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In JoVE (2)
- Cultivation of Human Neural Progenitor Cells in a 3-dimensional Self-assembling Peptide Hydrogel
- Gene Transfer into Older Chicken Embryos by ex ovo Electroporation
Other Publications (79)
- Human Mutation
- Annals of Neurology
- Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
- Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
- Annals of Neurology
- Journal of Neuroscience Research
- Journal of Neuroscience Research
- Journal of Neuroimmunology
- The European Journal of Neuroscience
- Experimental Cell Research
- Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
- Journal of Neurophysiology
- Human Molecular Genetics
- Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
- Journal of Neuroscience Research
- Neuro-degenerative Diseases
- Neuro-degenerative Diseases
- Neuro-degenerative Diseases
- Journal of Autoimmunity
- Brain Research
- The European Journal of Neuroscience
- Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
- Proteomics. Clinical Applications
- European Journal of Human Genetics : EJHG
- Swiss Medical Weekly
- Annals of Neurology
- Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
- Journal of Neurophysiology
- Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis : Official Publication of the World Federation of Neurology Research Group on Motor Neuron Diseases
- The European Journal of Neuroscience
- Neuroscience Research
- The International Journal of Neuroscience
- Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology = Albrecht Von Graefes Archiv Für Klinische Und Experimentelle Ophthalmologie
- Cells, Tissues, Organs
- Journal of Neurology
- Liver International : Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
- Journal of Neuroimmunology
- Cerebellum (London, England)
- Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
- Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
- Human Mutation
- Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
- Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- Biomedical Engineering Online
- Brain & Development
- BMC Cell Biology
- Cerebrovascular Diseases (Basel, Switzerland)
- Cerebrovascular Diseases (Basel, Switzerland)
- BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
- PloS One
- European Journal of Paediatric Neurology : EJPN : Official Journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society
- Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
- Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
- Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis : Official Publication of the World Federation of Neurology Research Group on Motor Neuron Diseases
- Development, Growth & Differentiation
- Development, Growth & Differentiation
- Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
- Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
- Stem Cells and Development
- Brain Structure & Function
- Metabolic Brain Disease
- Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
- PloS One
- Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
- Neuroscience Letters
- The International Journal of Developmental Biology
- Brain Research
- Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
- Journal of Molecular Histology
- Acta Paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992)
Articles by Arndt Rolfs in JoVE
Cultivation of Human Neural Progenitor Cells in a 3-dimensional Self-assembling Peptide Hydrogel
Andrea Liedmann, Arndt Rolfs, Moritz J. Frech
Albrecht-Kossel-Institute for Neuroregeneration, University of Rostock
Here we describe the use of a self-assembling 3-dimensional scaffold to culture human neural progenitor cells. We present a protocol to release the cells from the scaffolds to be analysed subsequently e.g. by flow cytometry. This protocol might be adapted to other cell types to perform detailed mechanistically studies.
Gene Transfer into Older Chicken Embryos by ex ovo Electroporation
Jiankai Luo1, Xin Yan1, Juntang Lin2, Arndt Rolfs1
1Albrecht-Kossel-Institute for Neuroregeneration, School of Medicine University of Rostock, 2Institute of Anatomy I, School of Medicine University of Jena
A method of gene transfer into chicken embryos at later incubation stages (older than Hamburger and Hamilton stage (HH) 22) is described. This method overcomes disadvantages of in ovo electroporation applied to older chicken embryos and is a useful technique to study gene function and regulation at older developmental stages.
Other articles by Arndt Rolfs on PubMed
Human Mutation. Jan, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11754101
Niemann-Pick type C disease (NP-C) is a rare, autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder. At least 96% of all NP-C patients link to NPC1 which encodes for a lysosomally-targeted protein. We describe the complete genomic sequence of 57,052 kb corresponding to the transcribed region of human NPC1 including several exonic and intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Sequencing of all exons, splice sites, and the promoter region of NPC1 in 12 unrelated Caucasian NP-C patients revealed nine novel and four known most likely disease-causing mutations. Ten unique mutations found only once in 24 disease alleles were observed in patients being compound heterozygous for two different mutations. Two of the three missense mutations identified more than once were observed in a total of four patients homozygous for the respective mutation along with homozygosity for the underlying haplotype. The patients were offspring of most likely nonconsanguineous couples. Based upon genotyping exonic SNPs c.2572A>G (I858V; g.45020A>G) and c.2793C>T (N931N; g.45686C>T) and segregation analysis we characterized the haplotype of all 24 NPC1 alleles and of 138 alleles of healthy Caucasian control subjects. All four permutations between the two SNPs were identified in the control alleles: 2572A-2793C (50%), 2572G-2793T (41%), 2572G-2793C (5%), and 2572A-2793T (4%). These data are suggestive for an ancestral intragenic recombination within a genomic fragment of <666 bp. While 17 of 24 NP-C alleles (71%) shared haplotype 2572G-2793T, this haplotype accounted for only 41% in the controls (p=0.007; 2-sided Fisher exact test) suggesting the possibility of an influence of the haplotypic background on expression of missense mutations in NPC1.
Trinucleotide Repeat Expansions in the Junctophilin-3 Gene Are Not Found in Caucasian Patients with a Huntington's Disease-like Phenotype
Annals of Neurology. May, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12112122
Residual Galactosylsphingosine (psychosine) Beta-galactosidase Activities and Associated GALC Mutations in Late and Very Late Onset Krabbe Disease
Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry. Mar, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11814461
Krabbe disease (globoid-cell leukodystrophy; GLD) is caused by mutations in the GALC gene. Beta-galactocerebrosidase (GALC) is a specific beta-galactosidase which is defective in GLD. About 90% of GLD patients have an infantile course by fatal cerebral demyelination, but 10% have a later onset (LOGLD) of symptoms and survive for one or several decades.
Disorganization of the Desmin Cytoskeleton and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Plectin-related Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex with Muscular Dystrophy
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology. Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12071635
Mutations of the human plectin gene (Plec1) cause autosomal recessive epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD). Here, we report on molecular mechanisms leading to severe dystrophic muscle alterations in EBS-MD. Analysis of a 25-yr-old EBS-MD patient carrying a novel homozygous 16-bp insertion mutation (13803ins16/13803ins16) close to the intermediate filament (IF) binding site of plectin showed severe disorganization of the myogenic IF cytoskeleton. Intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal accumulations of assembled but highly unordered desmin filaments may be attributed to impaired desmin binding capability of the mutant plectin. This IF pathology was also associated with severe mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting that the muscle pathology of EBS-MD caused by IF disorganization leads not only to defects in mechanical force transduction but also to metabolic dysfunction. Beyond EBS-MD, our data may contribute to the understanding of other myopathies characterized by sarcoplasmic IF accumulations such as desminopathies or alpha-B-crystallinopathies.
Annals of Neurology. Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12953269
Autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a group of neurodegenerative disorders clinically characterized by late-onset ataxia and variable other manifestations. Genetically and clinically, SCA is highly heterogeneous. Recently, CAG repeat expansions in the gene encoding TATA-binding protein (TBP) have been found in a new form of SCA, which has been designated SCA17. To estimate the frequency of SCA17 among white SCA patients and to define the phenotypic variability, we determined the frequency of SCA17 in a large sample of 1,318 SCA patients. In total, 15 patients in four autosomal dominant SCA families had CAG/CAA repeat expansions in the TBP gene ranging from 45 to 54 repeats. The clinical features of our SCA17 patients differ from other SCA types by manifesting with psychiatric abnormalities and dementia. The neuropathology of SCA17 can be classified as a "pure cerebellar" or "cerebello-olivary" form of ataxia. However, intranuclear neuronal inclusion bodies with immunoreactivity to anti-TBP and antipolyglutamine were much more widely distributed throughout the brain gray matter than in other SCAs. Based on clinical and genetic data, we conclude that SCA17 is rare among white SCA patients. SCA17 should be considered in sporadic and familial cases of ataxia with accompanying psychiatric symptoms and dementia.
Lymphocyte Subpopulations, Oxidative Burst and Apoptosis in Peripheral Blood Cells of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis-effect of Interferon-beta
Autoimmunity. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14567559
At present, the most efficient therapeutical treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) is achieved by IFN-beta. However, its in vivo effects remain incompletely understood. If applied parenterally, the hydrophobic IFN-beta acts primarily on blood cells with probable selectivity for functionally different lymphocyte subpopulations, monocytes and granulocytes. We have investigated the expression of the activation marker interleukin-2 receptor-alpha (CD25) on CD3+ T cells, CD19+ B cells, foetal-type gamma(delta)+CD3+ T cells and foetal-type CD5+CD19+ B cells of the peripheral blood. In addition, the oxidative burst activity and apoptosis have been determined in mononuclear and polymorphonuclear blood cells, respectively. The study accompanied a phase III trial with IFN-beta1b (BETAFERON, Schering). Two groups of MS patients with relapsing-remitting course of the disease have been investigated at 8 time points (days 0, 5, 15, 31, 60, 90, 180 and 270 after starting therapy): (1) verum group (n = 8) with application of 8 Mill. units IFN-beta1 b every other day, and (2) placebo group (n = 4) with application of placebo for 3 months and therapy as in (1) from day 90 onward. The main results were: (1) Activated T cells decreased until day 180 in the verum group and return thereafter to pre-treatment values, whereas in the placebo group the values remained relatively stable over the whole observation period. (2) Activated B cells increased between days 90 and 270 in both groups, i.e. after verum application in both groups. (3) Foetal-type B cells were more activated than total B and T cells with increase over time in both groups. (4) Foetal-type T cells exerted relatively stable intra-individual levels with generally low CD25 expression, but punctual CD25 peaks in both groups. (5) The spontaneous oxidative burst was higher in lymphocytes, more variable in monocytes and faster increasing in granulocytes in the verum group than in the placebo group. (6) Apoptosis of mononuclear cells and granulocytes showed similar variations in the verum and placebo groups with the exception of a selective increase over time of the proportion of granulocytes undergoing induced apoptosis in the verum group. It is concluded that IFN-beta has the following main effects on the immune system of MS patients: (1) the T cell immunity is systemically and reversibly suppressed, (2) the foetal-type lymphocytes, which are responsible for the first line of defence of infections, are stimulated in the long range, (3) the oxidative burst activity is increased in lymphocytes and granulocytes and instable in monocytes, and (4) the inducibility of apoptosis in granulocytes is increased. Re-examination of the altered blood cell parameters after long-term IFN-beta therapy is warranted.
Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Overexpression in Neural Progenitor Cells (ST14A) Increases Proliferation, Metabolic Activity, and Resistance to Stress During Differentiation
Journal of Neuroscience Research. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12503085
Neurotrophic factors exert considerable neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects in neurodegenerative diseases. Because neuronal progenitor cells have, at least in part, the potency to restore degenerated neuronal networks, transgenic high-dosage expression of neurotrophins by these cells in neurotransplantation may be advantageous. In the present study, a retroviral vector containing the gene of rat ciliary neurotrophic factor (rCNTF) was permanently transfected into a striatal neuronal progenitor cell line. Qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrated a sustained expression of the transgene; i.e., rCNTF was present at the mRNA level and protein level. Moreover, cocultivation in separate chambers of transgenic CNTF-ST14A cells and CNTF-dependent TF1 cells exerted typical biological effects, such as increased proliferation and differentiation of the TF1 cells, indicating the functional integrity of the secreted recombinant neurotrophin. The CNTF-ST14A cells displayed improved stress response compared with native ST14A cells under differentiation conditions, i.e., at the nonpermissive temperature of 39 degrees C and after staurosporine exposure, respectively. This effect coincided with a relatively reduced apoptosis rate and a raised metabolic activity of CNTF-ST14A cells at 39 degrees C. Neurotransplantation of CNTF-ST14A cells in the rat quinolinic acid model of Huntington's disease showed a significant and sustained decline in pathological apomorphine-induced rotations compared with parental ST14A cells. We conclude that sustained functional transgene CNTF production improves stress response as well as metabolic activity, making CNTF-ST14A cells a promising tool for neurotransplantation in the quinolinic acid model of Huntington's disease.
Gene Expression Profiling of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor-overexpressing Rat Striatal Progenitor Cells (ST14A) Indicates Improved Stress Response During the Early Stage of Differentiation
Journal of Neuroscience Research. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12815707
Neuronal progenitor cells delivering neurotrophic factors are a promising therapeutic tool for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Although several promising results have come from studies in different animal models, detailed knowledge of the action of neurotrophic factors in the CNS is still lacking. A clonally derived, immortalized rat striatal cell line (ST14A) expressing ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) offers a stable and controlled background with which to analyze CNTF actions on the transcriptional level in CNS progenitor cells. To identify early transcriptional changes induced by CNTF expression, we transfected the CNTF gene into ST14A cells, which differentiate at the nonpermissive temperature of 39 degrees C via suppression of the immortalizing SV40 large T antigen. This shows a CNTF-dependent hypoxic/ischemic stress response during the earliest stage of differentiation, with expression of specific transcripts and evidence of translational repression leading to decreased protein synthesis in the transfected cells. This process is mediated by the Ras/MAP kinase pathway and is accompanied by impaired proliferation and metabolism as well as signs of neuronal differentiation. The stress-like response in the early stage of differentiation improves the ability of the transfected cells to respond to and cope with a stressful environment in vivo. The present data indicate higher viability, longer life, and greater differentiation capacity of CNTF-ST14A cells if they are used for transplantation. We conclude that the stress-like response during the early stage of differentiation improves the ability of the CNTF-ST14A cells to respond and adapt to a stressful environment, which renders them useful candidate cells for in vivo trials of treatment for neurodegenerative diseases in animal models, e.g., of Huntington's disease.
Gene-expression Profiling of the Early Stages of MOG-induced EAE Proves EAE-resistance As an Active Process
Journal of Neuroimmunology. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15145614
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a well-established animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS) in rodents. It reflects the wide spectrum of disease pathology and serves as a valuable tool for studying the pathogenesis and for testing new therapies of MS. In order to identify genes responsible for resistance to and modulation of the disease, we compared the mRNA expression profile of more than 12,000 genes by DNA microarray technique in lymph nodes of the highly EAE-susceptible mouse strain C57Bl/6 (B6) and the resistant strain C57Bl/10.S (B10). The disease onset in B6 mice was day 15. We identified 84 genes that were up-regulated more than two-fold in B10 mice compared to vehicle-treated controls, whereas only two genes were up-regulated in B6 mice after 7 and 15 days post-immunization (p.i.), respectively. We were able to match five up-regulated genes in B10 mice to known quantitative trait loci (QTLs), which control for EAE susceptibility. Only 17, respectively 5, genes were down-regulated at both time points in B10 and B6 mice. Tests for immunoreactivity to MOG (T cell proliferation and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion) revealed no stronger immune response in B6 compared to B10 mice supporting the hypothesis of an immunosuppressive effect as a target to prevent EAE in the B10 mice. We conclude that resistance to EAE (and possibly to MS) is an active process mediated by multiple genes up-regulated in peripheral lymphatic organs of resistant animals. Thus, monitoring of the expression of these new candidate genes may serve as a tool for the disease progression and the pharmaceutical treatment.
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15182313
Neuronal subthreshold excitability and firing behaviour are markedly influenced by the activation and deactivation of the somato-dendritic hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih). Here, we evaluated possible contributions of Ih to hyperexcitability in an animal model of absence seizures (WAG/Rij rats). We investigated pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory neocortex, the site of generation of spike-wave discharges. Ih-mediated functions in neurons from WAG/Rij rats, Wistar rats (sharing the same genetic background with WAG/Rij, but less epilepsy-prone) and ACI rats (an inbred strain, virtually free of seizures) were compared. We complemented whole-cell recordings from layer 2-3 pyramidal neurons with immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR analysis of the h-channel subunits HCN1-4. The fast component of Ih activation in WAG/Rij neurons was significantly reduced (50% reduction in the h-current density) and four times slower than in neurons from nonepileptic Wistar or ACI rats. The results showing decreases in currents corresponded to a 34% reduction in HCN1 protein in the WAG/Rij compared to the Wistar neocortex, but HCN1 mRNA showed stable expression. The other three Ih subunit mRNAs and proteins (HCN2-4) were not affected. The alterations in Ih magnitude and kinetics of gating in WAG/Rij neurons may contribute to augmented excitatory postsynaptic potentials, the increase in their temporal summation and the facilitation of burst firing of these neurons because each of these effects could be mimicked by the selective Ih antagonist ZD 7288. We suggest that the deficit in Ih-mediated functions may contribute to the development and onset of spontaneously occurring hyperexcitability in a rat model of absence seizures.
Overexpression of Glial Cell Line-derived Neurotrophic Factor Induces Genes Regulating Migration and Differentiation of Neuronal Progenitor Cells
Experimental Cell Research. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15212950
The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is involved in the development and maintenance of neural tissues. Mutations in components of its signaling pathway lead to severe migration deficits of neuronal crest stem cells, tumor formation, or ablation of the urinary system. In animal models of Parkinson's disease, GDNF has been recognized to be neuroprotective and to improve motor function when delivered into the cerebral ventricles or into the substantia nigra. Here, we characterize the network of 43 genes induced by GDNF overproduction of neuronal progenitor cells (ST14A), which mainly regulate migration and differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells. GDNF down-regulates doublecortin, Paf-ah1b (Lis1), dynamin, and alpha-tubulin, which are involved in neocortical lamination and cytoskeletal reorganization. Axonal guidance depends on cell-surface molecules and extracellular matrix proteins. Laminin, Mpl3, Alcam, Bin1, Id1, Id2, Id3, neuregulin1, the ephrinB2-receptor, neuritin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Tc10, Pdpk1, clusterin, GTP-cyclooxygenase1, and follistatin are genes up-regulated by GDNF overexpression. Moreover, we found four key enzymes of the cholesterol-synthesis pathway to be down-regulated leading to decreased farnesyl-pyrophospate production. Many proteins are anchored by farnesyl-derivates at the cell membrane. The identification of these GDNF-regulated genes may open new opportunities for directly influencing differentiation and developmental processes of neurons.
Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15309358
Transplantation of cells derived from embryonic stem cells is currently under investigation as a promising strategy to restore functional deficits in neurodegenerative diseases, e.g. Parkinson's disease. To generate cells suitable for transplantation, a neuronal progenitor cell line (ST14A) was derived from embryonic day 14 rat striatum by stable retroviral transfection of the temperature-sensitive SV40 large T antigen and genetically modified by transfection with constructs of the neurotrophic factors ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) [CNTF-ST14A] and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) [GDNF-ST14A], respectively. In order to investigate the capacity of these cells to regulate neuronal growth and physiological differentiation, e.g. remodeling of axons and synaptogenesis, we analyzed the expression of molecules which control the cell fate during embryonic development. For the first time, we found endogenous Wnt-5a, a regulator molecule that can induce dopaminergic phenotype, by RT-PCR, Western blot and flow cytometry in the neuronal progenitor cell line ST14A and its derivatives CNTF-ST14A and GDNF-ST14A. The protein was transiently upregulated at the differentiation-inducing non-permissive temperature of 39 degrees C and it was also secreted into the culture medium. Our findings are based on in vitro investigation of artificially immortalized cell lines. However, they raise the possibility that neuronal progenitor cells that might be used to treat neurodegenerative diseases express Wnt-5a, thus promoting their potential for dopaminergic differentiation.
