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In JoVE (1)
- Implantation of Radiotelemetry Transmitters Yielding Data on ECG, Heart Rate, Core Body Temperature and Activity in Free-moving Laboratory Mice
Other Publications (9)
Articles by Andreas Rettich in JoVE
Implantation of Radiotelemetry Transmitters Yielding Data on ECG, Heart Rate, Core Body Temperature and Activity in Free-moving Laboratory Mice
Nikola Cesarovic1, Paulin Jirkof2, Andreas Rettich2, Margarete Arras1
1Division of Surgical Research, University Hospital Zurich, 2Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, University of Zurich
A surgical technique for implantation of commercially available telemetry transmitters used for continuous measurement of biopotential (one-lead ECG), heart rate, core body temperature and locomotor activity in freely moving mice is shown. Recommendations and protocols for post-operative care and pain relief, improving recovery, well being and survival rate are also presented.
Other articles by Andreas Rettich on PubMed
The Physiological and Behavioral Impact of Sensory Contact Among Unfamiliar Adult Mice in the Laboratory
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science : JAAWS. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17209752
Housing mice in the laboratory in groups enables social interaction and is the way a laboratory should house mice. However, adult males show reciprocal aggression and are therefore frequently housed individually. Alternatively, a grid divider, which allows sensory contact by sight and smell but prevents fighting and injuries, can separate mice within 1 cage. This study examined the influence of this housing method on various physiological and behavioral parameters. Adult male mice housed for 10 days with sensory contact to an unfamiliar male displayed significant increases in heart rate (HR), body core temperature (BT), and motor activity (ACT). Furthermore, the mice suffered impaired nest-building behavior and significantly reduced body weight. Conversely, males housed in a similar manner with a female companion showed only a transient elevation of ACT, BT, and HR. Although no clear beneficial effect of housing males with sensory contact to females was evident, this study could not exclude it. On the other hand, housing of mature males in this way leads to sustained detrimental alterations of physiology and behavior, thus implying severe impairment of animal well-being.
Laboratory Animals. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17234048
Tail biopsies are routinely taken to genotype genetically modified mice. However, the effect of this procedure on the wellbeing of the animals has rarely been investigated. Thus, it has not yet been clearly demonstrated to what extent the mice suffer from tail biopsy (TB) and for how long. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of a single TB on the physiological and behavioural parameters of adult mice and to investigate whether or not anaesthesia can be beneficial. Body weight (BW) curves, daily food/water consumption and telemetric measurements of heart rate, body core temperature, and locomotor activity were recorded for three days following TB, both with and without anaesthesia with methoxyflurane (MOF) or diethylether (ether). Additionally, the impact of anaesthesia alone was characterized. TB without anaesthesia induced an increase in heart rate and locomotor activity for 1 h. Body core temperature was elevated for 2 h. In contrast, heart rate was increased for up to 4 h after anaesthesia. Body core temperature remained altered for up to 20 h after exposure to ether and for 44 h after exposure to MOF. BW was slightly reduced after MOF. Cases of death occurred exclusively under ether at a rate of 7%. Our results indicate a short-lived impact of a TB, whereas anaesthesia with either MOF or ether induced remarkable alterations in the parameters analysed. In conclusion, these types of anaesthesia did not improve mouse wellbeing following tail biopsy.
Comparative Analysis and Physiological Impact of Different Tissue Biopsy Methodologies Used for the Genotyping of Laboratory Mice
Laboratory Animals. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17430617
Genotyping of genetically modified mice and control of authenticity of the genetic background of congenic or coisogenic strains by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a routine procedure that can be performed with different tissue biopsies causing variable grades of trauma. In this study, some invasive and non-invasive sampling methods were compared, with the main focus on the impact on animal physiology. We compared ear punch, tail biopsy, hair plugging, mouth and rectum swabs and the simple restraint of the animals, scoring for the impact on heart rate (HR), core body temperature (BT) and motor activity by telemetry, during biopsy and for the following 6 h. Furthermore, in order to correlate the physiological impact with the practicability and reliability of the genotyping results, we performed a PCR analysis of the biopsy samples obtained by using the same collection procedures analysed by telemetry. All sampling methods and restraint induced significant increase in HR and BT and a slight increase in motor activity for 1 h, independent of the invasiveness of the method used. Genotyping of all biopsies allowed the proper identification of transgenic animals, tail biopsies, ear punches and hair follicles giving clear signals, the last method being fast, but also susceptible to cross contaminations during sampling by large numbers of animals. Restraint and all biopsy methods provoked similar physiological changes, indicating that the handling of the animals is of major importance and that the sampling procedure does not strongly influence the physiological parameters.
Assessment of Post-laparotomy Pain in Laboratory Mice by Telemetric Recording of Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability
BMC Veterinary Research. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17683523
Pain of mild to moderate grade is difficult to detect in laboratory mice because mice are prey animals that attempt to elude predators or man by hiding signs of weakness, injury or pain. In this study, we investigated the use of telemetry to identify indicators of mild-to-moderate post-laparotomy pain.
Optimized Surgical Techniques and Postoperative Care Improve Survival Rates and Permit Accurate Telemetric Recording in Exercising Mice
BMC Veterinary Research. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19646283
The laboratory mouse is commonly used as a sophisticated model in biomedical research. However, experiments requiring major surgery frequently lead to serious postoperative complications and death, particularly if genetically modified mice with anatomical and physiological abnormalities undergo extensive interventions such as transmitter implantation. Telemetric transmitters are used to study cardiovascular physiology and diseases. Telemetry yields reliable and accurate measurement of blood pressure in the free-roaming, unanaesthetized and unstressed mouse, but data recording is hampered substantially if measurements are made in an exercising mouse. Thus, we aimed to optimize transmitter implantation to improve telemetric signal recording in exercising mice as well as to establish a postoperative care regimen that promotes convalescence and survival of mice after major surgery in general.
