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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (16)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Journal of Cellular Physiology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- Molecular Cell
- Molecular and Cellular Biology
- PLoS Pathogens
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- Cell Host & Microbe
- Journal of Virology
- PLoS Pathogens
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Articles by Angus C. Wilson in JoVE
Um sistema de cultura primária Neuron para o Estudo da Herpes Simplex Virus latência e reativação
Mariko Kobayashi1, Ju-Youn Kim1, Vladimir Camarena2, Pamela C. Roehm3, Moses V. Chao2,4,5,6,7, Angus C. Wilson1, Ian Mohr1
1Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, 2Molecular Neurobiology Program, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 3Department of Otolaryngology, New York University School of Medicine, 4Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, 5Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, 6Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 7Center for Neural Science, New York University School of Medicine
O protocolo descreve um sistema de modelo eficiente e reprodutível para estudar vírus herpes simplex tipo 1 (HSV-1) a latência e reactivação. O ensaio emprega homogéneos culturas de neurónios simpáticos e permite a dissecção molecular do vírus de neurónios-interacções usando uma variedade de ferramentas, incluindo a interferência de RNA e de expressão de proteínas recombinantes.
Other articles by Angus C. Wilson on PubMed
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Nov, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12235138
HCF-1 is a cellular protein required by VP16 to activate the herpes simplex virus (HSV) immediate-early genes. VP16 is a component of the viral tegument and, after release into the cell, binds to HCF-1 and translocates to the nucleus to form a complex with the POU domain protein Oct-1 and a VP16-responsive DNA sequence. This VP16-induced complex boosts transcription of the viral immediate-early genes and initiates lytic replication. In uninfected cells, HCF-1 functions as a coactivator for the cellular transcription factors LZIP and GABP and also plays an essential role in cell proliferation. VP16 and LZIP share a tetrapeptide HCF-binding motif recognized by the beta-propeller domain of HCF-1. Here we describe a new cellular HCF-1 beta-propeller domain binding protein, termed HPIP, which contains a functional HCF-binding motif and a leucine-rich nuclear export sequence. We show that HPIP shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm in a CRM1-dependent manner and that overexpression of HPIP leads to accumulation of HCF-1 in the cytoplasm. These data suggest that HPIP regulates HCF-1 activity by modulating its subcellular localization. Furthermore, HPIP-mediated export may provide the pool of cytoplasmic HCF-1 required for import of virion-derived VP16 into the nucleus.
An Activation Domain in the C-terminal Subunit of HCF-1 is Important for Transactivation by VP16 and LZIP
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Oct, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12271126
In herpes simplex virus, lytic replication is initiated by the viral transactivator VP16 acting with cellular cofactors Oct-1 and HCF-1. Although this activator complex has been studied in detail, the role of HCF-1 remains elusive. Here, we show that HCF-1 contains an activation domain (HCF-1(AD)) required for maximal transactivation by VP16 and its cellular counterpart LZIP. Expression of the VP16 cofactor p300 augments HCF-1(AD) activity, suggesting a mechanism of synergy. Infection of cells lacking the HCF-1(AD) leads to reduced viral immediate-early gene expression and lowered viral titers. These findings underscore the importance of HCF-1 to herpes simplex virus replication and VP16 transactivation.
