspective, the stress response is characterized by the synchronized up regulation of antioxidant pathways, e.g. as reflected by the co-ordinated expression of ho-1 and ferritin. This expression pattern is obviously orchestrated by stress-responsive transcription factors, as exemplified by the early and strong expression of junB and c/ebp. Interestingly, among the 10 most up regulated genes are five which are known to counteract stress brought about by peroxynitrite. Altogether, these results demonstrate that CS induces a distinct signature of differential gene expression in exposed cells.
Control of Pelage Hair Follicle Development and Cycling by Complex Interactions Between Follistatin and Activin
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12514121
Members of the transforming growth factor beta/bone morphogenetic protein (TGF-beta/BMP) family are involved in the control of hair follicle (HF) morphogenesis and cycling. The activities of several members of this family activins and BMP-2, -4, -7, and -11) are controlled by antagonists such as follistatin. Because follistatin-deficient mice show abnormalities in vibrissae development, we explored the role of follistatin and activin in pelage HF development and cycling. We show here that during HF development follistatin mRNA was prominently expressed by hair matrix and outer root sheath keratinocytes as well as by interfollicular epidermal cells, whereas activin betaA mRNA was mainly expressed in dermal papilla cells. Compared with age-matched wild-type controls, both follistatin knockout mice and activin betaA transgenic mice showed a significant retardation of HF morphogenesis. Treatment of wild-type embryonic skin explants with follistatin protein stimulated HF development. This effect was inhibited by addition of recombinant activin A protein. Activin betaA transgenic mice demonstrated retardation of catagen entry, down-regulation of BMP-2, and up-regulation of expression of its antagonist matrix GLA protein. These observations suggest that follistatin and activin interaction plays an important role in both HF development and cycling, possibly in part by regulating expression of BMP-2 and its antagonist.
Differential Gene Expression in the Periprosthetic Membrane: Lubricin As a New Possible Pathogenetic Factor in Prosthesis Loosening
Virchows Archiv : an International Journal of Pathology. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12783322
About 10% of hip endoprostheses will loosen after 10 years. Prosthesis loosening is caused by two different pathomechanisms: aseptic loosening (AL) and septic loosening (SL). This study evaluated differences in gene expression in AL and SL. Eight hybridizations were performed on PIQOR cDNA arrays. Objects of the study were periprosthetic interface tissue samples from two patients with SL and three patients with AL. Tissue parts directly adjacent to the site of RNA isolation were analyzed immuno/histopathologically in order to overcome the problem of tissue heterogeneity. Thirty-three genes were found constantly differentially expressed, among which were cd11b, cd18, cd68, osteopontin and ferritin heavy-chain upregulated in AL and collagen types 1alpha-1, 3alpha-1, integrin alpha-1, thrombospondin2 and nidogen upregulated in SL. The most striking finding was the strong upregulation (from 20-fold to 323-fold) of megakaryocyte stimulating factor (msf) in all aseptic cases and one of the two septic cases, which was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In this study, msf is linked to prosthesis loosening for the first time. The upregulation in AL suggests an important pathogenetic role: the msf splice product lubricin is responsible for the lubrication of healthy joints, but its excellent lubrication ability may disturb the tight interaction between bone and prosthesis and thereby contribute to prosthesis loosening.
An Extracellular Matrix-specific Microarray Allowed the Identification of Target Genes Downstream of Discoidin Domain Receptors
Matrix Biology : Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12935821
The two discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, are tyrosine kinases that are activated by collagen and are essential regulators of cell-matrix communication. However, the target genes downstream of activated DDRs and their physiological significance are largely unknown. Here, we describe a novel method to dissect signaling pathways induced by extracellular matrix (ECM) receptors. Using the doxycycline-inducible repression system (tet-off), we generated human fibrosarcoma and mouse fibroblast cell lines over-expressing DDR1 or DDR2. These cell lines were employed for gene expression analysis using microarrays specific for human and mouse genes coding for ECM proteins or ECM-interacting factors. We found that approximately 10% of the genes studied were up- or down-regulated more than twofold in response to signals generated by over-expressing DDRs. A common event downstream of DDR1 and DDR2 in human and mouse cells was the up-regulation of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand. Key target genes repressed upon DDR activation were agrin, syndecan-1 and alpha3 integrin. ECM-specific microarrays were found a valuable tool to dissect gene expression changes induced by collagen-receptor signaling pathways.