Optimal Hematocrit for Maximal Exercise Performance in Acute and Chronic Erythropoietin-treated Mice
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19966291
Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment increases hematocrit (Htc) and, consequently, arterial O(2) content. This in turn improves exercise performance. However, because elevated blood viscosity associated with increasing Htc levels may limit cardiac performance, it was suggested that the highest attainable Htc may not necessarily be associated with the highest attainable exercise capacity. To test the proposed hypothesis that an optimal Htc in acute and chronic Epo-treated mice exists--i.e., the Htc that facilitates the greatest O(2) flux during maximal exercise--Htc levels of wild-type mice were acutely elevated by administering novel erythropoiesis-stimulating protein (NESP; wtNESP). Furthermore, in the transgenic mouse line tg6 that reaches Htc levels of up to 0.9 because of constitutive overexpression of human Epo, the Htc was gradually reduced by application of the hemolysis-inducing compound phenylhydrazine (PHZ; tg6PHZ). Maximal cardiovascular performance was measured by using telemetry in all exercising mice. Highest maximal O(2) uptake (VO(2max)) and maximal time to exhaustion at submaximal exercise intensities were reached at Htc values of 0.58 and 0.57 for wtNESP, and 0.68 and 0.66 for tg6PHZ, respectively. Rate pressure product, and thus also maximal working capacity of the heart, increased with elevated Htc values. Blood viscosity correlated with VO(2max). Apart from the confirmation of the Htc hypothesis, we conclude that tg6PHZ adapted better to varying Htc values than wtNESP because of the higher optimal Htc of tg6PHZ compared to wtNESP. Of note, blood viscosity plays a critical role in limiting exercise capacity.
Laboratory Animals. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20507878
Isoflurane is currently the most common volatile anaesthetic used in laboratory mice, whereas in human medicine the more modern sevoflurane is often used for inhalation anaesthesia. This study aimed to characterize and compare the clinical properties of both anaesthetics for inhalation anaesthesia in mice. In an approach mirroring routine laboratory conditions (spontaneous breathing, gas supply via nose mask, preventing hypothermia by a warming mat) a 50 min anaesthesia was performed. Anaesthetics were administered in oxygen as carrier gas at standardized dosages of 1.5 minimum alveolar concentrations, which was 2.8% for isoflurane and 4.9% for sevoflurane. Both induction and recovery from anaesthesia proceeded quickly, within 1-2 min. During anaesthesia, all reflex testing was negative and no serious impairment of vital functions was found; all animals survived. The most prominent side-effect during anaesthesia was respiratory depression with hypercapnia, acidosis and a marked decrease in respiration rate. Under anaesthesia, heart rate and core body temperature remained within the normal range, but were significantly increased for 12 h after anaesthesia. Locomotor activity, daily food and water consumption and body weight progression showed no abnormalities after anaesthesia. No significant difference was found between the two anaesthetics. In conclusion, isoflurane and sevoflurane provided an equally reliable anaesthesia in laboratory mice.
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21031028
Detection of persistent pain of a mild-to-moderate degree in laboratory mice is difficult because mice do not show unambiguous symptoms of pain or suffering using standard methods of short-term observational or clinical monitoring. This study investigated the potential use of burrowing performance - a spontaneous and highly motivated behavior - as a measure of post-operative pain in laboratory mice. The influence of minor surgery on burrowing was investigated in adult C57BL/6J mice of both genders in a modified rodent burrowing test (displacement of food pellets from a pellet-filled tube) within the animal's home cage. Almost all (98%) healthy mice burrowed (mean latency 1.3 h, SEM 0.5 h). After surgery without pain treatment, latency of burrowing was significantly prolonged (mean Δ latency 10 h). Analgesic treatment using the anti-inflammatory drug carprofen (5 mg/kg bodyweight) decreased latency of burrowing after surgery (mean Δ latency 5.5 h) to the level found in mice that had been anesthetized (mean Δ latency 5.4 h) or had received anesthesia and analgesia (mean Δ latency 4.6 h). Analgesia during surgery was associated with a significantly earlier onset of burrowing compared to surgery without pain treatment. A distinct gradation in burrowing performance was found ranging from the undisturbed pre-operative status to the intermediate level following anesthesia/analgesia and surgery with analgesia, to the pronounced prolongation of latency to burrow after surgery without pain relief. In conclusion, post-surgical impairment of general condition, probably mainly attributable to pain, can be conveniently assessed in laboratory mice on the basis of the burrowing test.
PloS One. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22276127
Refined vaccines and adjuvants are urgently needed to advance immunization against global infectious challenges such as HIV, hepatitis C, tuberculosis and malaria. Large-scale screening efforts are ongoing to identify adjuvants with improved efficacy profiles. Reactogenicity often represents a major hurdle to the clinical use of new substances. Yet, irrespective of its importance, this parameter has remained difficult to screen for, owing to a lack of sensitive small animal models with a capacity for high throughput testing. Here we report that continuous telemetric measurements of heart rate, heart rate variability, body core temperature and locomotor activity in laboratory mice readily unmasked systemic side-effects of vaccination, which went undetected by conventional observational assessment and clinical scoring. Even minor aberrations in homeostasis were readily detected, ranging from sympathetic activation over transient pyrogenic effects to reduced physical activity and apathy. Results in real-time combined with the potential of scalability and partial automation in the industrial context suggest multiparameter telemetry in laboratory mice as a first-line screen for vaccine reactogenicity. This may accelerate vaccine discovery in general and may further the success of vaccines in combating infectious disease and cancer.