Molecular Cloning of Drosophila HCF Reveals Proteolytic Processing and Self-association of the Encoded Protein
Journal of Cellular Physiology. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12494450
HCF-1 functions as a coactivator for herpes simplex virus VP16 and a number of mammalian transcription factors. Mature HCF-1 is composed of two subunits generated by proteolytic cleavage of a larger precursor at six centrally-located HCF(PRO) repeats. The resulting N- and C-terminal subunits remain tightly associated via two complementary pairs of self-association domains: termed SAS1N-SAS1C and SAS2N-SAS2C. Additional HCF proteins have been identified in mammals (HCF-2) and Caenorhabditis elegans (CeHCF). Both contain well-conserved SAS1 domains but do not undergo proteolytic processing. Thus, the significance of the cleavage and self-association of HCF-1 remains enigmatic. Here, we describe the isolation of the Drosophila HCF homologue (dHCF) using a genetic screen based on conservation of the SAS1 interaction. The N-terminal beta-propeller domain of dHCF supports VP16-induced complex formation and is more similar to mammalian HCF-1 than other homologues. We show that full-length dHCF expressed in Drosophila cells undergoes proteolytic cleavage giving rise to tightly associated N- and C-terminal subunits. As with HCF-1, the SAS1N and SAS1C elements of dHCF are separated by a large central region, however, this sequence lacks obvious homology to the HCF(PRO) repeats required for HCF-1 cleavage. The conservation of HCF processing in insect cells argues that formation of separate N- and C-terminal subunits is important for HCF function.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14532282
HCF-1 is a transcriptional cofactor required for activation of herpes simplex virus immediate-early genes by VP16 as well as less clearly defined roles in cell proliferation, cytokinesis, and spliceosome formation. It is expressed as a large precursor that undergoes proteolysis to yield two subunits that remain stably associated. VP16 uses a degenerate 4-amino acid sequence, known as the HCF-binding motif, to bind to a six-bladed beta-propeller domain at the N terminus of HCF-1. Functional HCF-binding motifs are also found in LZIP and Zhangfei, two cellular bZIP transcription factors of unknown function. Here we show that the HCF-binding motif occurs in a wide spectrum of DNA-binding proteins and transcriptional cofactors. Three well characterized examples were further analyzed for their ability to use HCF-1 as a coactivator. Krox20, a zinc finger transcription factor required for Schwann cell differentiation, and E2F4, a cell cycle regulator, showed a strong requirement for functional HCF-1 to activate transcription. In contrast, activation by estrogen receptor-alpha did not display HCF dependence. In Krox20, the HCF-binding motif lies within the N-terminal activation domain and mutation of this sequence diminishes both transactivation and association with the HCF-1 beta-propeller. The activation domain in the C-terminal subunit of HCF-1 contributes to activation by Krox20, possibly through recruitment of p300. These results suggest that HCF-1 is recruited by many different classes of cellular transcription factors and is therefore likely to be required for a variety of cellular processes including cell cycle progression and development.
Transcriptional Activation by the Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus Latency-associated Nuclear Antigen is Facilitated by an N-terminal Chromatin-binding Motif
Journal of Virology. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15331740
In immunocompromised patients, infection with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) can give rise to Kaposi's sarcoma and several lymphoproliferative disorders. In these tumors, KSHV establishes a latent infection in many of the rapidly proliferating and morphologically abnormal cells. Only a few viral gene products are expressed by the latent virus, and one of the best characterized is the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), a nuclear protein required for the maintenance of viral episomal DNA in the dividing host cell. LANA can also activate or repress an assortment of cellular and viral promoters and may contribute to pathogenesis by allowing the proliferation and survival of host cells. Here we show that activation of the human E2F1 and cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) promoters requires elements from both the N- and C-terminal regions of LANA. Deletion of the first 22 amino acids, which are necessary for episome tethering, does not affect nuclear localization but significantly reduces transactivation. Within the deleted peptide, we have identified a short sequence, termed the chromatin-binding motif (CBM), that binds tightly to interphase and mitotic chromatin. A second chromatin-binding activity resides in the C terminus but is not sufficient for optimal transactivation. Alanine substitutions within the CBM reveal a close correlation between the transactivation and chromatin binding activities, implying a mechanistic link. In contrast to promoter activation, we find that the 223 amino acids of the LANA C terminus are sufficient to inhibit p53-mediated activation of the human BAX promoter, indicating that the CBM is not required for all transcription-related functions.