Carcinogenesis. Feb, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14578158
Cigarette smoke (CS) is known to cause cancer and other diseases, but little is known about the global molecular and cellular changes that occur prior to the appearance of clinically detectable symptoms. Using DNA microarrays covering 2031 cDNA probes, we investigated differential gene expression in tissues of the rat respiratory tract, i.e. respiratory nasal epithelium (RNE) and lungs of rats exposed either acutely (3 h) or subchronically (3 h/day, 5 days/week, 3 weeks) to mainstream CS with death either immediately or at 20 h after exposure. Differential gene expression was most evident in RNE of rats exposed once and was characterized by strong up-regulation of genes encoding oxidative stress-responsive and Phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes, such as haem oxygenase-1 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, which are all, at least in part, transcriptionally regulated by NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). After 3 weeks of exposure, the strength of expression of this class of genes was markedly reduced, pointing to an adaptive response. The generally lower response in the lungs of exposed rats is indicative of a deposition gradient of active smoke constituents from the upper to the lower respiratory tract. In sharp contrast to the CS-induced expression of oxidative stress and Phase II-responsive genes, induction of the genes encoding the Phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase-3 was not reduced after 3 weeks of exposure and was similarly high in lungs and RNE. Gene expression patterns in rats allowed to recover for 20 h showed that the CS-induced transcriptional changes observed immediately after exposure returned almost completely to normal, even after 3 weeks of repeated CS exposure. In general, these results demonstrate that CS induces a specific differential gene expression pattern in vivo, which may be instrumental in identifying the molecular mechanisms leading to the onset of inflammatory and/or morphological changes.
Purification of Neuronal Precursors from the Adult Mouse Brain: Comprehensive Gene Expression Analysis Provides New Insights into the Control of Cell Migration, Differentiation, and Homeostasis
Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15080897
The progeny of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mammalian brain consists in polysialylated NCAM-expressing immature neurons (PSA(+) cells), which migrate to the olfactory bulb (OB) to differentiate into GABAergic interneurons. We purified murine PSA(+) cells directly from the adult brain by FACS and analyzed their gene expression profile by SAGE. Comparative analyses led to the identification of precursor-enriched genes, including Survivin, Sox-4, Meis2, Dishevelled-2, C3aR1 and Riken 3110003A17, and many so far uncharacterized transcripts. Cluster analysis showed that groups of genes involved in axon guidance and gene clusters implicated in chemotaxis are strongly upregulated, indicating a role of both cues in the control of cell migration in the adult brain. Furthermore, genes involved in apoptosis and cell proliferation are co-expressed, suggesting that the amount of precursors that is present in the adult brain is a result of an equilibrium of these processes.
Pathology, Research and Practice. 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15462498
There is an increasing demand for tissue samples that, after having been used for conventional histologic examination, are also suited for molecular analyses. As to formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue, the latter applications are very limited. The HOPE (Hepes-Glutamic acid buffer mediated Organic solvent Protection Effect) technique comprises a new protection-solution with an organic buffer, with acetone as the only dehydrating agent, and pure paraffin of 52-54 degrees C melting temperature, allowing for all pathologic routine investigations. In contrast to FFPE tissue, the HOPE-technique allows for the application of molecular methods, such as high molecular DNA and RNA isolation, which can be used for PCR and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). In this study, we investigated whether RNA from HOPE-fixed tissue samples is suitable for Northern blot and microarray analyses. RNAs of two HOPE-fixed breast cancer specimens of different histologic grade were used to carry out an array experiment. It turned out that RNA from HOPE-fixed tissue is of high quality and can be successfully used for array experiments. In addition, by detecting GAPDH and high mobility group protein gene B1 (HMGB1)-specific transcripts, we were able to demonstrate that RNA from HOPE-fixed tissue can also be used for Northern blot hybridization.
Identification of CD70 As a Diagnostic Biomarker for Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma by Gene Expression Profiling, Real-time RT-PCR and Immunohistochemistry
European Journal of Cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16043348
The underlying molecular mechanisms of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are poorly understood and more reliable markers for early diagnosis are needed. Hence, alternative strategies for biomarker discovery with appropriate validation technologies have to be performed. To elucidate genesis and progression of RCC we used high parallel chip based gene expression profiling comparing normal and tumour tissues. We compared corresponding control and tumour tissue samples from 10 patients with clear cell RCC. We isolated RNA from histologically well characterised tissue sections and performed reverse transcription, labelling and linear RNA amplification. Samples were hybridised on microarrays containing 642 human cDNAs. Of the 352 differentially expressed genes found, CD70 and FRA2 were selected for further evaluation by real-time RT-PCR. The analysis all showed a high potential to discriminate between normal and tumour tissue. Moreover, increased CD70 mRNA expression in tumour cells could be correlated to its expression at the protein level. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed very strong expression of CD70 in all tumour samples but no expression in adjacent normal kidney tissue. With our combined approach we were able to identify CD70 as a new marker for RCC, which may be useful in the future for improved immunohistochemical diagnosis.
