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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (13)
Articles by Arne Lindqvist in JoVE
Monitoring Kinase and Phosphatase Activities Through the Cell Cycle by Ratiometric FRET
Elvira Hukasova, Helena Silva Cascales, Shravan R. Kumar, Arne Lindqvist
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet
FRET-based reporters are increasingly used to monitor kinase and phosphatase activities in live cells. Here we describe a method on how to use FRET-based reporters to assess cell cycle-dependent changes in target phosphorylation.
Other articles by Arne Lindqvist on PubMed
Characterisation of Cdc25B Localisation and Nuclear Export During the Cell Cycle and in Response to Stress
Journal of Cell Science. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15456846
Cdc25 phosphatases are essential regulators of the cell cycle. In mammalian cells, the Cdc25B isoform activates cyclin A- and cyclin B1-containing complexes and is necessary for entry into mitosis. In this report, we characterise the subcellular localisation of Cdc25B by immunofluorescence in combination with RNA interference to identify specific antibody staining. We find that endogenous Cdc25B is mainly nuclear, but a fraction resides in the cytoplasm during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Cdc25B starts to appear in S-phase cells and accumulates until prophase, after which the protein disappears. We characterise a nuclear export sequence in the N-terminus of Cdc25B (amino acids 54-67) that, when mutated, greatly reduces the ability of Cdc25B to shuttle in a fluorescence loss in photobleaching assay. Mutation of the nuclear export sequence makes Cdc25B less efficient in inducing mitosis, suggesting that an important mitotic function of Cdc25B occurs in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we find that when cells are exposed to cycloheximide or ultraviolet irradiation, Cdc25B partially translocates to the cytoplasm. The dependence of this translocation event on a functional nuclear export sequence, an intact serine 323 residue (a 14-3-3 binding site) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity indicates that the p38 pathway regulates Cdc25B localisation in different situations of cellular stress.
Cdc25A Localisation and Shuttling: Characterisation of Sequences Mediating Nuclear Export and Import
Experimental Cell Research. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15572030
The Cdc25 phosphatases play crucial roles in cell cycle progression by removing inhibitory phosphates from tyrosine and threonine residues of cyclin-dependent kinases. Cdc25A is an important regulator of the G1/S transition but functions also in the mitotic phase of the human cell cycle. In this paper, we investigate the sub-cellular localisation of exogenously expressed Cdc25A. We show that YFP-Cdc25A is localised both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of HeLa cells and untransformed fibroblasts. Cell fusion assays and fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) assays reveal that the localisation is dynamic and the protein shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. We demonstrate that nuclear export of Cdc25A is partly mediated by an N-terminal nuclear export sequence (NES), in a manner not sensitive to the Exportin 1-inhibitor leptomycin B. A nuclear localisation signal (NLS) is also characterised, mutation of which leads to cytoplasmic localisation of Cdc25A. Our results imply that the Cdc25A phosphatase may interact with substrates and regulators both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
Cdc25B Cooperates with Cdc25A to Induce Mitosis but Has a Unique Role in Activating Cyclin B1-Cdk1 at the Centrosome
The Journal of Cell Biology. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16216921
Cdc25 phosphatases are essential for the activation of mitotic cyclin-Cdks, but the precise roles of the three mammalian isoforms (A, B, and C) are unclear. Using RNA interference to reduce the expression of each Cdc25 isoform in HeLa and HEK293 cells, we observed that Cdc25A and -B are both needed for mitotic entry, whereas Cdc25C alone cannot induce mitosis. We found that the G2 delay caused by small interfering RNA to Cdc25A or -B was accompanied by reduced activities of both cyclin B1-Cdk1 and cyclin A-Cdk2 complexes and a delayed accumulation of cyclin B1 protein. Further, three-dimensional time-lapse microscopy and quantification of Cdk1 phosphorylation versus cyclin B1 levels in individual cells revealed that Cdc25A and -B exert specific functions in the initiation of mitosis: Cdc25A may play a role in chromatin condensation, whereas Cdc25B specifically activates cyclin B1-Cdk1 on centrosomes.
