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In JoVE (1)
- Genetik Đndüklenebilir Kader Haritalama Pratik Bir Yaklaşım: Hücreler Mark ve Track Görsel Bir Rehberi In Vivo
Other Publications (3)
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Articles by Ashly Brown in JoVE
Genetik Đndüklenebilir Kader Haritalama Pratik Bir Yaklaşım: Hücreler Mark ve Track Görsel Bir Rehberi In Vivo
Ashly Brown1, Stephen Brown2, Debra Ellisor2, Nellwyn Hagan1, Elizabeth Normand1, Mark Zervas2
1Department of Neuroscience, Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, 2Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University
Genetik Đndüklenebilir Kader Haritalama (GIFM) işaretleri ve ince, mekansal ve zamansal kontrolü ile parça hücreleri
Other articles by Ashly Brown on PubMed
Comparative Analysis of Conditional Reporter Alleles in the Developing Embryo and Embryonic Nervous System
Gene Expression Patterns : GEP. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19616131
A long-standing problem in development is understanding how progenitor cells transiently expressing genes contribute to complex anatomical and functional structures. In the developing nervous system an additional level of complexity arises when considering how cells of distinct lineages relate to newly established neural circuits. To address these problems, we used both cumulative marking with Cre/loxP and Genetic Inducible Fate Mapping (GIFM), which permanently and heritably marks small populations of progenitors and their descendants with fine temporal control using CreER/loxP. A key component used in both approaches is a conditional phenotyping allele that has the potential to be expressed in all cell types, but is quiescent because of a loxP flanked Stop sequence, which precedes a reporter allele. Upon recombination, the resulting phenotyping allele is 'turned on' and then constitutively expressed. Thus, the reporter functions as a high fidelity genetic lineage tracer in vivo. Currently there is an array of reporter alleles that can be used in marking strategies, but their recombination efficiency and applicability to a wide array of tissues has not been thoroughly described. To assess the recombination/marking potential of the reporters, we utilized CreER(T) under the control of a Wnt1 transgene (Wnt1-CreER(T)) as well as a cumulative, non-inducible En1(Cre) knock-in line in combination with three different reporters: R26R (LacZ reporter), Z/EG (EGFP reporter), and Tau-Lox-STOP-Lox-mGFP-IRES-NLS-LacZ (membrane-targeted GFP/nuclear LacZ reporter). We marked the Wnt1 lineage using each of the three reporters at embryonic day (E) 8.5 followed by analysis at E10.0, E12.5, and in the adult. We also compared cumulative marking of cells with a history of En1 expression at the same stages. We evaluated the reporters by whole-mount and section analysis and ascertained the strengths and weaknesses of each of the reporters. Comparative analysis with the reporters elucidated complexities of how the Wnt1 and En1 lineages contribute to developing embryos and to axonal projection patterns of neurons derived from these lineages.
Adult-born Hippocampal Neurons Are More Numerous, Faster Maturing, and More Involved in Behavior in Rats Than in Mice
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19923282
Neurons are born throughout adulthood in the hippocampus and show enhanced plasticity compared with mature neurons. However, there are conflicting reports on whether or not young neurons contribute to performance in behavioral tasks, and there is no clear relationship between the timing of maturation of young neurons and the duration of neurogenesis reduction in studies showing behavioral deficits. We asked whether these discrepancies could reflect differences in the properties of young neurons in mice and rats. We report that young neurons in adult rats show a mature neuronal marker profile and activity-induced immediate early gene expression 1-2 weeks earlier than those in mice. They are also twice as likely to escape cell death, and are 10 times more likely to be recruited into learning circuits. This comparison holds true in two different strains of mice, both of which show high rates of neurogenesis relative to other background strains. Differences in adult neurogenesis are not limited to the hippocampus, as the density of new neocortical neurons was 5 times greater in rats than in mice. Finally, in a test of function, we find that the contribution of young neurons to fear memory is much greater in rats than in mice. These results reveal substantial differences in new neuron plasticity and function between these two commonly studied rodent species.
Molecular Organization and Timing of Wnt1 Expression Define Cohorts of Midbrain Dopamine Neuron Progenitors in Vivo
The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21713770
Midbrain dopamine (MbDA) neurons are functionally heterogeneous and modulate complex functions through precisely organized anatomical groups. MbDA neurons are generated from Wnt1-expressing progenitors located in the ventral mesencephalon (vMes) during embryogenesis. However, it is unclear whether the progenitor pool is partitioned into distinct cohorts based on molecular identity and whether the timing of gene expression uniquely identifies subtypes of MbDA neurons. In this study we show that Wnt1-expressing MbDA progenitors from embryonic day (E)8.5-12.5 have dynamic molecular identities that correlate with specific spatial locations in the vMes. We also tested the hypothesis that the timing of Wnt1 expression in progenitors is related to the distribution of anatomically distinct cohorts of adult MbDA neurons using genetic inducible fate mapping (GIFM). We demonstrate that the Wnt1 lineage contributes to specific cohorts of MbDA neurons during a 7-day epoch and that the contribution to MbDA neurons predominates over other ventral Mb domains. In addition, we show that calbindin-, GIRK2-, and calretinin-expressing MbDA neuron subtypes are derived from Wnt1-expressing progenitors marked over a broad temporal window. Through GIFM and quantitative analysis we demonstrate that the Wnt1 lineage does not undergo progressive lineage restriction, which eliminates a restricted competence model of generating MbDA diversity. Interestingly, we uncover that two significant peaks of Wnt1 lineage contribution to MbDA neurons occur at E9.5 and E11.5. Collectively, our findings delineate the temporal window of MbDA neuron generation and show that lineage and timing predicts the terminal distribution pattern of MbDA neurons.