Substantial Sex-dependent Differences in the Response of Human Scalp Hair Follicles to Estrogen Stimulation in Vitro Advocate Gender-tailored Management of Female Versus Male Pattern Balding
The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings / the Society for Investigative Dermatology, Inc. [and] European Society for Dermatological Research. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16382674
In this study, it was investigated how estrogens (17-beta-estradiol, E2) affect the estrogen receptor (ER) expression and gene regulation of male versus female human scalp hair follicles in vitro. Anagen VI follicles from frontotemporal scalp skin were microdissected and organ-cultured for up to 9 d in the presence of E2 (1-100 nm). Immunohistochemistry was performed for ERbeta-expression, known to be predominant in human scalp hair follicles, and for TGF-beta2-expression (as negative key hair growth modulator), and E2-responsive genes in organ-cultured human scalp hair follicles (48 h, 10 nM) were explored by cDNA microarray, using a commercial skin focus chip (Memorec, Cologne, Germany). The distribution pattern of ERbeta and TGF-beta2-immunoreactivity differed between male and female hair follicles after 48 h culture. Of 1300 genes tested, several genes were regulated sex-dependent differently. The study reveals substantial sex-dependent differences in the response of frontotemporal human scalp hair follicles to E2. Recognition and systematic dissection of the E2-dependent gene regulation will be crucial for the development of more effective, gender-tailored management strategies for female versus male pattern balding.
RETRACTED: Toxicogenomics Applied to in Vitro Toxicology: A CDNA- Array Based Gene Expression and Protein Activity Study in Human Hepatocyte Cultures Upon Treatment with Aroclor 1254
Toxicology in Vitro : an International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16384686
This article has been retracted consistent with Articles in Press Policy. Please see . The Publisher apologises for any inconvenience this may cause.
Glial Conversion of SVZ-derived Committed Neuronal Precursors After Ectopic Grafting into the Adult Brain
Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences. May-Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16730456
In the adult mouse forebrain, large numbers of neuronal precursors, destined to become GABA- and dopamine-producing interneurons of the olfactory bulb (OB), are generated in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Although this neurogenic system represents a potential reservoir of stem and progenitor cells for brain repair approaches, information about the survival and differentiation of SVZ-derived cells in ectopic brain regions is still fragmentary. We show here that ectopic grafting of SVZ tissue gave rise to two morphologically distinguishable cell types displaying oligodendrocytic or astrocytic characteristics. Since SVZ tissue contains neuronal and glial progenitors, we used magnetic cell sorting to deplete A2B5+ glial progenitors from the dissociated SVZ and to positively select cells that express PSA-NCAM. This procedure allowed the purification of neuronal precursors expressing TUJ1, DCX and GAD65/67. Transplantation of these cells led again to the generation of the same two glial cell types, showing that committed interneuron precursors undergo glial differentiation outside their normal environment.
Enhanced Expression Levels of IL-31 Correlate with IL-4 and IL-13 in Atopic and Allergic Contact Dermatitis
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17030248
IL-31 is produced by activated T lymphocytes, preferentially by TH2 cells. Transgenic mice overexpressing IL-31 have a phenotype resembling allergic dermatitis in human subjects.
Cell. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17604727
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding regulatory RNAs that reduce stability and/or translation of fully or partially sequence-complementary target mRNAs. In order to identify miRNAs and to assess their expression patterns, we sequenced over 250 small RNA libraries from 26 different organ systems and cell types of human and rodents that were enriched in neuronal as well as normal and malignant hematopoietic cells and tissues. We present expression profiles derived from clone count data and provide computational tools for their analysis. Unexpectedly, a relatively small set of miRNAs, many of which are ubiquitously expressed, account for most of the differences in miRNA profiles between cell lineages and tissues. This broad survey also provides detailed and accurate information about mature sequences, precursors, genome locations, maturation processes, inferred transcriptional units, and conservation patterns. We also propose a subclassification scheme for miRNAs for assisting future experimental and computational functional analyses.
