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- Функциональный блок двигателя в культуре блюдо: Co-культуре эксплантов спинного мозга и мышечных клеток
Other Publications (9)
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Articles by Anne-Sophie Arnold in JoVE
Функциональный блок двигателя в культуре блюдо: Co-культуре эксплантов спинного мозга и мышечных клеток
Anne-Sophie Arnold, Martine Christe, Christoph Handschin
Biozentrum, University of Basel
Искусственный клеток являются недостаточными модель повторять иннервируемых мышц
Other articles by Anne-Sophie Arnold on PubMed
Plasmid. Mar, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11982329
We describe here the construction of plasmid pEGFP-C3/SMN, bearing the human SMN gene coupled to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) sequence. The mutation of the SMN gene is responsible for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a frequent human infantile genetic disease. We introduced the SMN cDNA into the multiple cloning site of pEGFP-C3. This plasmid bears the neomycin-resistance sequence and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). It results in the expression of a fusion protein bearing SMN coupled to a carboxy-terminal GFP tag, used for fluorescence localization studies. Transfection of primary human myoblasts with pEGFP-C3 or pEGFP-C3/SMN revealed that EGFP is intracellularly localized within the cytosol as well as in the nucleus, while the fusion protein EGFP-SMN localized within the nucleus in prominent dot-like structures termed "gems." These data demonstrate that human primary muscle cells can be efficiently transfected and may have important implications for the development of therapeutic strategies in SMA.
Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15322565
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by degeneration of motoneurons and skeletal muscle atrophy. In its most severe form, it leads to death before the age of 2 years. While primary degeneration of motor neurons is well established in this disease, and this results in neurogenic atrophy of skeletal muscle, we have previously reported evidence for a primary muscle defect. In this study, we used primary cultures of embryonic human skeletal muscle cells from patients with SMA and from controls to examine the effects of muscle fiber differentiation in the absence of a nerve component. Cultured SMA skeletal muscle cells are unable to fuse correctly to form multinuclear myotubes, the precursors of the myofibers. We also show that agrin-induced aggregates of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, one of the earliest steps of neuromuscular junction formation, cannot be visualized by confocal microscopy on cells from SMA patients. In binding experiments, we demonstrate that this lack of clustering is due to defective expression of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the myotubes of SMA patients whereas the affinity of alpha-bungarotoxin for its receptor remains unchanged regardless of muscle cell type (SMA or control). These observations suggest that muscle cells from SMA patients have intrinsic abnormalities that may affect proper formation of the neuromuscular junction.
Efficient Delivery of SiRNA into Cytokine-stimulated Insulinoma Cells Silences Fas Expression and Inhibits Fas-mediated Apoptosis
FEBS Letters. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16412430
Fas/FasL interactions have been proposed as a potentially important mechanism mediating beta-cell death in type 1 diabetes. Recent investigations suggest RNA interference, afforded by small interfering RNAs (siRNA), can provide specific and robust gene silencing in mammalian cells. The current study attempted to investigate the effects of silencing Fas expression with siRNA on Fas-mediated apoptosis in mouse insulinoma cells following cytokine incubation. Our results indicate that siRNA is capable of rapid inhibition of cytokine-induced Fas mRNA production and cell surface Fas protein. A complete suppression of the total Fas protein was only observed after prolonged incubation with siRNA, suggesting a slow turn-over of Fas protein. Moreover, siRNA significantly inhibited Fas-mediated beta-cell apoptosis assessed by Caspase-3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling assays, the extent of which positively correlated with the level of cell surface Fas. These observations provide additional evidence supporting a role for the Fas-mediated pathway in beta-cell destruction, and suggest that siRNA targeting Fas may be of therapeutic value in preventing type 1 diabetes and improving islet cell viability in transplantation.
Comparing Reagents for Efficient Transfection of Human Primary Myoblasts: FuGENE 6, Effectene and ExGen 500
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16448398
This study compared three different synthetic reagents (FuGENE 6, Effectene and ExGen 500) for the transfection of human primary myoblasts. We examined the efficiency, cytotoxicity and size of the complexes formed in the presence of different amounts of vector and DNA and with variable amounts of serum. Transfection rates were relatively high for primary cells, especially with FuGENE 6 (20%), which appeared to be the best transfection reagent for these cells, even in the presence of 10% serum. Cultured human myoblasts are an interesting tool for studying neuromuscular diseases and are potentially useful for myoblast transfer therapy studies. Moreover, the efficiency of these transfection reagents in a medium containing 10% serum is promising for possible gene therapy protocols for muscle diseases.
