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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (12)
- Pharmacological Research : the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
- British Journal of Pharmacology
- Biochemical Pharmacology
- Aging Cell
- Acta Astronautica
- The Journal of Endocrinology
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- International Urology and Nephrology
- International Urology and Nephrology
- Autonomic Neuroscience : Basic & Clinical
- Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Articles by Andrew J Ball in JoVE
A Neuronal and Astrocyte Co-Culture Assay for High Content Analysis of Neurotoxicity
Janet L Anderl, Stella Redpath, Andrew J Ball
Bioscience Division, High Content Analysis Research and Development, Millipore Inc
This article describes a novel protocol and reagent set designed for sensitive measurement of neurotoxic effects of compounds and treatments on co-cultures of neurons and astrocytes using high content analysis. Results demonstrate that high content analysis represents an exciting novel technology for neurotoxicity assessment.
Other articles by Andrew J Ball on PubMed
Chronic Exposure to Tolbutamide and Glibenclamide Impairs Insulin Secretion but Not Transcription of K(ATP) Channel Components
Pharmacological Research : the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15082027
Clonal insulin-secreting BRIN-BD11 cells were used to examine effects of chronic 72-144 h exposure to the sulphonylureas tolbutamide and glibenclamide on insulin release, cellular insulin content, and mRNA levels of the Kir6.2 and SUR1 subunits of the beta-cell K(ATP) channel. Chronic exposure for 72-144 h to 5-100 microM tolbutamide and glibenclamide resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent irreversible decline in sulphonylurea-induced insulin secretion. In contrast, the decline in cellular insulin content induced by chronic exposure to high concentrations of sulphonylureas was readily reversible. Chronic exposure to tolbutamide or glibenclamide had no effect upon transcription of the Kir6.2 or SUR1 subunits of the pancreatic beta-cell K(ATP) channel. Whilst further studies are required to understand the precise nature of the chronic interactions of sulphonylurea with the insulin exocytotic mechanism, these observations may partially explain the well-known progressive failure of sulphonylurea therapy in type 2 diabetes.
British Journal of Pharmacology. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15155541
Acute and chronic effects of the insulinotropic drug nateglinide upon insulin release were examined in the BRIN-BD11 cell line. Nateglinide (10-400 microm) stimulated a concentration-dependent increase (P<0.05-P<0.001) in insulin release at a non-stimulatory (1.1 mm) glucose concentration. The insulinotropic response to 200 microm nateglinide was increased at 30 mm (P<0.01), but not 5.6-16.7 mm glucose concentrations. In depolarized cells, nateglinide (50-200 microm) evoked K(ATP) channel-independent insulin secretion (P<0.05-P<0.001) in the absence and presence of 5.6-30.0 mm glucose (P<0.001). Exposure for 18 h to 100 microm nateglinide abolished the acute insulinotropic effects of 200 microm nateglinide, tolbutamide or glibenclamide, but had no effect upon the insulinotropic effect of 200 microm efaroxan. While 18 h exposure to 100 microm nateglinide did not affect basal insulin release or insulin release in the presence of 16.7 mm glucose, 25 microm forskolin or 10 nm PMA, significant inhibition of the insulinotropic effects of 20 mm leucine and 20 mm arginine were observed. These data show that nateglinide stimulates both K(ATP) channel-dependent and-independent insulin secretion. The maintained insulinotropic effects of this drug with increasing glucose concentrations support the antihyperglycaemic actions of nateglinide in Type II diabetes. Studies of the long-term effects of nateglinide indicate that nateglinide shares signalling pathways with sulphonylureas, but not the imidazoline efaroxan. This may be significant when considering a nateglinide treatment regimen, particularly in patients previously treated with sulphonylurea.
Alterations of Insulin Secretion Following Long-term Manipulation of ATP-sensitive Potassium Channels by Diazoxide and Nateglinide
Biochemical Pharmacology. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15588714
Previous studies have shown that prolonged exposure to drugs, which act via blocking KATP channels, can desensitize the insulinotropic effects of drugs and nutrients acting via KATP channels. In this study, effects of prolonged exposure to diazoxide, a KATP channel opener, on beta cell function were examined using clonal BRIN-BD11 cells. The findings were compared to the long-term effects of KATP channel blockers nateglinide and tolbutamide. Following 18 h exposure to 200 microM diazoxide, the amounts of insulin secreted in response to glucose, amino acids and insulinotropic drugs were increased. Secretory responsiveness to a variety of agents acting via KATP channels was retained following prolonged diazoxide exposure. In contrast, 18 h exposure to 100 microM nateglinide significantly attenuated the insulin secretory responses to tolbutamide, nateglinide and BTS 67 582. Glucose- and L-alanine-stimulated insulin release were unaffected by prolonged nateglinide exposure, however responsiveness to L-leucine and L-arginine was diminished. Prolonged exposure to nateglinide had no effect on forskolin- and PMA-stimulated insulin release, and the overall pattern of desensitization was similar to that induced by 100 microM tolbutamide. We conclude that in contrast to chronic long-term KATP channel blockade, long-term diazoxide treatment is not harmful to KATP channel mediated insulin secretion and may have beneficial protective effects on beta cell function.