Neuromodulation by a Cytokine: Interferon-beta Differentially Augments Neocortical Neuronal Activity and Excitability
Journal of Neurophysiology. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15385586
The immunomodulatory cytokine interferon-beta (IFN-beta) is used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. However, the effect of IFN-beta on neuronal functions is currently unknown. Intracellular recordings were conducted on somatosensory neurons of neocortical layers 2/3 and 5 exposed to IFN-beta. The excitability of neurons was increased by IFN-beta (10-10,000 U/ml) in two kinetically distinct, putatively independent manners. First IFN-beta reversibly influenced the subthreshold membrane response by raising the membrane resistance R(M) 2.5-fold and the membrane time constant tau 1.7-fold dose-dependently. The effect required permanent exposure to IFN-beta and was reduced in magnitude if the extracellular K+ was lowered. However, the membrane response to IFN-beta in the subthreshold range was prevented by ZD7288 (a specific blocker of I(h)) but not by Ni2+, carbachol, or bicuculline, pointing to a dependence on an intact I(h). Second, IFN-beta enhanced the rate of action potential firing. This effect was observed to develop for >1 h when the cell was exposed to IFN-beta for 5 min or >5 min and showed no reversibility (< or =210 min). Current-discharge (F-I) curves revealed a shift (prevented by bicuculline) as well as an increase in slope (prevented by carbachol and Ni2+). Layer specificity was not observed with any of the described effects. In conclusion, IFN-beta influences the neuronal excitability in neocortical pyramidal neurons in vitro, especially under conditions of slightly increased extracellular K+. Our blocker experiments indicate that changes in various ionic conductances with different voltage dependencies cause different IFN-beta influences on sub- and suprathreshold behavior, suggesting a more general intracellular process induced by IFN-beta.
Neuroimmunomodulation. 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15756052
Apart from a central function in the extrapyramidal motor system, dopamine has been suggested to play a role in neuroimmune interactions. Particularly in diseases of the central nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis, alterations in dopamine homeostasis might have immunological consequences. We investigated potential effects of dopamine stabilized by ascorbic acid on specifically activated encephalitogenic T cells at the peak of activation. Those cells exhibited an upregulation of voltage-sensitive K+ channels which play a role in many neurotransmitter responses of lymphocytes and fulfilled a prerequisite to respond to dopamine, i.e. stable expression of mRNA for dopamine receptors DRD1, DRD2 and DRD3. However, whole-cell and perforated whole-cell recordings revealed no change in voltage-sensitive K+ currents. Moreover, T cell proliferation was not changed in the presence of dopamine. Previously reported dopamine effects on T cells may be explained by a comparatively lower activation of the cells under investigation, suggesting an activation dependence of dopamine effects that may not be mediated by K+ channels. Alternatively, the occurrence of dopamine degradation products under unprotected conditions may account for the changes reported. Nevertheless, care should be taken when using the dopamine-protecting anti-oxidant ascorbic acid, since we found that it markedly inhibited both K+ currents and lymphocyte proliferation at higher concentrations.
Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Cortical Motor Evoked Potentials in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: Correlation with Incidence, Onset and Severity of Disease
Human Molecular Genetics. Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15917267
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a polygenic chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the nervous system, commonly used as an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Previous studies have identified multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling different aspects of disease pathogenesis. However, direct genetic control of cortical motor evoked potentials (cMEPs) as a straightforward measure of extent of demyelination or synaptic block has not been investigated earlier. Here, we examined the genetic control of different traits of EAE in a F2 intercross population generated from the EAE susceptible SJL/J (SJL) and the EAE resistant C57BL/10.S (B10.S) mouse strains involving 400 animals. The genotypes of 150 microsatellite markers were determined in each animal and correlated to phenotypic data of onset and severity of disease, cell infiltration and cMEPs. Nine QTLs were identified. Three sex-linked QTLs mapped to chromosomes 2, 10 and 18 linked to disease severity in females, whereas QTLs on chromosomes 1, 8 and 15 linked to the latency of the cMEPs. QTLs affecting T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte and microglia infiltration mapped on chromosomes 8 and 15. The cMEP-associated QTLs correlated with incidence, onset or severity of disease, e.g. QTL on chromosome 8, 32-48 cM (EAE 31) (LOD 6.9, P<0.001), associated to cMEP latencies in non-immunized mice and correlated with disease onset and EAE 32 on chromosome 15 linked to cMEP latencies 15 days post-immunization and correlated with disease severity. Additionally, applying tissue microarray technology, we identified QTLs associated to microglia and lymphocytes infiltration on chromosomes 8 and 15, which are different from the QTLs controlling cMEP latencies. There were no alterations in the morphological appearance of the myelin sheaths. Our findings suggest a possible role of myelin composition and/or synaptic transmission in susceptibility to EAE.
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15973040
Designing microarray experiments, scientists are often confronted with the question of pooling due to financial constraints, but discussion of the validity of pooling tends toward a sub-pooling recommendation. Since complete pooling protocols can be considered part of sub-pooling designs, gene expression data from three complete pooling experiments were analyzed. Data from complete pooled versus individual mRNA samples of rat brain tissue were compared to answer the question whether the pooled sample represents individual samples in small-sized experiments. Our analytic approach provided clear results concerning the Affymetrix MAS 5.0 signal and detection call parameters. Despite a strong similarity of arrays within experimental groups, the individual signals were evidently not appropriately represented in the pooled sample, with slightly more than half of all the genes considered. Our analysis reveals problems in cases of small complete pooling designs with less than six subjects pooled.
Journal of Neuroscience Research. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16175581
Hyperpolarization-activated cAMP-gated cation currents (I(h)) were recently linked to pre- and postnatal developmental processes in several brain regions, including the ventral telencephalon. To evaluate the role of I(h) in striatal development, we used short-term cultured cells from the lateral ganglionic eminence at embryonic day 14 (E14) and postnatal days 1-3 (P1-3) as well as the embryonic striatal progenitor cell line ST14A. Western blot analysis of the I(h) underlying subunit proteins HCN1-4 revealed strong HCN2 expression in proliferating ST14A cells and weak expression in postmitotic ST14A cells and in cells from the developing brain. We also found HCN3 expression only in ST14A cells at both proliferative and nonproliferative stages but not in short-term cultured striatal cells. In all cases, HCN1 and HCN4 transcripts were below the detection level. Despite the selective protein expression, RT-PCR analysis showed stable expression of HCN2-4 but not HCN1 mRNA in all short-term-cultured striatal cells and in the ST14A cell line. Consistent with the strong protein expression, an I(h) was recorded with features of an HCN2-mediated current in ST14A cells at the proliferative stage and in short-term-cultured E14 cells. Of particular importance is that we detected no currents upon hyperpolarization in the ST14A cells at the nonproliferative stage when only HCN3 protein was present. These results suggest the potential importance of ST14A cells in defining the molecular mechanisms regulating I(h) expression and function.
Lancet. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16298216
Strokes are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in young adults. However, in most cases the cause of the stroke remains unclear. Anderson-Fabry disease is an X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disease resulting from deficient alpha-galactosidase and causes an endothelial vasculopathy followed by cerebral ischaemia. To determine the importance of Fabry disease in young people with stroke, we measured the frequency of unrecognised Fabry disease in a cohort of acute stroke patients.
2-DE Proteome Analysis of a Proliferating and Differentiating Human Neuronal Stem Cell Line (ReNcell VM)
Proteomics. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16475233
The proteome of a proliferating human stem cell line was analyzed and then utilized to detect stem cell differentiation-associated changes in the protein profile. The analysis was conducted with a stable human fetal midbrain stem cell line (ReNcell VM) that displays the properties of a neural stem cell. Therefore, acquisition of proteomic data should be representative of cultured human neural stem cells (hNSCs) in general. Here we present a 2-DE protein-map of this cell line with annotations of 402 spots representing 318 unique proteins identified by MS. The subsequent proteome profiling of differentiating cells of this stem cell line at days 0, 4 and 7 of differentiation revealed changes in the expression of 49 identified spots that could be annotated to 45 distinct proteins. This differentiation-associated expression pattern was validated by Western blot analysis for transgelin-2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, as well as peroxiredoxin 1 and 4. The group of regulated proteins also included NudC, ubiquilin-1, STRAP, stress-70 protein, creatine kinase B, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin. Our results reflect the large rearrangement of the proteome during the differentiation process of the stem cells to terminally differentiated neurons and offer the possibility for further characterization of specific targets driving the stem cell differentiation.
Neuro-degenerative Diseases. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16909033
Vast electrophysiological activity near resting potential, including rhythmic oscillatory activity, is a hallmark of many brain regions and a motor of the developing CNS. This activity is mediated and influenced by diverse receptor-operated and voltage-gated ion channels. In turn, these channels are modulated during the course of development by altering their density, distribution and properties. The hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated cation current, Ih, impacts on the resting membrane potential and is involved in the generation and modulation of neuronal oscillatory activity. Therefore, it is conceivable that Ih is well suited to govern the specific processes involved in activity-dependent neuronal development. Here, we review the evidence that maturation of Ih accounts, at least in part, for the control of membrane properties during neuronal development of various parts of the brain. The temporal and regional variations in Ih development might underlie the normal maturation of neuronal circuits and, consequently, the perturbations of this might account for some of the neuropathology of the brain. This review summarizes the evidence for the stage and localization dependence of Ih in CNS development with a focus on arborized cells with high dendritic Ih. Further, it outlines hypotheses on the contribution of Ih to neuronal and network maturation.