Sensitive Gene Expression Profiling of Human T Cell Subsets Reveals Parallel Post-thymic Differentiation for CD4+ and CD8+ Lineages
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18025184
The differentiation of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells following priming of naive cells is central in the establishment of the immune response against pathogens or tumors. However, our understanding of this complex process and the significance of the multiple subsets of differentiation remains controversial. Gene expression profiling has opened new directions of investigation in immunobiology. Nonetheless, the need for substantial amount of biological material often limits its application range. In this study, we have developed procedures to perform microarray analysis on amplified cDNA from low numbers of cells, including primary T lymphocytes, and applied this technology to the study of CD4 and CD8 lineage differentiation. Gene expression profiling was performed on samples of 1000 cells from 10 different subpopulations, defining the major stages of post-thymic CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cell differentiation. Surprisingly, our data revealed that while CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell gene expression programs diverge at early stages of differentiation, they become increasingly similar as cells reach a late differentiation stage. This suggests that functional heterogeneity between Ag experienced CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells is more likely to be located early during post-thymic differentiation, and that late stages of differentiation may represent a common end in the development of T-lymphocytes.
Gene Expression Profiling of Lichen Planus Reflects CXCL9+-mediated Inflammation and Distinguishes This Disease from Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis
The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17703176
Here, we present data of a gene expression profiling approach to apply the diagnostic value and pathological significance of this method in different inflammatory skin diseases, using whole skin biopsies. Initially, SAGE was performed to identify frequent tags differentially expressed in various skin diseases. On the basis of these results, a new skin pathology-oriented PIQOR microarray was designed. Lichen planus (LP) was chosen as a model disease to evaluate this system. Controls included healthy skin, atopic dermatitis (AD), and psoriasis (Pso). Gene expression analyses using the topic-defined microarray followed by unclassified clustering was able to discriminate LP from AD and Pso. Genes significantly expressed in LP included type I IFN inducible genes and a specific chemokine expression pattern. The CXCR3 ligand, CXCL9, was the most significant marker for LP. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry confirmed the results and revealed that keratinocytes are type I IFN producers in LP skin lesions. Our results show that gene expression profiling using a skin-specific microarray is a reliable method to identify patients with LP in the chosen context and reflect recent models concerning the pathogenesis of this disease. Gene expression profiling might complement the diagnostic spectrum in dermatology and may provide new pathogenetic insights.
Disruption of the Latent Transforming Growth Factor-beta Binding Protein-1 Gene Causes Alteration in Facial Structure and Influences TGF-beta Bioavailability
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17950478
Latent transforming growth factor-beta binding proteins are a family of extracellular matrix proteins comprising four isoforms (LTBP-1, -2, -3, -4) with different structures, tissue expression patterns and affinity for TGF-beta. So far, respective knockout models have highlighted some essential functions for LTBP-2, LTBP-3 and LTBP-4, while the physiological significance of LTBP-1 is only superficially known. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of a mouse model lacking both the long and short LTBP-1 isoform. Surprisingly, respective mice are viable and fertile. However, detailed X-ray analysis of the skull revealed a modified facial profile. In addition, the gene disruption induces a reduced biological activity of TGF-beta that became evident in an experimental model of hepatic fibrogenesis in which the LTBP-1 knockout animals were less prone to hepatic fibrogenesis. Furthermore, comparative cDNA microarray gene expression profiling of cultured hepatic stellate cells confirmed that respective nulls were less receptive to cellular activation and transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts. Therefore, we conclude that LTBP-1 has essential functions in the control of TGF-beta activation.
Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18725299
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons are a diverse group of inhibitory neurons playing crucial roles in information processing. We analyzed the gene expression of regionally defined GABAergic neurons from the cortex, olfactory bulb, striatum, and cerebellum of glutamate decarboxylase 67-green fluorescence protein (GAD67-GFP) knock-in mice. We introduce a generally applicable method for singularization of brain cells, flow cytometric enrichment, and global mRNA amplification for sensitive gene expression profiling. Systematic quantification elicited a high dynamic range of GABAergic cell numbers in different brain regions. Clustering of our gene expression results revealed major differences between hind and forebrain GABAergic neurons indicating that the development of GABAergic neurons depends on their regional location. While GABAergic neurons of the forebrain are characterized by three main groups of transcription factors of the Distal-less-family, the POU-family, and ETS/FOX family, specific members of the ZIC- and LHX-family of transcription factors appear to define hindbrain inhibitory neurons.
