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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (7)
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Articles by Andrew D. Klocko in JoVE
التصوير إصلاح عدم تطابق والردود الخليوي الى الحمض النووي من التلف في
Andrew D. Klocko, Kaleena M. Crafton, Brian W. Walsh, Justin S. Lenhart, Lyle A. Simmons
Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
ووصف مفصل لبروتوكول التصوير تشكيل الوقت الحقيقي من المجمعات في إصلاح الحمض النووي
Other articles by Andrew D. Klocko on PubMed
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12915177
The post-integration behavior of insect gene vectors will determine the types of applications for which they can be used. Transposon mutagenesis, enhancer trapping, and the use of transposable elements as genetic drive systems in insects requires transposable elements with high rates of remobilization in the presence of transposase. We investigated the post-integration behavior of the Mos1 mariner element in transgenic Aedes aegypti by examining both germ-line and somatic transpositions of a non-autonomous element in the presence of Mos1 transposase. Somatic transpositions were occasionally detected while germ-line transposition was only rarely observed. Only a single germ-line transposition event was recovered after screening 14,000 progeny. The observed patterns of transposition suggest that Mos1 movement takes place between the S phase and anaphase. The data reported here indicate that Mos1 will be a useful vector in Ae. aegypti for applications requiring a very high degree of vector stability but will have limited use in the construction of genetic drive, enhancer trap, or transposon tagging systems in this species.
Ectopic Expression of a Cecropin Transgene in the Human Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles Gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae): Effects on Susceptibility to Plasmodium
Journal of Medical Entomology. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15185949
Genetically altering the disease vector status of insects using recombinant DNA technologies is being considered as an alternative to eradication efforts. Manipulating the endogenous immune response of mosquitoes such as the temporal and special expression of antimicrobial peptides like cecropin may result in a refractory phenotype. Using transgenic technology a unique pattern of expression of cecropin A (cecA) in Anopheles gambiae was created such that cecA was expressed beginning 24 h after a blood meal in the posterior midgut. Two independent lines of transgenic An. gambiae were created using a piggyBac gene vector containing the An. gambiae cecA cDNA under the regulatory control of the Aedes aegypti carboxypeptidase promoter. Infection with Plasmodium berghei resulted in a 60% reduction in the number of oocysts in transgenic mosquitoes compared with nontransgenic mosquitoes. Manipulating the innate immune system of mosquitoes can negatively affect their capacity to serve as hosts for the development of disease-causing microbes.
Promoter Specificity for 6S RNA Regulation of Transcription is Determined by Core Promoter Sequences and Competition for Region 4.2 of Sigma70
Molecular Microbiology. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18208528
6S RNA binds sigma70-RNA polymerase and downregulates transcription at many sigma70-dependent promoters, but others escape regulation even during stationary phase when the majority of the transcription machinery is bound by the RNA. We report that core promoter elements determine this promoter specificity; a weak -35 element allows a promoter to be 6S RNA sensitive, and an extended -10 element similarly determines 6S RNA inhibition except when a consensus -35 element is present. These two features together predicted that hundreds of mapped Escherichia coli promoters might be subject to 6S RNA dampening in stationary phase. Microarray analysis confirmed 6S RNA-dependent downregulation of expression from 68% of the predicted genes, which corresponds to 49% of the expressed genes containing mapped E. coli promoters and establishes 6S RNA as a global regulator in stationary phase. We also demonstrate a critical role for region 4.2 of sigma70 in RNA polymerase interactions with 6S RNA. Region 4.2 binds the -35 element during transcription initiation; therefore we propose one mechanism for 6S RNA regulation of transcription is through competition for binding region 4.2 of sigma70.