Neuro-degenerative Diseases. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16909041
Self-renewal, migration and differentiation of neural progenitor cells are controlled by a variety of pleiotropic signal molecules. Members of the morphogen family of Wnt molecules play a crucial role for developmental and repair mechanisms in the embryonic and adult nervous system. A strategy of disclosure of the role of different canonical (glycogen synthase kinase-3beta/beta-catenin-dependent) and noncanonical (Ca2+- and JNK-dependent) signal pathways for progenitor cell expansion and differentiations is illustrated at the example of the rat striatal progenitor cell line ST14A that is immortalized by stable retroviral transfection with a temperature-sensitive mutant of the SV40 large T antigen. A shift from permissive 33 degrees C to nonpermissive 39 degrees C leads to proliferation stop and start of differentiation into glial and neuronal cells. Investigation of expression of Wnts, Wnt receptors and Wnt-dependent signal pathway assay point to a stage-dependent involvement of canonical and noncanonical signaling in proliferation and differentiation of ST14A cells, whereby a mutual suppression of pathway activities is likely. Canonical Wnt molecules are not detected in proliferating and differentiating ST14A cells except Wnt2. The noncanonical Wnt molecules Wnt4, Wnt5a and Wnt11 are expressed in proliferating cells and increase during differentiation, whereas cellular beta-catenin decreases in the early phase and is restored in the late phase of differentiation. Accumulation of beta-catenin at the membrane in undifferentiated proliferating cells and its nuclear localization in nondividing undifferentiated cells under differentiation conditions argues for a distinct spatially regulated role of the molecule in the proliferation and early differentiation phase. Ca2+-dependent and JNK-dependent noncanonical Wnt signaling is not detected during differentiation of ST14A cells. Complete exploration of the role of Wnt pathways, for differentiation of the neural progenitor cells ST14A will require Wnt overexpression and exposure of ST14A cells to exogenous Wnts either with purified Wnts or by co-cultures with Wnt producers.
Neuro-degenerative Diseases. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16909046
Proteomics has become a powerful tool in neuroscience studies. Although numerous human neural stem cells are available for research purposes since many years, there exists only limited information on proteomic data from stable neural stem cell lines. Profiling and functional proteome studies of neuronal stem cells will help to describe the protein inventory as well as protein activity and interactions, subcellular localization and posttranslational modifications. The proteomic analysis of neuronal differentiation processes will elucidate the complex events leading to the generation of different phenotypes via distinctive developmental programs that control self-renewal, differentiation, and plasticity. Using the ReNcell VM197 model, a cell line derived from human fetal ventral mesencephalon stem cells, we studied the protein inventory of the stem cells by 2-DE gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric protein identification and constructed a 2-DE protein map consisting of more than 400 identified protein spots. This proteome reference database constitutes the basis for further investigations of differential protein expression during differentiation. A profiling of the neuronal differentiation-associated changes displayed the large rearrangement of the proteome during this process, and the proteomic techniques proved to be a valuable tool for the elucidation of neuronal differentiation process and for target protein screening.
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase Inhibitor Atorvastatin Mediated Effects Depend on the Activation Status of Target Cells in PLP-EAE
Journal of Autoimmunity. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17085013
The effect of Atorvastatin on transcriptional activity in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by PLP peptide 139-151 was analyzed by DNA microarray technique in lymph nodes and spinal cord at onset (10 days), height (20 days) and first remission (30 days) of disease. Fourteen genes were selectively influenced by Atorvastatin in EAE mice. They are mainly related to immune cell functions and regulation of cell-to-cell interaction. Interestingly, seven genes were also differentially regulated in CFA-injected control mice. But qualitative and quantitative differences to EAE mice argue for a dependency of statin effects on the activation status of target cells. Differential regulation of the newly detected candidate genes of statin effects COX-1 and HSP-105 and the previously known statin-responsive genes ICAM-1 and CD86 was confirmed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Flow cytometric analysis of lymph node cells revealed that the effect of Atorvastatin treatment in non-immunized healthy animals resembled the effect of immunization with PLP peptide regarding changes of T helper cells, activated B cells and macrophages. In EAE mice, these effects were partially reversed by Atorvastatin treatment. Monitoring of expression of the newly identified candidate genes and patterns of lymphocyte subpopulations might predict the responsiveness of multiple sclerosis patients to statin treatment.
2-DE Profiling of GDNF Overexpression-related Proteome Changes in Differentiating ST14A Rat Progenitor Cells
Proteomics. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17146836
Targeted differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is a challenge for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by cell replacement therapy and cell signalling manipulation. Here, we applied a proteome profiling approach to the rat striatal progenitor model cell line ST14A in order to elucidate cellular differentiation processes. Native cells and cells transfected with the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene were investigated at the proliferative state and at seven time points up to 72 h after induction of differentiation. 2-DE combined with MALDI-MS was used to create a reference 2-DE-map of 652 spots of which 164 were identified and assigned to 155 unique proteins. For identification of protein expression changes during cell differentiation, spot patterns of triplicate gels were matched to the 2-DE-map. Besides proteins that display expression changes in native cells, we also noted 43 protein-spots that were differentially regulated by GDNF overexpression in more than four time points of the experiment. The expression patterns of putative differentiation markers such as annexin 5 (ANXA5), glucosidase II beta subunit (GLU2B), phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1 (PEBP1), myosin regulatory light chain 2-A (MLRA), NASCENT polypeptide-associated complex alpha (NACA), elongation factor 2 (EF2), peroxiredoxin-1 (PRDX1) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were verified by Western blotting. The results reflect the large rearrangements of the proteome during the differentiation process of NPCs and their strong modification by neurotrophic factors like GDNF.
Efferent Connections of the Parabigeminal Nucleus to the Amygdala and the Superior Colliculus in the Rat: a Double-labeling Fluorescent Retrograde Tracing Study
Brain Research. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17196559
The parabigeminal nucleus (Pbg) is a subcortical visual center that besides reciprocal connections with the superior colliculus (SC), also projects to the amygdala (Am). The Pbg-Am connection is part of a multineuronal pathway that conveys extrageniculostriate inputs of the retina to the Am, and it rapidly responds to the sources of threat before conscious detection. The present study demonstrates that Pbg projects bilaterally to Am and SC. The ipsilateral projections arise from separate cell populations, whilst the contralaterally projecting Pbg neurons emit branching axons that simultaneously innervate Am and SC.
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17241285
High-frequency stimulation (HFS) of subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a therapy for late-stage Parkinson's disease. Its mechanisms of action are not yet fully understood. In the present study, gene expression analyses were performed in a rat model of Parkinson's disease, i.e. striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion. Using microarrays, gene expression was analysed in 1-mm-thick sagittal brain slices, including basal ganglia of five groups of male Wistar rats. These were unmanipulated rats (group A), unlesioned rats with implanted electrode but without stimulation (group B), unlesioned, stimulated rats (group C), 6-OHDA-lesioned rats with implanted electrode but without stimulation (group D), and finally 6-OHDA-lesioned and stimulated rats (group E). A statistically significant downregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression induced by 6-OHDA lesion and an HFS-induced TH upregulation in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats could be detected. It could be hypothesized that the HFS-induced upregulation of TH is the result of neuronal STN modulation and mediated via projections from STN to substantia nigra pars compacta. Furthermore, a downregulation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IIA and Homer1 was observed. This downregulation could result in a reduced sensitivity towards glutamate in basal ganglia downstream of STN.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17560820
Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder, characterised by accumulation of glycosphingolipids in visceral organs. Although considered non-neuronopathic neurological involvement has been reported in single cases. The aim of our study was to investigate central and peripheral nervous system involvement in patients with GD1. We investigated nine unrelated patients with GD1 by three-dimensional cerebral 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging and clinical and neurophysiological tests. We found an increased choline level on MRS in four patients. One of these patients had mixed axonal neuropathy and subclinical involvement of the central somatosensory tract as well as monoclonal gammopathy. One patient with normal cerebral choline levels had evidence of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome upon neurophysiological exam. The N370S mutation was found in 11 out of 18 alleles. Three patients were compound heterozygous for the L444P mutation. There was no correlation between increased cerebral choline levels and type of mutations. MRS findings suggest that in patients with classical non-neuronopathic GD1, the brain is involved at a subclinical level in some patients.
Proteomics. Clinical Applications. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 21136647
The term "proteome" is used to describe the entire complement of proteins in a given organism or in a system at a given time. Proteome analysis in neuroscience, also called "neuroproteomics" or "neuromics" is in its initial stage, and shows a deficit of studies in the context of brain development. It is the main objective of this review to illustrate the potential of neuroproteomics as a tool to unravel the differentiation of neural stem or progenitor cells to terminally differentiated neurons. Experimental results regarding the rat striatal progenitor model cell line ST14A are presented to illustrate the large rearrangements of the proteome during the differentiation process of neural progenitor cells and their modification by neurotrophic factors like the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Thereby native stem cells and cells transfected with GDNF gene were investigated at the proliferative state and at seven time points up to 72 h after induction of differentiation. In addition, the immortalized human fetal midbrain stem cell line ReNcell VM was analyzed in order to detect stem cell differentiation associated changes of the protein profile. This review gives also an outlook on technical improvements and perspectives of application of neural stem cell proteomics.