Activation of the Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus Major Latency Locus by the Lytic Switch Protein RTA (ORF50)
Journal of Virology. Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15956592
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) maintains a latent infection in primary effusion lymphoma cells but can be induced to enter full lytic replication by exposure to a variety of chemical inducing agents or by expression of the KSHV-encoded replication and transcription activator (RTA) protein. During latency, only a few viral genes are expressed, and these include the three genes of the so-called latency transcript (LT) cluster: v-FLIP (open reading frame 71 [ORF71]), v-cyclin (ORF72), and latency-associated nuclear antigen (ORF73). During latency, all three open reading frames are transcribed from a common promoter as part of a multicistronic mRNA. Subsequent alternative mRNA splicing and internal ribosome entry allows for the expression of each protein. Here, we show that transcription of LT cassette mRNA can be induced by RTA through the activation of a second promoter (LT(i)) immediately downstream of the constitutively active promoter (LT(c)). We identified a minimal cis-regulatory region, which overlaps with the promoter for the bicistronic K14/v-GPCR delayed early gene that is transcribed in the opposite direction. In addition to a TATA box at -30 relative to the LT(i) mRNA start sites, we identified three separate RTA response elements that are also utilized by the K14/v-GPCR promoter. Interestingly, LT(i) is unresponsive to sodium butyrate, a potent inducer of lytic replication. This suggests there is a previously unrecognized class of RTA-responsive promoters that respond to direct, but not indirect, induction of RTA. These studies highlight the fact that induction method can influence the precise program of viral gene expression during early events in reactivation and also suggest a mechanism by which RTA contributes to establishment of latency during de novo infections.
Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus Latency-associated Nuclear Antigen Induces a Strong Bend on Binding to Terminal Repeat DNA
Journal of Virology. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16227305
During latency, the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus genome is maintained as a circular episome, replicating in synchrony with host chromosomes. Replication requires the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) and an origin of latent DNA replication located in the viral terminal repeats, consisting of two LANA binding sites (LBSs) and a GC-rich sequence. Here, we show that the recruitment of a LANA dimer to high-affinity site LBS-1 bends DNA by 57 degrees and towards the major groove. The cooccupancy of LBS-1 and lower-affinity LBS-2 induces a symmetrical bend of 110 degrees . By changing the origin architecture, LANA may help to assemble a specific nucleoprotein structure important for the initiation of DNA replication.
Transcripts Encoding K12, V-FLIP, V-cyclin, and the MicroRNA Cluster of Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus Originate from a Common Promoter
Journal of Virology. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16254382
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of three malignancies associated with AIDS and immunosuppression. Tumor cells harbor latent virus and express kaposin (open reading frame [ORF] K12), v-FLIP (ORF 71), v-Cyclin (ORF 72), and latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA; ORF 73). ORFs 71 to 73 are transcribed as multicistronic RNAs initiating from adjacent constitutive and inducible promoters upstream of ORF 73. Here we characterize a third promoter embedded within the ORF 71-to-73 transcription unit specifying transcripts that encode ORF 71/72 or K12. These transcripts may also be the source of 11 microRNAs arranged as a cluster between K12 and ORF 71. Our studies reveal a complex arrangement of interlaced transcription units, incorporating four important protein-encoding genes required for latency and pathogenesis and the entire KSHV microRNA repertoire.
Molecular Cell. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17643366
In a recent issue of Molecular Cell, Tyagi et al. (2007) show that E2F1, a positive regulator of S phase entry, recruits cofactor HCF-1 and associated hSet1/MLL histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferase complex, facilitating the activation of genes required for proliferation.
Association of C-terminal Ubiquitin Hydrolase BRCA1-associated Protein 1 with Cell Cycle Regulator Host Cell Factor 1
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19188440
Protein ubiquitination provides an efficient and reversible mechanism to regulate cell cycle progression and checkpoint control. Numerous regulatory proteins direct the addition of ubiquitin to lysine residues on target proteins, and these are countered by an army of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). BRCA1-associated protein-1 (Bap1) is a ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase and is frequently mutated in lung and sporadic breast tumors. Bap1 can suppress growth of lung cancer cells in athymic nude mice and this requires its DUB activity. We show here that Bap1 interacts with host cell factor 1 (HCF-1), a transcriptional cofactor found in a number of important regulatory complexes. Bap1 binds to the HCF-1 beta-propeller using a variant of the HCF-binding motif found in herpes simplex virus VP16 and other HCF-interacting proteins. HCF-1 is K48 and K63 ubiquitinated, with a major site of linkage at lysines 1807 and 1808 in the HCF-1(C) subunit. Expression of a catalytically inactive version of Bap1 results in the selective accumulation of K48 ubiquitinated polypeptides. Depletion of Bap1 using small interfering RNA results in a modest accumulation of HCF-1(C), suggesting that Bap1 helps to control cell proliferation by regulating HCF-1 protein levels and by associating with genes involved in the G(1)-S transition.