Aging Cell. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15659210
Fetal cardiomyocytes have been proposed as a potential source of cell-based therapy for heart failure. This study examined cellular senescence in cultured human fetal ventricular cardiomyocytes (HFCs). HFCs were isolated and identified by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. Cells were found to senesce after 20-25 population doublings, as determined by growth arrest, morphological changes and senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity. Using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay, telomerase activity was undetectable in primary HFCs. Cells were transduced to express the human reverse transcriptase subunit (hTERT) of telomerase. This resulted in greatly increased telomerase activity, but no significant lifespan extension. Analysis of telomere length in primary HFCs revealed that the senescent phenotype was not accompanied by telomere shortening. Telomeres in hTERT-positive cells were elongated in comparison with primary cells, and elongation was retained in senescent cells. Levels of the tumor suppressor protein p16INK4A increased in all senescent cells whether telomerase-positive or -negative. Senescence was accompanied by a decline in transcript levels of the polycomb gene Bmi-1, Ets1 and Ets2 transcription factors, and Id1, Id2 and Id3 helix-loop-helix proteins, suggesting roles for these genes in maintenance of cardiomyocyte proliferative capacity. In addition to offering novel insights into the behavior of human fetal cardiomyocytes in culture, these findings have implications for the development of a cell-based therapy for cardiac injury using primary fetal heart tissue.
Acta Astronautica. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15754476
We present a new European Mars mission proposal to build on the UK-led Beagle2 Mars mission and continue its astrobiology-focussed investigation of Mars. The small surface element to be delivered to the Martian surface--Vanguard--is designed to be carried by a Mars Express-type spacecraft bus to Mars and adopts a similar entry, descent and landing system as Beagle2. The surface element comprises a triad of robotic devices--a lander, a micro-rover of the Sojourner class for surface mobility, and three ground-penetrating moles mounted onto the rover for sub-surface penetration to 5 m depth. The major onboard instruments on the rover include a Raman spectrometer/imager, a laser plasma spectrometer, an infrared spectrometer--these laser instruments provide the basis for in situ "remote" sensing of the sub-surface Martian environment within a powerful scientific package. The moles carry the instruments' sensor head array to the sub-surface. The moles are thus required to undergo a one-way trip down the boreholes without the need for recovery of moles or samples, eliminating much of the robotic complexity invoked by such operations.
Nature. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16319828
The surface of Saturn's largest satellite--Titan--is largely obscured by an optically thick atmospheric haze, and so its nature has been the subject of considerable speculation and discussion. The Huygens probe entered Titan's atmosphere on 14 January 2005 and descended to the surface using a parachute system. Here we report measurements made just above and on the surface of Titan by the Huygens Surface Science Package. Acoustic sounding over the last 90 m above the surface reveals a relatively smooth, but not completely flat, surface surrounding the landing site. Penetrometry and accelerometry measurements during the probe impact event reveal that the surface was neither hard (like solid ice) nor very compressible (like a blanket of fluffy aerosol); rather, the Huygens probe landed on a relatively soft solid surface whose properties are analogous to wet clay, lightly packed snow and wet or dry sand. The probe settled gradually by a few millimetres after landing.