Repeat Expansion in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 17 Alleles of the TATA-box Binding Protein Gene: an Evolutionary Approach
European Journal of Human Genetics : EJHG. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17033685
The variability and mutational changes of the CAG microsatellite in the TATA-box binding protein gene (TBP) were studied. We sequenced the microsatellite of the TBP gene of 25 unrelated individuals from northern Germany (10 SCA17 patients and 15 unaffected control individuals). In addition, the microsatellites were sequenced from individuals of 10 northern German families with at least one family member affected by SCA17. To study also the evolutionary history of this CAG/CAA microsatellite in nonhuman primates, the homologous regions were analysed from Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, P. abellii, Hylobates lar, Nomascus leucogenys, Symphalangus syndactylus, Macaca mulatta, Papio hamadryas, Colobus polykomos and Callithrix jacchus. Three major conclusions were drawn: (i) Patterns of synonymous CAA interruptions in the microsatellite are characteristic and likely to result from selection for stabilizing the repetitive region; (ii) Interspecific comparisons indicate that SCA17 is likely to be a human trait. The most common allele in humans (37 repeats) is close to the threshold value upon which neurodegenerative changes can occur and may act as a repository for expanded, pathogenic alleles; (iii) The cassette-like structure of five out of 17 expanded alleles can be attributed to unequal crossing over. This can explain the rare and sporadic de novo generation of SCA17 alleles.
Annals of Neurology. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18067136
Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) comprise a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders resulting in progressive spasticity of the lower limbs. One form of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia (ARHSP) with thin corpus callosum (TCC) was linked to chromosomal region 15q13-21 (SPG11) and associated with mutations in the spatacsin gene. We assessed the long-term course and the mutational spectrum of spatacsin-associated ARHSP with TCC.
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18327323
Improved palladium catalysts for the Suzuki coupling of 3-bromo-1-methyl-4-(2-methyl-3-indolyl)maleimide have been developed. The coupling of both aryl- and heteroarylboronic acids proceeds smoothly in good to excellent yields at low catalyst loading.
Increasing Extracellular Potassium Results in Subthalamic Neuron Activity Resembling That Seen in a 6-hydroxydopamine Lesion
Journal of Neurophysiology. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18385482
Abnormal neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although altered extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o) and sensitivity to [K+]o modulates neuronal activity, little is known about the potassium balance in the healthy and diseased STN. In vivo measurements of [K+]o using ion-selective electrodes demonstrated a twofold increase in the decay time constant of lesion-induced [K+]o transients in the STN of adult Wistar rats with a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) median forebrain bundle lesion, employed as a model of PD, compared with nonlesioned rats. Various [K+]o concentrations (1.5-12.5 mM) were applied to in vitro slice preparations of three experimental groups of STN slices from nonlesioned control rats, ipsilateral hemispheres, and contralateral hemispheres of lesioned rats. The majority of STN neurons of nonlesioned rats and in slices contralateral to the lesion fired spontaneously, predominantly in a regular pattern, whereas those in slices ipsilateral to the lesion fired more irregularly or even in bursts. Experimentally increased [K+]o led to an increase in the number of spontaneously firing neurons and action potential firing rates in all groups. This was accompanied by a decrease in the amplitude of post spike afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and the amplitude and duration of the posttrain AHP. Lesion effects in ipsilateral neurons at physiological [K+]o resembled the effects of elevated [K+]o in nonlesioned rats. Our data suggest that changed potassium sensitivity due to conductivity alterations and delayed clearance may be critical for shaping STN activity in parkinsonian states.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis : Official Publication of the World Federation of Neurology Research Group on Motor Neuron Diseases. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18608088
The authors present a 50-year-old patient with adult-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that was rapidly progressing. Screening of the spastin gene revealed a heterozygous missense change S44L. We excluded the involvement of the ALS-linked gene for copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1). This unusual phenotype shows that allelic variants of spastin may predispose bearers to a greater spectrum of motor neuron disorders including ALS.
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18783365
This study investigates the impact of intrinsic currents on early neural development. A rat striatal ST14A cell line immortalized by SV40 large T antigen was employed as a model system because these cells act as multipotent neural progenitors when maintained at a permissive temperature of 33 degrees C. The whole-cell patch-clamp, molecular and immunocytochemical experiments point to a unique role of sodium currents in the multipotential stage of neural development. In initial experiments, action potential-like responses were only present when multipotential ST14A cells were substantially hyperpolarized. This led us to presume that sodium channels were only recruited during deep hyperpolarization. Subsequent voltage-clamp studies confirmed a remarkably hyperpolarized steady-state inactivation of the sodium currents and also showed that the underlying channels were tetrodotoxin resistant. Direct comparison with cells whose neuronal fate was already determined, i.e. short-term cultured striatal cells isolated at embryonic day 14 and after birth (post-natal day 0), showed that both traits are unique to ST14A cells. However, sodium currents in all three groups had a fast time- and voltage-dependent activation, as well as full inactivation with roughly similar kinetics. The peculiarity in ST14A might be explained by a relative excess of heart-type Na(V)1.5 and particularly its splice variant Na(V)1.5a, as suggested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results. We conclude that multipotent neural progenitor cells express Na(+) channels in their membrane irrespective of their fate but these channels have little effect due to their subunit composition, which is regulated by alternative splicing.
Neuroscience Research. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18824050
In rat models of Parkinson's disease, injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into different areas of the basal ganglia result in dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra. The extent and time course of the dopaminergic lesions varies between the models. While the effects on neurons have been extensively studied, little is known about the effects on astrocytes. We compared astrocytic activation (i.e. increase in number and staining intensity of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive cells) at the injection site and in downstream structures of the motor loop, i.e. the globus pallidus (GP) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) following 6-OHDA lesion of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) or the striatum. Lesions in both regions resulted in astrocytic activation at the lesion site, but their remote effects varied. MFB injections caused astrocytic activation in the ipsi- and contralateral striatum, whereas striatal injections resulted in astrocytic activation in the GP and STN. Since 6-OHDA injections into the MFB and the striatum result in complete and partial SNc lesions, respectively, we hypothesize that communication links exist between astrocytes, or between neurons and astrocytes, along neuronal pathways that transmit activating signals in response to neuronal damage-but only if the neuronal pathways are at least partially intact.
The International Journal of Neuroscience. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18853328
The embryonic striatal temperature sensitive immortalized ST14A-cell line was characterized in vitro by immunocytochemistry when cultured at 33 degrees C and at nonpermissive temperature of 39 degrees C for up to 14 days. At 33 degrees C in DMEM/10% FCS, cells proliferated, were extensively expressing the neural progenitor cell markers nestin and vimentin contrary to neuronal markers. However, when cultured at 39 degrees C the proliferation was delayed and cells began to increase the expression of neuronal markers, followed by a decrease of nestin and vimentin. In serum-free medium the process of neuronal differentiation became more obvious, indicating the potential to use these cells for experimental restorative therapies.
The Microstructure of Cornea Verticillata in Fabry Disease and Amiodarone-induced Keratopathy: a Confocal Laser-scanning Microscopy Study
Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology = Albrecht Von Graefes Archiv Für Klinische Und Experimentelle Ophthalmologie. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18931853
The purpose of this study is to describe cornea verticillata in Fabry disease and in amiodarone-induced keratopathy and to compare the corneal microstructure of both types.
Cadherin-20 Expression by Motor Neurons is Regulated by Sonic Hedgehog During Spinal Cord Development
Neuroreport. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19218874
During chicken spinal cord development, cadherin-20 is expressed by motor neurons of the lateral motor column and other cells in the basal and alar plates. To investigate the regulation of cadherin-20 expression, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling was altered in chicken spinal cord and hindbrain by in-vivo electroporation. Our results show that, at an early embryonic stage 12, Shh induces cadherin-20 expression by motor neurons. Later, at stage 24 when the sorting of motor neuron pools begins, cadherin-20 expression is induced in the neural progenitors of the ventricular zone but not in motor neurons. Blockage of Shh signaling inhibits cadherin-20 expression in the motor column. Therefore, cadherin-20 expression in motor neurons is regulated by Shh in a time-dependent manner.
Efferent Projections of the Anterior and Posterodorsal Regions of the Medial Nucleus of the Amygdala in the Mouse
Cells, Tissues, Organs. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19287129
The efferent projections of the anterior and posterodorsal part of the medial nucleus (MePD) in the mouse were studied by means of anterograde axonal tracing using biotinylated dextran amine. The MePD axons ran mainly via the stria terminalis and to a lesser extent via the ventral amygdalofugal pathway. The projections to the forebrain were broadly distributed and varied from very strong to scant. The most significant connections were destined to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in which all parts of the medial division were innervated by MePD neurons. Moderate projections reached the limbic striatum (nucleus accumbens), olfactory tubercle and the lateral septal nucleus. The substantia innominata was also innervated by the MePD, and especially the projection to its ventral portion was substantial. The profuse innervation of the medial preoptic nucleus and medial preoptic area indicated significant involvement of the MePD in sexual behavior. Many hypothalamic nuclei were innervated but to a different extent. The very strong innervation of the ventral premammillary nucleus further indicated the involvement of the MePD in the neuronal circuitry for sexual behavior. Substantial projections also reached the anterior hypothalamus and tuber cinereum, while the connections to the lateral hypothalamus were widespread but showed moderate density. MePD strongly innervated the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and moderately its remaining parts. The neurosecretory hypothalamic nuclei and the arcuate nucleus contained only a few MePD terminals. The thalamic innervation was very scant and reached the lateral habenular nucleus and the nuclei of the midline. The mesencephalic connections were moderate to sparse and projected to the mesolimbic dopaminergic groups in the ventral tegmental area, the pars lateralis and the dorsal tier of the substantia nigra pars compacta, the periaqueductal gray and the dorsal raphe nucleus. The present results principally resembled data known in other rodent species; however, the efferents of the MePD often differed in extent and/or topical distribution.