Transcriptional Profiling Identifies an Interferon-associated Host Immune Response in Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin
International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18770863
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent the 2 most common types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Both derive from keratinocytes but show a distinct biological behavior. Here we present transcriptional profiling data of a large cohort of tumor patients (SCC, n = 42; BCC, n = 114). Differentially expressed genes reflect known features of SCC and BCC including the typical cytokeratin pattern as well as upregulation of characteristic cell proliferation genes. Additionally, we found increased expression of interferon (IFN)-regulated genes (including IFI27, IFI30, Mx1, IRF1 and CXCL9) in SCC, and to a lower extent in BCC. The expression of IFN-regulated genes correlated with the extent of the lesional immune-cell infiltrate. Immunohistological examinations confirmed the expression of IFN-regulated genes in association with a CXCR3+ cytotoxic inflammatory infiltrate on the protein level. Of note, a small subset of SCC samples with low expression of IFN-regulated genes included most organ transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive medication. Collectively, our findings support the concept that IFN-associated host responses play an important role in tumor immunosurveillance in the skin.
Analytical Biochemistry. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19285029
Isolation of mitochondria by current methods relies mainly on their physicochemical properties. Here we describe an alternative approach to obtain functional mitochondria from human cells in a fast, reproducible, and standardized procedure. The new approach is based on superparamagnetic microbeads conjugated to anti-TOM22 antibody. The bead conjugates label the cytoplasmic part of the human mitochondrial membrane protein TOM22 and, thus, allow for a gentle isolation of mitochondria in a high gradient magnetic field. By comparing the MACS (magnetic cell separation) approach with mitochondria isolation methods using differential centrifugation and ultracentrifugation we demonstrate that the MACS approach provides the highest yield of isolated mitochondria. The quality, enrichment, and purity of mitochondria isolated with this protocol are comparable to mitochondria obtained using the ultracentrifuge method, and a typical separation procedure takes only approximately 1 to 2h from initial cell homogenization. Mitochondria isolated with the new approach are sufficient for protein import, blue native gel electrophoresis, and other mitochondrial assays.
Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19347268
Stem cells have the potential to revolutionize tissue regeneration and engineering. Both general types of stem cells, those with pluripotent differentiation potential as well as those with multipotent differentiation potential, are of equal interest. They are important tools to further understanding of general cellular processes, to refine industrial applications for drug target discovery and predictive toxicology, and to gain more insights into their potential for tissue regeneration. This chapter provides an overview of existing sorting technologies and protocols, outlines the phenotypic characteristics of a number of different stem cells, and summarizes their potential clinical applications.
RNA (New York, N.Y.). Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19861428
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a species of small RNAs approximately 21-23-nucleotides long that have been shown to play an important role in many different cellular, developmental, and physiological processes. Accordingly, numerous PCR-, sequencing-, or hybridization-based methods have been established to identify and quantify miRNAs. Their short length results in a high dynamic range of melting temperatures and therefore impedes a proper selection of detection probes or optimized PCR primers. While miRNA microarrays allow for massive parallel and accurate relative measurement of all known miRNAs, they have so far been less useful as an assay for absolute quantification. Here, we present a microarray-based approach for global and absolute quantification of miRNAs. The method relies on the parallel hybridization of the sample of interest labeled with Cy5 and a universal reference of 954 synthetic miRNAs in equimolar concentrations that are labeled with Cy3 on a microarray slide containing probes for all human, mouse, rat, and viral miRNAs (miRBase 12.0). Each single miRNA is quantified with respect to the universal reference canceling biases related to sequence, labeling, or hybridization. We demonstrate the accuracy of the method by various spike-in experiments. Furthermore, we quantified miRNA copy numbers in liver samples and CD34(+)/CD133(-) hematopoietic progenitor cells.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20080708
After their generation and specification in periventricular regions, neuronal precursors maintain an immature and migratory state until their arrival in the respective target structures. Only here are terminal differentiation and synaptic integration induced. Although the molecular control of neuronal specification has started to be elucidated, little is known about the factors that control the latest maturation steps. We aimed at identifying factors that induce terminal differentiation during postnatal and adult neurogenesis, thereby focusing on the generation of periglomerular interneurons in the olfactory bulb. We isolated neuronal precursors and mature neurons from the periglomerular neuron lineage and analyzed their gene expression by microarray. We found that expression of the bHLH transcription factor NeuroD1 strikingly coincides with terminal differentiation. Using brain electroporation, we show that overexpression of NeuroD1 in the periventricular region in vivo leads to the rapid appearance of cells with morphological and molecular characteristics of mature neurons in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream. Conversely, shRNA-induced knockdown of NeuroD1 inhibits terminal neuronal differentiation. Thus, expression of a single transcription factor is sufficient to induce neuronal differentiation of neural progenitors in regions that normally do not show addition of new neurons. These results suggest a considerable potential of NeuroD1 for use in cell-therapeutic approaches in the nervous system.