Actions of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 on KATP Channel-dependent and -independent Effects of Glucose, Sulphonylureas and Nateglinide
The Journal of Endocrinology. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17003289
This study examined the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on insulin secretion alone and in combination with sulphonylureas or nateglinide, with particular attention to K(ATP) channel-independent insulin secretion. In depolarised cells, GLP-1 significantly augmented glucose-induced K(ATP) channel-independent insulin secretion in a glucose concentration-dependent manner. GLP-1 similarly augmented the K(ATP) channel-independent insulin-releasing effects of tolbutamide, glibenclamide or nateglinide. Downregulation of protein kinase A (PKA)- or protein kinase C (PKC)-signalling pathways in culture revealed that the K(ATP) channel-independent effects of sulphonylureas or nateglinide were critically dependent upon intact PKA and PKC signalling. In contrast, GLP-1 exhibited a reduced but still significant insulin-releasing effect following PKA and PKC downregulation, indicating that GLP-1 can modulate K(ATP) channel-independent insulin secretion by protein kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The synergistic insulin-releasing effects of combinatorial GLP-1 and sulphonylurea/nateglinide were lost following PKA- or PKC-desensitisation, despite GLP-1 retaining an insulin-releasing effect, demonstrating that GLP-1 can induce insulin release under conditions where sulphonylureas and nateglinide are no longer effective. Our results provide new insights into the mechanisms of action of GLP-1, and further highlight the promise of GLP-1 or similarly acting analogues alone or in combination with sulphonylureas or meglitinide drugs in type 2 diabetes therapy.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17300753
To examine the mechanism by which growth-stimulated pancreatic beta-cells dedifferentiate, somatic cell fusions were performed between MIN6, a highly differentiated mouse insulinoma, and betalox5, a cell line derived from human beta-cells which progressively dedifferentiated in culture. MIN6/betalox5 somatic cells hybrids underwent silencing of insulin expression and a marked decline in PDX1, NeuroD, and MafA, indicating that betalox5 expresses a dominant transacting factor(s) that represses beta-cell differentiation. Expression of Hes1, which inhibits endocrine differentiation was higher in hybrid cells than in parental MIN6 cells. Hes6, a repressor of Hes1, was highly expressed in primary beta-cells as well as MIN6, but was repressed in hybrids. Hes6 overexpression using a retroviral vector led to a decrease in Hes1 levels, an increase in beta-cell transcription factors and partial restoration of insulin expression. We conclude that the balance of Notch activators and inhibitors may play an important role in maintaining the beta-cell differentiated state.
International Urology and Nephrology. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17415676
Condom Perforation During Transrectal Ultrasound Guided (TRUS) Prostate Biopsies: a Potential Infection Risk
International Urology and Nephrology. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17659448
Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsies are amongst the most common outpatient diagnostic procedures performed in urology practice. Of concern appear to be recent reports of infectious complications following this procedure in which contamination of the biopsy equipment was the likely source. This study looks at the rate of condom perforation during prostate biopsy and we look to highlight the potential problems, which may arise as a result of inadequate cleansing of the equipment between cases during a busy prostate biopsy clinic
Functional Effects and Characteristics of Cecum-projecting Neurons in the Dorsal Motor Nucleus of the Vagus of Rats
Autonomic Neuroscience : Basic & Clinical. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 16950660
Preganglionic neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) innervate most of the gastrointestinal tract; with the stomach and the cecum/proximal colon having a greater proportion of vagal input. Cecum-projecting neurons have been thought to be distinct from other preganglionic neurons due to their location within the DMV, but it is unknown whether these neurons innervate the cecum exclusively or what effect their activation has on cecal motor activity. Therefore, we investigated the extent of coinnervation of cecum and stomach by vagal neurons, their neurochemistry, and the effect of DMV stimulation on intracecal and intragastric volumes. Fluorescent retrograde tracers injected into the serosa of the cecum and stomach revealed that in the DMV 49+/-5% CTB-labeled cecum-projecting neurons also innervated the stomach. Immunocytochemical staining for nitric oxide (NO) synthase and tyrosine hydroxylase indicated that only 3+/-1% and 4+/-1% of cecum-projecting neurons contained these markers, respectively. In anesthetized rats gastric and cecal volumes were measured by prototypic miniaturized dual barostats that were developed for use in rodents. Microinjection of l-glutamate into the DMV increased gastric contractile activity and tone, and reduced on-going cecum contractile activity (2.6+/-0.7 contractions/2 min after injection versus 8.2+/-0.4 contractions/2 min before injection, N = 5). The barostat was able to detect decreases (-0.88+/-0.13 ml) and increases (0.25+/-0.05 ml) in cecum volume in response to carbachol and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. In summary, cecum-projecting neurons are not an entirely exclusive population within the DMV because a percentage of these also innervate the stomach. Central vagal stimulation can modulate both gastric and cecum contractile activity. Together, these data support a role of the vagus in neural reflexes involving gastric and large bowel motor function, such as the immediate phase of the gastrocolonic reflex.
Nonproteasomal Targets of the Proteasome Inhibitors Bortezomib and Carfilzomib: a Link to Clinical Adverse Events
Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21364033
Bortezomib (Velcade), a dipeptide boronate 20S proteasome inhibitor and an approved treatment option for multiple myeloma, is associated with a treatment-emergent, painful peripheral neuropathy (PN) in more than 30% of patients. Carfilzomib, a tetrapeptide epoxyketone proteasome inhibitor, currently in clinical investigation in myeloma, is associated with low rates of PN. We sought to determine whether PN represents a target-mediated adverse drug reaction (ADR).