Ataxia Oculomotor Apraxia Type 2: Course over 27 Years and a Novel Stop Mutation in the Senataxin Gene
Journal of Neurology. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19377860
Liver International : Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18662284
This study was aimed at investigating the form and prevalence of liver involvement in patients with systemic mast cell activation syndrome, a possibly common subvariant of systemic mastocytosis. An attempt was made to shed light on potential mechanisms responsible for mast cell mediator-related liver abnormalities.
Journal of Neuroimmunology. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19541371
Interferon-beta (IFN-beta), acting canonically via the modulation of transcription, affects neocortical pyramidal neurons. By use of 2-D differential gel electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometry we identified IFN-beta regulated proteins in the central nervous system. These proteins are involved in cytoskeleton assembly, protein transport and nucleotide metabolism and, as such, serve regenerative and protective functions. Electrophysiologically, IFN-beta mediated protein synthesis is essential for part of the excitatory neuronal effects, as revealed under blockade of protein biosynthesis. This study presents novel effects of IFN-beta in the central nervous system and begins to unravel the mechanism behind the known excitability changes in neurons.
Neuroreport. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19617853
The survival of developing dopaminergic neurons has been shown to be modulated by voltage-dependent mechanisms. Manipulation of these mechanisms in human neural progenitor cell cultures could improve the survival of immature dopaminergic neurons, and therefore aid research into pharmacological and cell replacement therapies for Parkinson's disease. Here, we examined the effect of the Na+ channel agonist veratridine on the human fetal neural progenitor ReNcell VM cell line. Neuronal differentiation was determined by immunocytochemistry, whereas patch clamp recordings showed the expression of functional voltage-gated sodium channels. Our results show that veratridine is neuroprotective in human fetal neural progenitor cells, which may benefit studies investigating neuronal development by reducing premature death amongst developing neurons.
Cerebellum (London, England). Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20016963
Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA17) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Recently, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) voxel-based morphometry (VBM), several specific functional-structural correlations comprising differential degeneration related to motor and psychiatric symptoms were reported in patients with SCA17. To investigate gray matter volume (GMV) changes over time and its association to clinical neuropsychiatric symptomatology, nine SCA17 mutation carriers and nine matched healthy individuals underwent a detailed neuropsychiatric clinical examination and a high-resolution T1-weighted volume MRI scan, both at baseline and follow-up after 18 months. Follow-up images revealed a progressive GMV reduction in specific degeneration patterns. In contrast to healthy controls, SCA17 patients showed a greater atrophy not only in cerebellar regions but also in cortical structures such as the limbic system (parahippocampus, cingulate) and parietal precuneus. Clinically, progression of motor symptoms was more pronounced than that of psychiatric symptoms. Correlation with the clinical motor scores revealed a progressive reduction of GMV in cerebellar and cerebral motor networks, whereas correlation with psychiatric scores displayed a more widespread GMV impairment in frontal, limbic, parietal, and also cerebellar structures. Interestingly, changes in global functioning were correlated with bilateral atrophy within the para-/hippocampus. While there was a good temporal association between worsening of motor symptoms and progression in cerebral and cortical neurodegeneration, the progression in psychiatric related neurodegeneration seemed to be more widespread and complex, showing progressive atrophy that preceded the further development of clinical psychiatric symptoms.
A New Facile Synthesis of 3-amidoindole Derivatives and Their Evaluation As Potential GSK-3beta Inhibitors
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20165807
3-Amidoindoles were synthesized from commercially available arylhydrazines and propargylamines over Zn-salt mediated one pot procedure in excellent regioselectivity and up to 94% yield.
Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20235233
The expression patterns of seven members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family, including ADAM9, ADAM10, ADAM12, ADAM13, ADAM17, ADAM22, and ADAM23, were analyzed in the developing chicken lumbar spinal cord by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Results show that each individual ADAM is expressed and regulated spatiotemporally in the lumbar cord and its surrounding tissues. ADAM9, ADAM10, ADAM22, and ADAM23 are expressed predominantly by motoneurons in the motor column and by sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia, each with a different expression pattern. ADAM12 and ADAM13 are mainly expressed in the meninges around the lumbar cord and in the condensed sheets of chondroblasts around the vertebrae. ADAM17 expression is strong in the ventricular layer and limited to early stages. The differential expression of the ADAMs in the lumbar cord suggests that the ADAMs play a regulatory role in development of the spinal cord.
Human Mutation. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20578233
The molecular genetic diagnosis of inherited metabolic disorders is challenging. The diseases are rare, and most show locus heterogeneity. Hence, testing of the genes associated with IMDs is time consuming and often not easily available. We report a resequencing array that allows the simultaneous resequencing of up to 92 genes associated with IMDs. To validate the array, DNA samples from 51 patients with 52 different known variants (including point variants, small insertion, and deletions [indels]) in seven genes (C14ORF133, GAA, NPC1, NPC2, VPS33B, WFS1, and SLC19A2) were amplified by PCR and hybridized to the array. A further patient cohort with 48 different mutations in NPC1 were analyzed blind. Out of 76 point variants, 73 were identified using automated software analysis followed by manual review. Ten insertion and deletion variants were detected in the extra tiling using mutation specific probes, with 11 heterozygous deletions and 3 heterozygous insertions. In summary, we identified 96% (95% confidence interval [CI] 89-99%) of point variants added to the array, but the pickup rate reduced to 83% (95% CI 75-89%) when insertions/deletions were included. Although the methodology has strengths and weaknesses, application of this technique could expedite diagnosis in most patients with multilocus IMDs.
Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20658692
The expression patterns of five members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family including ADAM9, ADAM10, ADAM17, ADAM22, and ADAM23 were analyzed in different anatomical structures of the developing chicken cochlea by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Results show that ADAM9, ADAM10, and ADAM17 are widely expressed in the sensory epithelium of the basilar papilla, by homogene cells, spindle-shaped cells, and acoustic ganglion cells, and in the tegmentum vasculosum, each with a different pattern. ADAM22 expression is restricted to spindle-shaped cells and acoustic ganglion cells, while ADAM23 is prominently expressed by hair cells and acoustic ganglion cells. Furthermore, ADAM10 protein is coexpressed with several members of the classic cadherins, including cadherin-7, N-cadherin, and R-cadherin in distinct anatomical regions of the cochlea except for acoustic ganglion cells. The expression of the ADAMs in the developing cochlea suggests a contribution of the ADAMs to the development of distinct cochlear structures.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20708937
The Wnt pathway is involved in cellular processes linked to either proliferation or differentiation. Therefore small molecules offer an attractive opportunity to modulate this pathway, whereas the key enzyme GSK-3beta is of special interest. In this study, non-symmetrically substituted indolylmaleimides have been synthesized and their ability to function as GSK-3beta inhibitors has been investigated in a human neural progenitor cell line. Among the newly synthesized compounds, the substance IM-12 showed a significant activity in several biological tests which was comparable or even outplayed the effects of the known GSK-3beta inhibitor SB-216763. Furthermore the treatment of human neural progenitor cells with IM-12 resulted in an increase of neuronal cells. Therefore we conclude that indolylmaleimides act via the canonical Wnt signalling pathway by inhibition of the key enzyme GSK-3beta.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20735988
Wnt ligands play pivotal roles in the control of cell growth and differentiation during central nervous system development via the Wnt signaling pathway. In this study, we investigated the effects of Wnt-3a and β-catenin on the differentiation of ReNcell VM human neural progenitor cells. After overexpression of Wnt-3a or mutant-stabilized β-catenin in ReNcell VM cells, their effects on TCF-mediated transcription, Wnt target gene expression and differentiation into neuronal and glial cells were investigated. Our results show that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling increases TCF-mediated transcription and the expression of the Wnt target genes Axin2, LEF1 and CyclinD1 in ReNcell VM cells. In contrast to mutant-stabilized β-catenin, Wnt-3a increases neurogenesis during the differentiation of ReNcell VM cells. Thus, our data suggest that neurogenesis induced by Wnt-3a is independent of the transcriptional activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in ReNcell VM cells.
Biomedical Engineering Online. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21070668
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: 3D-scaffolds have been shown to direct cell growth and differentiation in many different cell types, with the formation and functionalisation of the 3D-microenviroment being important in determining the fate of the embedded cells. Here we used a hydrogel-based scaffold to investigate the influences of matrix concentration and functionalisation with laminin on the formation of the scaffolds, and the effect of these scaffolds on human neural progenitor cells cultured within them. METHODS: In this study we used different concentrations of the hydrogel-based matrix PuraMatrix. In some experiments we functionalised the matrix with laminin I. The impact of concentration and treatment with laminin on the formation of the scaffold was examined with atomic force microscopy. Cells from a human fetal neural progenitor cell line were cultured in the different matrices, as well as in a 2D culture system, and were subsequently analysed with antibody stainings against neuronal markers. In parallel, the survival rate of the cells was determined by a live/dead assay. RESULTS: Atomic force microscopy measurements demonstrated that the matrices are formed by networks of isolated PuraMatrix fibres and aggregates of fibres. An increase of the hydrogel concentration led to a decrease in the mesh size of the scaffolds and functionalisation with laminin promoted aggregation of the fibres (bundle formation), which further reduces the density of isolated fibres. We showed that laminin-functionalisation is essential for human neural progenitor cells to build up 3D-growth patterns, and that proliferation of the cells is also affected by the concentration of matrix. In addition we found that 3D-cultures enhanced neuronal differentiation and the survival rate of the cells compared to 2D-cultures. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, we have demonstrated a direct influence of the 3D-scaffold formation on the survival and neuronal differentiation of human neural progenitor cells. These findings emphasize the importance of optimizing 3D-scaffolds protocols prior to in vivo engraftment of stem and progenitor cells in the context of regenerative medicine.