PLoS Pathogens. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19300492
In response to numerous signals, latent herpesvirus genomes abruptly switch their developmental program, aborting stable host-cell colonization in favor of productive viral replication that ultimately destroys the cell. To achieve a rapid gene expression transition, newly minted capped, polyadenylated viral mRNAs must engage and reprogram the cellular translational apparatus. While transcriptional responses of viral genomes undergoing lytic reactivation have been amply documented, roles for cellular translational control pathways in enabling the latent-lytic switch have not been described. Using PEL-derived B-cells naturally infected with KSHV as a model, we define efficient reactivation conditions and demonstrate that reactivation substantially changes the protein synthesis profile. New polypeptide synthesis correlates with 4E-BP1 translational repressor inactivation, nuclear PABP accumulation, eIF4F assembly, and phosphorylation of the cap-binding protein eIF4E by Mnk1. Significantly, inhibiting Mnk1 reduces accumulation of the critical viral transactivator RTA through a post-transcriptional mechanism, limiting downstream lytic protein production, and impairs reactivation efficiency. Thus, herpesvirus reactivation from latency activates the host cap-dependent translation machinery, illustrating the importance of translational regulation in implementing new developmental instructions that drastically alter cell fate.
Wide-scale Use of Notch Signaling Factor CSL/RBP-Jkappa in RTA-mediated Activation of Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus Lytic Genes
Journal of Virology. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19906914
For Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; also called human herpesvirus 8 [HHV8]), the switch from latency to active lytic replication requires RTA, the product of open reading frame 50 (ORF50). RTA activates transcription from nearly 40 early and delayed-early viral promoters, mainly through interactions with cellular DNA binding proteins, such as CSL/RBP-Jkappa, Oct-1, C/EBPalpha, and c-Jun. Reliance on cellular coregulators may allow KSHV to adjust its lytic program to suit different cellular contexts or interpret signals from the outside. CSL is a key component of the Notch signaling pathway and is targeted by several viruses. A search with known CSL binding sequences from cellular genes found at least 260 matches in the KSHV genome, many from regions containing known or suspected lytic promoters. Analysis of clustered sites located immediately upstream of ORF70 (thymidylate synthase), ORF19 (tegument protein), and ORF47 (glycoprotein L) uncovered RTA-responsive promoters that were validated using mRNAs isolated from KSHV-infected cells undergoing lytic reactivation. Notably, ORF19 behaves as a true late gene, indicating that RTA regulates all three phases of the lytic program. For each new promoter, the response to RTA was dependent on CSL, and 5 of the 10 candidate sites were shown to bind CSL in vitro. Analysis of individual sites highlighted the importance of a cytosine residue flanking the core CSL binding sequence. These findings broaden the role for CSL in coordinating the KSHV lytic gene expression program and help to define a signature motif for functional CSL sites within the viral genome.
The Latency-associated Nuclear Antigen Interacts with MeCP2 and Nucleosomes Through Separate Domains
Journal of Virology. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20032179
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-infected cells express the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) involved in the regulation of host and viral gene expression and maintenance of the KSHV latent episome. Performance of these diverse functions involves a 7-amino-acid chromatin-binding motif (CBM) situated at the amino terminus of LANA that is capable of binding directly to nucleosomes. LANA interacts with additional chromatin components, including methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Here, we show that the carboxy-terminal DNA-binding/dimerization domain of LANA provides the principal interaction with MeCP2 but that this association is modulated by the CBM. Both domains are required for LANA to colocalize with MeCP2 at chromocenters, regions of extensive pericentric heterochromatin that can be imaged by fluorescence microscopy. Within MeCP2, the methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) is the primary determinant for chromatin localization and acts together with the adjacent repression domains (the transcription repression domain [TRD] and the corepressor-interacting domain [CRID]) to redirect LANA to chromocenters. MeCP2 facilitates repression by LANA bound to the KSHV terminal repeats, a function that requires the MeCP2 C terminus in addition to the MBD and CRID/TRD. LANA and MeCP2 can also cooperate to stimulate transcription of the human E2F1 promoter, which lacks a LANA DNA-binding sequence, but this function requires both the N and C termini of LANA. The ability of LANA to establish multivalent interactions with histones and chromatin-binding proteins such as MeCP2 would enable LANA to direct regulatory complexes to specific chromosomal sites and thereby achieve stable reprogramming of cellular gene expression in latently infected cells.