PLoS Biology. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17472438
Activation of cyclin B1-cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), triggered by a positive feedback loop at the end of G2, is the key event that initiates mitotic entry. In metaphase, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-dependent destruction of cyclin B1 inactivates Cdk1 again, allowing mitotic exit and cell division. Several models describe Cdk1 activation kinetics in mitosis, but experimental data on how the activation proceeds in mitotic cells have largely been lacking. We use a novel approach to determine the temporal development of cyclin B1-Cdk1 activity in single cells. By quantifying both dephosphorylation of Cdk1 and phosphorylation of the Cdk1 target anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome 3, we disclose how cyclin B1-Cdk1 continues to be activated after centrosome separation. Importantly, we discovered that cytoplasmic cyclin B1-Cdk1 activity can be maintained even when cyclin B1 translocates to the nucleus in prophase. These experimental data are fitted into a model describing cyclin B1-Cdk1 activation in human cells, revealing a striking resemblance to a bistable circuit. In line with the observed kinetics, cyclin B1-Cdk1 levels required to enter mitosis are lower than the amount of cyclin B1-Cdk1 needed for mitotic progression. We propose that gradually increasing cyclin B1-Cdk1 activity after centrosome separation is critical to coordinate mitotic progression.
Nature. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18615013
Polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) is an essential mitotic kinase regulating multiple aspects of the cell division process. Activation of PLK1 requires phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue (Thr 210) in the T-loop of the PLK1 kinase domain, but the kinase responsible for this has not yet been affirmatively identified. Here we show that in human cells PLK1 activation occurs several hours before entry into mitosis, and requires aurora A (AURKA, also known as STK6)-dependent phosphorylation of Thr 210. We find that aurora A can directly phosphorylate PLK1 on Thr 210, and that activity of aurora A towards PLK1 is greatly enhanced by Bora (also known as C13orf34 and FLJ22624), a known cofactor for aurora A (ref. 7). We show that Bora/aurora-A-dependent phosphorylation is a prerequisite for PLK1 to promote mitotic entry after a checkpoint-dependent arrest. Importantly, expression of a PLK1-T210D phospho-mimicking mutant partially overcomes the requirement for aurora A in checkpoint recovery. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the initial activation of PLK1 is a primary function of aurora A.
The Journal of Cell Biology. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19364923
The decision to enter mitosis is mediated by a network of proteins that regulate activation of the cyclin B-Cdk1 complex. Within this network, several positive feedback loops can amplify cyclin B-Cdk1 activation to ensure complete commitment to a mitotic state once the decision to enter mitosis has been made. However, evidence is accumulating that several components of the feedback loops are redundant for cyclin B-Cdk1 activation during normal cell division. Nonetheless, defined feedback loops become essential to promote mitotic entry when normal cell cycle progression is perturbed. Recent data has demonstrated that at least three Plk1-dependent feedback loops exist that enhance cyclin B-Cdk1 activation at different levels. In this review, we discuss the role of various feedback loops that regulate cyclin B-Cdk1 activation under different conditions, the timing of their activation, and the possible identity of the elusive trigger that controls mitotic entry in human cells.
Cancer Research. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19487276
Overactivation of both Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1) and Aurora-A is linked to cancer development, and small-molecule inhibitors that target these kinases are currently tested as anticancer drugs. Here, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of the functional crosstalk between Plk1 and Aurora-A before and during mitosis. Several recent findings have led to a better appreciation of how the activities of these distinct mitotic kinases are intertwined. Such insight is important for the expected utility of small-molecule inhibitors targeting Plk1 or Aurora-A, and it might help us to improve their application.
Wip1 Confers G2 Checkpoint Recovery Competence by Counteracting P53-dependent Transcriptional Repression
The EMBO Journal. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19713933
Activation of the DNA damage checkpoint causes a cell-cycle arrest through inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks). To successfully recover from the arrest, a cell should somehow be maintained in its proper cell-cycle phase. This problem is particularly eminent when a cell arrests in G2, as cdk activity is important to establish a G2 state. Here, we identify the phosphatase Wip1 (PPM1D) as a factor that maintains a cell competent for cell-cycle re-entry during an ongoing DNA damage response in G2. We show that Wip1 function is required throughout the arrest, and that Wip1 acts by antagonizing p53-dependent repression of crucial mitotic inducers, such as Cyclin B and Plk1. Our data show that the primary function of Wip1 is to retain cellular competence to divide, rather than to silence the checkpoint to promote recovery. Our findings uncover Wip1 as a first in class recovery competence gene, and suggest that the principal function of Wip1 in cellular transformation is to retain proliferative capacity in the face of oncogene-induced stress.