The MicroRNA MiR-182 is Induced by IL-2 and Promotes Clonal Expansion of Activated Helper T Lymphocytes
Nature Immunology. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20935646
After being activated by antigen, helper T lymphocytes switch from a resting state to clonal expansion. This switch requires inactivation of the transcription factor Foxo1, a suppressor of proliferation expressed in resting helper T lymphocytes. In the early antigen-dependent phase of expansion, Foxo1 is inactivated by antigen receptor-mediated post-translational modifications. Here we show that in the late phase of expansion, Foxo1 was no longer post-translationally regulated but was inhibited post-transcriptionally by the interleukin 2 (IL-2)-induced microRNA miR-182. Specific inhibition of miR-182 in helper T lymphocytes limited their population expansion in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate a central role for miR-182 in the physiological regulation of IL-2-driven helper T cell-mediated immune responses and open new therapeutic possibilities.
Combined Characterization of MicroRNA and MRNA Profiles Delineates Early Differentiation Pathways of CD133+ and CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21394831
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play an important role in hematopoiesis. To elucidate the role of miRNAs in the early steps of hematopoiesis, we directly compared donor-matched CD133(+) cells with the more differentiated CD34(+) CD133(-) and CD34(-) CD133(-) cells from bone marrow on the miRNA and mRNA level. Using quantitative whole genome miRNA microarray and sequencing-based profiling, we found that between 109 (CD133(+) ) and 216 (CD34(-) CD133(-) ) miRNAs were expressed. Quantification revealed that the 25 highest expressed miRNAs accounted for 73% of the total miRNA pool. miR-142-3p was the highest expressed miRNA with up to 2,000 copies per cell in CD34(+) CD133(-) cells. Eighteen miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between CD133(+) and CD34(+) CD133(-) cells. We analyzed their biological role by examining the coexpression of miRNAs and its bioinformatically predicted mRNA targets and luciferase-based reporter assays. We provide the first evidence for a direct regulation of CD133 by miR-142-3p as well as tropomyosin 1 and frizzled homolog 5 by miR-29a. Overexpression of miRNAs in CD133(+) cells demonstrated that miR-142-3p has a negative influence on the overall colony-forming ability. In conclusion, the miRNAs expressed differentially between the CD133(+) and CD34(+) CD133(-) cells are involved in inhibition of differentiation, prevention of apoptosis, and cytoskeletal remodeling. These results are highly relevant for stem cell-based therapies with CD133(+) cells and delineate for the first time how the stem cell character of CD133(+) cells is defined by the expression of specific miRNAs.
Haematologica. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22058204
Hematopoiesis is regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). These small regulatory RNAs are master regulators of developmental processes that modulate expression of several target genes post-transcriptionally. Various miRNAs are up-regulated at specific stages during hematopoietic development and the functional relevance of miRNAs has been proven at many different stages of lineage specification. Knockout of specific miRNAs can produce dramatic phenotypes leading to severe hematopoietic defects. Furthermore, several studies demonstrated that specific miRNAs are differentially expressed in hematopoietic stem cells. However, the emerging picture is extremely complex due to differences between species, cell type dependent variation in miRNA expression and differential expression of diverse target genes that are involved in various regulatory networks. There is also evidence that miRNAs play a role in cellular aging or in the inter-cellular crosstalk between hematopoietic cells and their microenvironment. The field is rapidly evolving due to new profiling tools and deep sequencing technology. The expression profiles of miRNAs are of diagnostic relevance for classification of different diseases. Recent reports on the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells with miRNAs have fuelled the hope that specific miRNAs and culture conditions facilitate directed differentiation or culture expansion of the hematopoietic stem cell pool. This review summarizes our current knowledge about miRNA expression in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and their role in the hematopoietic stem cell niche.