Nature and Duration of Growth Factor Signaling Through Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Regulates HSV-1 Latency in Neurons
Cell Host & Microbe. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20951966
Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) establishes life-long latency in peripheral neurons where productive replication is suppressed. While periodic reactivation results in virus production, the molecular basis of neuronal latency remains incompletely understood. Using a primary neuronal culture system of HSV-1 latency and reactivation, we show that continuous signaling through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) pathway triggered by nerve growth factor (NGF)-binding to the TrkA receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is instrumental in maintaining latent HSV-1. The PI3-K p110α catalytic subunit, but not the β or δ isoforms, is specifically required to activate 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and sustain latency. Disrupting this pathway leads to virus reactivation. EGF and GDNF, two other growth factors capable of activating PI3-K and PDK1 but that differ from NGF in their ability to persistently activate Akt, do not fully support HSV-1 latency. Thus, the nature of RTK signaling is a critical host parameter that regulates the HSV-1 latent-lytic switch.
Cooperation Between Viral Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 and RTA to Activate a Subset of Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus Lytic Promoters
Journal of Virology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22090118
The four Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded interferon (IFN) regulatory factor homologues (vIRF1 to vIRF4) are used to counter innate immune defenses and suppress p53. The vIRF genes are arranged in tandem but differ in function and expression. In KSHV-infected effusion lymphoma lines, K10.5/vIRF3 and K11/vIRF2 mRNAs are readily detected during latency, whereas K9/vIRF1 and K10/vIRF4 mRNAs are upregulated during reactivation. Here we show that the K10/vIRF4 promoter responds to the lytic switch protein RTA in KSHV-infected cells but is essentially unresponsive in uninfected cells. Coexpression of RTA with vIRF4 is sufficient to restore regulation, a property not shared by other vIRFs. The K9/vIRF1 promoter behaves similarly, and production of infectious virus is enhanced by the presence of vIRF4. Synergy requires the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and C-terminal IRF homology regions of vIRF4. Mutations of arginine residues within the putative DNA recognition helix of vIRF4 or the invariant cysteines of the adjacent CxxC motif abolish cooperation with RTA, in the latter case by preventing self-association. The oligomerization and transactivation functions of RTA are also essential for synergy. The K10/vIRF4 promoter contains two transcription start sites (TSSs), and a 105-bp fragment containing the proximal promoter is responsive to vIRF4/RTA. Binding of a cellular factor(s) to this fragment is altered when both viral proteins are present, suggesting a possible mechanism for transcriptional synergy. Reliance on coregulators encoded by either the host or viral genome provides an elegant strategy for expanding the regulatory potential of a master regulator, such as RTA.
Transient Reversal of Episome Silencing Precedes VP16-Dependent Transcription During Reactivation of Latent HSV-1 in Neurons
PLoS Pathogens. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22383875
Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) establishes latency in peripheral neurons, creating a permanent source of recurrent infections. The latent genome is assembled into chromatin and lytic cycle genes are silenced. Processes that orchestrate reentry into productive replication (reactivation) remain poorly understood. We have used latently infected cultures of primary superior cervical ganglion (SCG) sympathetic neurons to profile viral gene expression following a defined reactivation stimulus. Lytic genes are transcribed in two distinct phases, differing in their reliance on protein synthesis, viral DNA replication and the essential initiator protein VP16. The first phase does not require viral proteins and has the appearance of a transient, widespread de-repression of the previously silent lytic genes. This allows synthesis of viral regulatory proteins including VP16, which accumulate in the cytoplasm of the host neuron. During the second phase, VP16 and its cellular cofactor HCF-1, which is also predominantly cytoplasmic, concentrate in the nucleus where they assemble an activator complex on viral promoters. The transactivation function supplied by VP16 promotes increased viral lytic gene transcription leading to the onset of genome amplification and the production of infectious viral particles. Thus regulated localization of de novo synthesized VP16 is likely to be a critical determinant of HSV-1 reactivation in sympathetic neurons.