Bicaudal D2, Dynein, and Kinesin-1 Associate with Nuclear Pore Complexes and Regulate Centrosome and Nuclear Positioning During Mitotic Entry
PLoS Biology. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20386726
BICD2 is one of the two mammalian homologues of the Drosophila Bicaudal D, an evolutionarily conserved adaptor between microtubule motors and their cargo that was previously shown to link vesicles and mRNP complexes to the dynein motor. Here, we identified a G2-specific role for BICD2 in the relative positioning of the nucleus and centrosomes in dividing cells. By combining mass spectrometry, biochemical and cell biological approaches, we show that the nuclear pore complex (NPC) component RanBP2 directly binds to BICD2 and recruits it to NPCs specifically in G2 phase of the cell cycle. BICD2, in turn, recruits dynein-dynactin to NPCs and as such is needed to keep centrosomes closely tethered to the nucleus prior to mitotic entry. When dynein function is suppressed by RNA interference-mediated depletion or antibody microinjection, centrosomes and nuclei are actively pushed apart in late G2 and we show that this is due to the action of kinesin-1. Surprisingly, depletion of BICD2 inhibits both dynein and kinesin-1-dependent movements of the nucleus and cytoplasmic NPCs, demonstrating that BICD2 is needed not only for the dynein function at the nuclear pores but also for the antagonistic activity of kinesin-1. Our study demonstrates that the nucleus is subject to opposing activities of dynein and kinesin-1 motors and that BICD2 contributes to nuclear and centrosomal positioning prior to mitotic entry through regulation of both dynein and kinesin-1.
The Journal of Cell Biology. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20404105
The transition to mitosis requires extensive nuclear and cytoplasmic rearrangements that must be spatially and temporally coordinated. In this issue, Gavet and Pines (2010a. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.200909144) report on a simple yet elegant mechanism as to how this is achieved. By monitoring the activity of cyclin B-Cdk1 in real time, the authors show that concomitant with its activation in the cytoplasm, the kinase complex is rapidly imported into the nucleus by modifying the activity of the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery. Thus, cyclin B-Cdk1 activates its own pump to get into the nucleus.
Transcription. 7, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21327155
When the DNA of a cell is damaged, cell cycle progression is arrested and cell cycle-specific transcription is inhibited. However, cell cycle-specific transcription is required for eventual recovery from the DNA damage-induced arrest. Here we discuss recent findings that demonstrate how transcription is fine-tuned during the DNA damage response and how this controls the capacity to recover from a DNA damage arrest in G(2) phase.
Trends in Biochemical Sciences. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21958687
Reversible protein phosphorylation is an essential aspect of mitosis and forms the basis of nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation and spindle assembly. Through global phosphoproteomic analysis, it has become clear that overall protein phosphorylation and phosphosite occupancy is most abundant during mitosis. At mitotic exit, this abundant phosphorylation must be reversed, and this process requires massive and rapid protein dephosphorylation. In addition to this global shift in protein phosphorylation, careful spatial control of protein (de)phosphorylation is equally important for spindle assembly, chromosome disjunction and chromosome alignment. In this review, we discuss the underlying mechanisms that enforce the dramatic global shift in protein phosphorylation as well as the mechanisms that allow for highly localized substrate phosphorylation in mitosis.
Functional Characterization of the Pleckstrin Homology Domain of a Cellulose Synthase from the Oomycete Saprolegnia Monoica
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22226909
Some oomycetes, for instance Saprolegnia parasitica, are severe fish pathogens that cause important economic losses worldwide. Cellulose biosynthesis is a vital process for this class of microorganisms, but the corresponding molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Of all cellulose synthesizing enzymes known, only some oomycete cellulose synthases contain a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Some human PH domains bind specifically to phosphoinositides, but most PH domains bind phospholipids in a non-specific manner. In addition, some PH domains interact with various proteins. Here we have investigated the function of the PH domain of cellulose synthase 2 from the oomycete Saprolegnia monoica (SmCesA2), a species closely related to S. parasitica. The SmCesA2 PH domain is similar to the C-terminal PH domain of the human protein TAPP1. It binds in vitro to phosphoinositides, F-actin and microtubules, and co-localizes with F-actin in vivo. Our results suggest a role of the SmCesA2 PH domain in the regulation, trafficking and/or targeting of the cell wall synthesizing enzyme.