Molecular Microbiology. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19538447
6S RNA is a small, non-coding RNA that interacts with sigma(70)-RNA polymerase and downregulates transcription at many promoters during stationary phase. When bound to sigma(70)-RNA polymerase, 6S RNA is engaged in the active site of sigma(70)-RNA polymerase in a manner similar enough to promoter DNA that the RNA can serve as a template for RNA synthesis. It has been proposed that 6S RNA mimics the conformation of DNA during transcription initiation, suggesting contacts between RNA polymerase and 6S RNA or DNA may be similar. Here we demonstrate that region 4.2 of sigma(70) is critical for the interaction between 6S RNA and RNA polymerase. We define an expanded binding surface that encompasses positively charged residues throughout the recognition helix of the helix-turn-helix motif in region 4.2, in contrast to DNA binding that is largely focused on the N-terminal region of this helix. Furthermore, negatively charged residues in region 4.2 weaken binding to 6S RNA but do not similarly affect DNA binding. We propose that the binding sites for promoter DNA and 6S RNA on region 4.2 of sigma(70) are overlapping but distinct, raising interesting possibilities for how core promoter elements contribute to defining promoters that are sensitive to 6S RNA regulation.
Mutations in the Bacillus Subtilis Beta Clamp That Separate Its Roles in DNA Replication from Mismatch Repair
Journal of Bacteriology. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20453097
The beta clamp is an essential replication sliding clamp required for processive DNA synthesis. The beta clamp is also critical for several additional aspects of DNA metabolism, including DNA mismatch repair (MMR). The dnaN5 allele of Bacillus subtilis encodes a mutant form of beta clamp containing the G73R substitution. Cells with the dnaN5 allele are temperature sensitive for growth due to a defect in DNA replication at 49 degrees C, and they show an increase in mutation frequency caused by a partial defect in MMR at permissive temperatures. We selected for intragenic suppressors of dnaN5 that rescued viability at 49 degrees C to determine if the DNA replication defect could be separated from the MMR defect. We isolated three intragenic suppressors of dnaN5 that restored growth at the nonpermissive temperature while maintaining an increase in mutation frequency. All three dnaN alleles encoded the G73R substitution along with one of three novel missense mutations. The missense mutations isolated were S22P, S181G, and E346K. Of these, S181G and E346K are located near the hydrophobic cleft of the beta clamp, a common site occupied by proteins that bind the beta clamp. Using several methods, we show that the increase in mutation frequency resulting from each dnaN allele is linked to a defect in MMR. Moreover, we found that S181G and E346K allowed growth at elevated temperatures and did not have an appreciable effect on mutation frequency when separated from G73R. Thus, we found that specific residue changes in the B. subtilis beta clamp separate the role of the beta clamp in DNA replication from its role in MMR.
Molecular Cell. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20603082
DNA mismatch repair corrects errors that have escaped polymerase proofreading, increasing replication fidelity 100- to 1000-fold in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. The MutL protein plays a central role in mismatch repair by coordinating multiple protein-protein interactions that signal strand removal upon mismatch recognition by MutS. Here we report the crystal structure of the endonuclease domain of Bacillus subtilis MutL. The structure is organized in dimerization and regulatory subdomains connected by a helical lever spanning the conserved endonuclease motif. Additional conserved motifs cluster around the lever and define a Zn(2+)-binding site that is critical for MutL function in vivo. The structure unveils a powerful inhibitory mechanism to prevent undesired nicking of newly replicated DNA and allows us to propose a model describing how the interaction with MutS and the processivity clamp could license the endonuclease activity of MutL. The structure also provides a molecular framework to propose and test additional roles of MutL in mismatch repair.
Molecular Microbiology. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21958350
Mismatch repair (MMR) corrects DNA polymerase errors occurring during genome replication. MMR is critical for genome maintenance, and its loss increases mutation rates several hundred fold. Recent work has shown that the interaction between the mismatch recognition protein MutS and the replication processivity clamp is important for MMR in Bacillus subtilis. To further understand how MMR is coupled to DNA replication, we examined the subcellular localization of MMR and DNA replication proteins fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) in live cells, following an increase in DNA replication errors. We demonstrate that foci of the essential DNA polymerase DnaE-GFP decrease following mismatch incorporation and that loss of DnaE-GFP foci requires MutS. Furthermore, we show that MutS and MutL bind DnaE in vitro, suggesting that DnaE is coupled to repair. We also found that DnaE-GFP foci decrease in vivo following a DNA damage-independent arrest of DNA synthesis showing that loss of DnaE-GFP foci is caused by perturbations to DNA replication. We propose that MutS directly contacts the DNA replication machinery, causing a dynamic change in the organization of DnaE at the replication fork during MMR. Our results establish a striking and intimate connection between MMR and the replicating DNA polymerase complex in vivo.