Brain & Development. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19427149
Abnormalities of CNS white matter are frequently detected in patients with neurological disorders when MRI studies are performed. Among the many causes of such abnormalities, a large group of rare genetic diseases poses considerable diagnostic problems. Here we present a compilation of genetic leukoencephalopathies to consider when one is confronted with white matter disease of possibly genetic origin. The table contains essentials such as age at onset of symptoms, clinical and MRI characteristics, basic defect, and useful diagnostic studies. The table serves as a diagnostic check list.
Erythropoietin and the Effect of Oxygen During Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Neural Progenitor Cells
BMC Cell Biology. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21126346
Hypoxia plays a critical role in various cellular mechanisms, including proliferation and differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells. In the present study, we explored the impact of lowered oxygen on the differentiation potential of human neural progenitor cells, and the role of erythropoietin in the differentiation process.
Protocol and Methodology of the Stroke in Young Fabry Patients (sifap1) Study: a Prospective Multicenter European Study of 5,024 Young Stroke Patients Aged 18-55 Years
Cerebrovascular Diseases (Basel, Switzerland). 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21178350
Stroke in the young has not been thoroughly investigated with most previous studies based on a small number of patients from single centers. Furthermore, recent reports indicate that Fabry disease may be a significant cause for young stroke. The primary aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of Fabry disease in young stroke patients, while the secondary aim was to describe patterns of stroke in young patients.
Cerebrovascular Diseases (Basel, Switzerland). 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21196729
Fabry disease (FD) is a rare hereditary lysosomal storage disease that has been highlighted as a possible etiology of stroke at a young age. Enlarged basilar artery diameters (BADs) have been demonstrated in FD, and we hypothesize that they might be useful for the screening of FD in young stroke patients. The aim of this study was to compare BADs of young stroke patients without FD to those of FD patients and of healthy age-matched controls.
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21281467
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a frequent manifestation in Fabry disease (FD) - an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by reduced activity of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. In FD an elevation of specific cardiac biomarkers, such as cardiac troponin I (cTNI) has been reported in case of clinical manifestation suggestive of myocardial ischemia. In diagnosing acute myocardial infarction cTNI is considered the most reliable parameter.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21311576
Abnormal repeat length has been associated with an earlier age of onset and more severe disease progression in the rare neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA17).
European Journal of Paediatric Neurology : EJPN : Official Journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21316993
We report a case of levodopa-responsive juvenile parkinsonism (JP) associated with a heterozygous ATP13A2 gene frameshift mutation. The clinical phenotype of our case is more severe when compared with other published reports of symptomatic heterozygous ATP13A2 mutation carriers. To our knowledge, this is the youngest reported patient with JP associated with a heterozygous ATP13A2 mutation. Our findings expand the clinical phenotypic spectrum of JP associated with heterozygous ATP13A2 mutation.
Cornea. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21317782
Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) is a genetic neurovisceral disorder characterized by abnormalities in intracellular sterol trafficking. A knockout mouse model (NPC1) is an important tool for the study of pathogenesis and treatment strategies. In the present study, NPC1 mice were examined for pathological changes in the cornea.
Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia Associated with Axonal Neuropathy: a Novel Mutation of SPG3A in a Large Family
Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21321493
Spastic paraplegia Type 3A is an autosomal-dominant pure or uncomplicated hereditary spastic paraplegia. It is caused by mutations in SPG3A, the only gene associated with this condition. We identified a novel mutation, c.1040T>C (p. M347T), in a family with axonal neuropathy in addition to spastic paraplegia. This expands the spectrum of neurologic complications associated with SPG3A and highlights the importance of long-term follow-up and neurological surveillance in this patient population.
Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21333509
Previous neurophysiological studies have demonstrated that the amygdala has a direct influence upon trigeminal motoneuron activity. The existence of a direct amygdalotrigeminal pathway in rats was proved by anterograde tracing with the neuroanatomical tracer, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). After ipsilateral BDA application to the central nucleus of the amygdala (AmCe), widespread ipsilateral projections emerging from its medial subnucleus were traced to the trigeminal brainstem nuclear complex, including the principal sensory (Pr5) and mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Me5), and their premotoneurons and interneurons, located in the supratrigeminal, intertrigeminal and peritrigeminal nuclei. Sparse BDA-labeled axons and their terminals were also distributed in the contralateral Pr5, interpolar and caudal subnuclei of the spinal trigeminal nucleus. The central lateral amygdaloid nucleus gives rise to a light ipsilateral projection to the pontine part of the Me5. The present data indicate that AmCe sends massive efferents to the trigeminal nuclei in the brainstem, wherein its medial subnucleus sends the major input to them. The medial amygdaloid nucleus sparsely innervates Me5 neurons, specifically those located in its mesencephalic portion, while basomedial and basolateral efferents do not target the trigeminal nuclear complex. These results suggest that the amygdaloid input may modulate the activity of trigeminal sensory and motor neurons and, thus, the amygdala is possibly involved in the control of masticatory behavior.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis : Official Publication of the World Federation of Neurology Research Group on Motor Neuron Diseases. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21413851
Familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are most frequently caused by mutation in the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene. We report a heterozygous I113F mutation in a patient with familial ALS characterized by early and predominant bilateral vocal cord paralysis followed by descending spinal cord paresis. Modelling of the mutant SOD1 showed an alteration of the protein secondary structure leading to impaired strength of the dimer interface. This may result in a failure of the protein folding and subsequently generation of toxic intracellular aggregates, suggesting a pathogenic role for the mutation.
Development, Growth & Differentiation. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21492148
ADAM19 (also named meltrin β) is a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of metalloproteases and is involved in morphogenesis and tissue formation during embryonic development. In the present study, chicken ADAM19 is cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and identified by sequencing. Its expression patterns in different parts of the developing chicken embryo are investigated by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results show that ADAM19 protein is widely expressed in chicken embryos. It is detectable in the central nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, cochlea, and retina. Furthermore, ADAM19 protein is also found in other tissues and organs such as digestive organs, the thymus, the lung bud, the dorsal aorta, the kidney, the gonad, muscles, and in the feather buds. All these data suggest that ADAM19 plays an important role in the embryonic development of chicken.
Development, Growth & Differentiation. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21671920
The expression patterns of the seven members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family, ADAM9, ADAM10, ADAM12, ADAM13, ADAM17, ADAM22, and ADAM23 were analyzed in the developing chicken retina by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Results show that each individual ADAM is expressed and regulated spatiotemporally in the developing retinal layers. ADAM9, ADAM10 and ADAM17 are widely expressed in the differential layers of the retina throughout the whole embryonic period, while ADAM12 and ADAM13 are mainly expressed in the ganglion cell layer at a later stage. ADAM22 and ADAM23 are restricted to the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer at a later stage. Furthermore, ADAM10 protein is co-expressed with the four members of the classic cadherins, N-cadherin, R-cadherin, cadherin-6B and cadherin-7 in distinct retinal layers. Therefore, the differential expression of the investigated ADAMs in the developing retina suggests the contribution of them to the retina development.
Quantitative and Dynamic Expression Profile of Premature and Active Forms of the Regional ADAM Proteins During Chicken Brain Development
Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21786032
The ADAM (A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease) family of transmembrane proteins plays important roles in embryogenesis and tissue formation based on their multiple functional domains. In the present study, for the first time, the expression patterns of the premature and the active forms of six members of the ADAM proteins - ADAM9, ADAM10, ADAM12, ADAM17, ADAM22 and ADAM23 - in distinct parts of the developing chicken brain were investigated by quantitative Western blot analysis from embryonic incubation day (E) 10 to E20. The results show that the premature and the active forms of various ADAM proteins are spatiotemporally regulated in different parts of the brain during development, suggesting that the ADAMs play a very important role during embryonic development.
Quantitative and Kinetic Profile of Wnt/β-catenin Signaling Components During Human Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation
Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21805133
ReNcell VM is an immortalized human neural progenitor cell line with the ability to differentiate in vitro into astrocytes and neurons, in which the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is known to be involved. However, little is known about kinetic changes of this pathway in human neural progenitor cell differentiation. In the present study, we provide a quantitative profile of Wnt/β-catenin pathway dynamics showing its spatio-temporal regulation during ReNcell VM cell differentiation. We show first that T-cell factor dependent transcription can be activated by stabilized β-catenin. Furthermore, endogenous Wnt ligands, pathway receptors and signaling molecules are temporally controlled, demonstrating changes related to differentiation stages. During the first three hours of differentiation the signaling molecules LRP6, Dvl2 and β-catenin are spatio-temporally regulated between distinct cellular compartments. From 24 h onward, components of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway are strongly activated and regulated as shown by mRNA up-regulation of Wnt ligands (Wnt5a and Wnt7a), receptors including Frizzled-2, -3, -6, -7, and -9, and co-receptors, and target genes including Axin2. This detailed temporal profile of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a first step to understand, control and to orientate, in vitro, human neural progenitor cell differentiation.