Specific Beta1-adrenergic Receptor Silencing with Small Interfering RNA Lowers High Blood Pressure and Improves Cardiac Function in Myocardial Ischemia
Journal of Hypertension. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17143192
Beta-blockers are widely used and effective for treating hypertension, acute myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure, but they present side-effects mainly due to antagonism of beta2-adrenergic receptor (AR). Currently available beta-blockers are at best selective but not specific for beta1 or beta2-AR.
[PGC-1alpha Controls Neuromuscular Junction and Offers a Novel Therapeutic Target in Duchenne Dystrophy?]
Médecine Sciences : M/S. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18021725
Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18697221
Flectin, a protein previously described to be expressed in a left-dominant manner in the embryonic chick heart during looping, is a member of the nonmuscle myosin II (NMHC-II) protein class. During looping, both NMHC-IIA and NMHC-IIB are expressed in the mouse heart on embryonic day 9.5. The patterns of localization of NMHC-IIB, rather than NMHC-IIA in the mouse looping heart and in neural crest cells, are equivalent to what we reported previously for flectin. Expression of full-length human NMHC-IIA and -IIB in 10 T1/2 cells demonstrated that flectin antibody recognizes both isoforms. Electron microscopy revealed that flectin antibody localizes in short cardiomyocyte cell processes extending from the basal layer of the cardiomyocytes into the cardiac jelly. Flectin antibody also recognizes stress fibrils in the cardiac jelly in the mouse and chick heart; while NMHC-IIB antibody does not. Abnormally looping hearts of the Nodal(Delta 600) homozygous mouse embryos show decreased NMHC-IIB expression on both the mRNA and protein levels. These results document the characterization of flectin and extend the importance of NMHC-II and the cytoskeletal actomyosin complex to the mammalian heart and cardiac looping.
Electric Pulse Stimulation of Cultured Murine Muscle Cells Reproduces Gene Expression Changes of Trained Mouse Muscle
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20532042
Adequate levels of physical activity are at the center of a healthy lifestyle. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate the beneficial effects of exercise remain enigmatic. This gap in knowledge is caused by the lack of an amenable experimental model system. Therefore, we optimized electric pulse stimulation of muscle cells to closely recapitulate the plastic changes in gene expression observed in a trained skeletal muscle. The exact experimental conditions were established using the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) as a marker for an endurance-trained muscle fiber. We subsequently compared the changes in the relative expression of metabolic and myofibrillar genes in the muscle cell system with those observed in mouse muscle in vivo following either an acute or repeated bouts of treadmill exercise. Importantly, in electrically stimulated C2C12 mouse muscle cells, the qualitative transcriptional adaptations were almost identical to those in trained muscle, but differ from the acute effects of exercise on muscle gene expression. In addition, significant alterations in the expression of myofibrillar proteins indicate that this stimulation could be used to modulate the fiber-type of muscle cells in culture. Our data thus describe an experimental cell culture model for the study of at least some of the transcriptional aspects of skeletal muscle adaptation to physical activity. This system will be useful for the study of the molecular mechanisms that regulate exercise adaptation in muscle.
Gerontology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20134150
Aging is associated with far-reaching changes in physiological functions resulting in morbidity and ultimately death. Age-related frailty, insecurity and reduced physical activity contribute to a progressive loss of muscle mass and function, commonly referred to as sarcopenia. Due to the increase in life expectancy in many countries, loss of muscle mass and its consequences gain in relevance for public health. At the same time, the molecular mechanisms that underlie sarcopenia are poorly understood and therefore, therapeutic approaches are limited. Interestingly though, endurance, strength and stretching exercise is significantly superior to all known pharmacological, nutritional and hormonal interventions for stabilizing, alleviating and reversing sarcopenia. Thus, increased knowledge about the plastic changes of skeletal muscle after physical activity and the signaling factors that mediate the beneficial effects of exercise on other organs might yield a better understanding of the disease and open new avenues for treatment. Here, we discuss how current discoveries about the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a key exercise factor in muscle, and myokines, factors produced and secreted by active muscle fibers, expand our view of the pathological changes and the therapeutic options for sarcopenia.