Human Neural Progenitor Cells Show Functional Neuronal Differentiation and Regional Preference After Engraftment Onto Hippocampal Slice Cultures
Stem Cells and Development. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21867424
The transplantation of stem cells offers potential therapies for many neurodegenerative disorders that currently have limited or no treatment options. However, relatively little is known about how the host environment affects the development and integration of these cells. In this study we have engrafted immortalized human midbrain neural progenitor cells (NPCs) onto rat hippocampal brain slice cultures to examine the influence of a neural environment on differentiation. Patch clamp recordings revealed that the transplanted progenitor cells could express neuronal-type voltage-gated currents and rapidly receive synaptic input from the hippocampal brain slice. The distribution of progenitor cells across the hippocampal slices was strongly influenced by the neural architecture, with most cells located in the fissural regions and sending processes parallel to the laminar structure, while in contrast, cells located in the dentate gyrus showed no organized pattern. Almost no cells were found in the stratum radiatum or pyramidal cell layers. Together, these results demonstrate the potential for the architecture of the host environment to regulate the integration of transplanted cells, and highlight the utility of coculture systems for studying the mechanisms underlying the migration, integration, and differentiation of human NPCs in structured neural environments.
Brain Structure & Function. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21935673
The orexinergic system interacts with several functional states of emotions, stress, hunger, wakefulness and behavioral arousal through four pathways originating in the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Hundreds of orexinergic efferents have been described by tracing studies and direct immunohistochemistry of orexin in the forebrain, olfactory regions, hippocampus, amygdala, septum, basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, brain stem and spinal cord. Most of these tracing studies investigated the whole orexinergic projection to all regions of the intracranial part of the CNS. To identify the orexinergic efferents at the subnuclear level of resolution, we focussed on the orexinergic target in the amygdala, which is substantially involved in the LH output and contributes mostly to the functional outcome of the orexinergic system and the basal ganglia. Immunohistochemical identification of axonal orexin A and orexin B in male adult rats has been performed on serial sections. In the extended amygdala many new orexinergic targets were found in the anterior amygdaloid area (dense), anterior cortical nucleus (moderate), amygdalostriatal transition region (moderate), basolateral regions (moderate), basomedial nucleus (moderate), several bed nucleus of the stria terminals regions (few to dense), central amygdaloid subdivisions (dense), posteromedial cortical nucleus (moderate) and medial amygdaloid subnuclei (dense). Furthermore, the entopeduncular nucleus has been newly identified as another target for orexinergic fibers with a high density. These results suggest that subdivisions and subnuclei of the extended amygdala are specific targets of the orexinergic system.
Metabolic Brain Disease. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21938520
Niemann-Pick type C 1 (NPC1) disease is an autosomal recessive cholesterol transport defect resulting in a neurodegenerative process in patients mainly at an early age, although some patients may start with manifestation in adult. Since loss of myelin is considered as a main pathogenetic factor, the precise mechanism inducing dysmylination in NPC1 disease is still unclear. In the present study, a quantitative evaluation on the myelin protein and its regulatory factors of oligodendrocytes, such as SRY-related HMG-box 10 (Sox10), Yin Yang 1 factor (YY1) and myelin gene regulatory factor (MRF), in different parts of the brain and spinal cord was performed in NPC1-mutant mice. The results showed that NPC1 protein was expressed in oligodendrocytes and the amount of myelin protein was generally decreased in all parts of the brain and spinal cord in NPC1-mutant mice. Compared to wild type, the amount of Sox10 and YY1 was not different in NPC1-mutant mice, but MRF was significantly decreased, suggesting a possible mechanism perturbing differentiation of oligodendrocytes and the myelination process in the NPC1-mutant mouse.
Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21953512
The purpose of the study was to identify and molecularly characterize a neurological syndrome in a consanguineous Pakistani family.
Corneal Alterations During Combined Therapy with Cyclodextrin/allopregnanolone and Miglustat in a Knock-out Mouse Model of NPC1 Disease
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22163015
Niemann Pick disease type C1 is a neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the NPC1 gene, which result in accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in the endosomal-lysosomal system as well as limiting membranes. We have previously shown the corneal involvement in NPC1 pathology in form of intracellular inclusions in epithelial cells and keratocytes. The purpose of the present study was to clarify if these inclusions regress during combined substrate reduction- and by-product therapy (SRT and BPT).
Expert Opinion on Temporary Treatment Recommendations for Fabry Disease During the Shortage of Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21123099
The shortage of enzyme for treatment of Fabry disease has caused anxiety among patients, physicians and governments. Following a request from the European Medicines Agency, consensus was reached on the temporary prioritization of patients for treatment based on disease severity and potential reversibility. Advice on follow-up of patients was agreed upon. This consensus is proposed to support the temporary guidelines issued throughout the period of ERT shortage, which will most likely last until April 2011.
Neuroscience Letters. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21056624
Human neural progenitor cells provide a source for cell replacement therapy to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, there is great interest in mechanisms and tools to direct the fate of multipotent progenitor cells during their differentiation to increase the yield of a desired cell type. We tested small molecule inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) for their functionality and their influence on neurogenesis using the human neural progenitor cell line ReNcell VM. Here we report the enhancement of neurogenesis of human neural progenitor cells by treatment with GSK-3 inhibitors. We tested different small molecule inhibitors of GSK-3 i.e. LiCl, sodium-valproate, kenpaullone, indirubin-3-monoxime and SB-216763 for their ability to inhibit GSK-3 in human neural progenitor cells. The highest in situ GSK-3 inhibitory effect of the drugs was found for kenpaullone and SB-216763. Accordingly, kenpaullone and SB-216763 were the only drugs tested in this study to stimulate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway that is antagonized by GSK-3. Analysis of human neural progenitor differentiation revealed an augmentation of neurogenesis by SB-216763 and kenpaullone, without changing cell cycle exit or cell survival. Small molecule inhibitors of GSK-3 enhance neurogenesis of human neural progenitor cells and may be used to direct the differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells in therapeutic applications.
ADAM17 Overexpression Promotes Angiogenesis by Increasing Blood Vessel Sprouting and Pericyte Number During Brain Microvessel Development
The International Journal of Developmental Biology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22252493
The angiogenic process is precisely regulated by different molecular mechanisms, with a balance between stimulatory and inhibitory factors in embryonic development. Transmembrane proteins of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family play a critical role in embryogenesis and are involved in protein ectodomain shedding, as well as cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. In the present study, we found that ADAM17 is expressed spatiotemporally in the tectal layers during chicken embryonic development. To investigate the effect of ADAM17 overexpression on angiogenesis, chicken ADAM17 plasmids were transfected into the developing tectum in vivo by electroporation. Results showed that overexpression of ADAM17 induces morphological changes of brain microvessels, such as an increase in diameter, of capillary sprouting from radial microvessels and an increase in the number of pericytes, but not of endothelial cells. Our data suggest that overexpression of ADAM17 in the developing tectum promotes angiogenesis by increasing the number of pericytes and capillary sprouting in the radial vessels.
Brain Research. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22325094
Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the NPC1 gene which encodes a transmembrane protein of the acidic compartment. Albeit the NPC1(-/-) mouse is available serving as an appropriate animal model of the human disease, the precise function of this protein remains obscure. Here, we investigated the synaptic consequences of this disease and explored long-term potentiation (LTP) in slices taken from the hippocampal CA1 region, the dorsomedial striatum as well as the somatosensory neocortex in NPC1(-/-) mice using extracellular field potential recordings. We did not observe significant changes in synaptic excitability as well as LTP in the hippocampal CA1 region and the dorsomedial striatum of NPC1(-/-) mice when compared to wildtype littermates. However, neocortical excitability was significantly enhanced while LTP was abolished. These results suggest that at least in the somatosensory neocortex NPC1 protein is instrumental in synaptic function.
Kidney Function and White Matter Disease in Young Stroke Patients: Analysis of the Stroke in Young Fabry Patients Study Population
Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation. Jun, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22723456
Impaired kidney function is thought to be associated with small vessel disease, outcome, and mortality in the general stroke population. Data are limited regarding young patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of kidney function and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in young patients with first ischemic stroke.
Journal of Molecular Histology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22246534
In the present study the expression patterns of ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) genes in the chicken developing lens were analyzed. Using in situ hybridization, we found that seven members of the ADAM family including ADAM9, ADAM10, ADAM12, ADAM13, ADAM17, ADAM22, and ADAM23 are expressed in the developing embryonic lens. From embryonic incubation day (E) 2 to E3, most of the ADAMs investigated here are expressed in the lens placode and lens vesicle. From E5 to E7, all seven ADAMs, but predominantly ADAM9 and ADAM10, are throughly expressed in the central epithelium, as well as in the proliferating lens epithelium and the equatorial lens epithelium. From E9 to E14, expression of ADAM9, ADAM10, and ADAM17 decreases moderately in these regions. ADAM12 and ADAM13 are weakly expressed in the central epithelium and the lens epithelium, and are not detectable from E14 onward. ADAM22 and ADAM23 are expressed in the central epithelium, the lens epithelium and the equatorial lens epithelium at E5 and decrease gradually afterwards in the same regions. At E16, only weak ADAM9, ADAM10 and ADAM17 signals are found in the anterior lens epithelium. The changing spatiotemporal expression of the seven ADAMs suggests a regulatory role for these molecules during chicken lens development.
Acta Paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22026499
Myoclonus dystonia is an autosomal dominant dystonia-plus syndrome, characterized by symptom variability within families. Most often is the myoclonus the most debilitating symptom, and many patients report myoclonus reduction after alcohol intake. In several families, mutations in the SGCE gene have been identified.