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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (45)
- DNA Sequence : the Journal of DNA Sequencing and Mapping
- Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
- Artificial Organs
- Biotechnology Progress
- Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
- Environmental Science & Technology
- Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Tissue Engineering
- Biotechnology Progress
- Biotechnology Advances
- Biotechnology Progress
- Tissue Engineering
- Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
- Stem Cells and Development
- Stem Cells and Development
- Biosensors & Bioelectronics
- Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society
- Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
- The British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
- Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
- Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
- Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
- Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
- Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
- Apoptosis : an International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
- Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
- The British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
- Environmental Microbiology
- Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
- Molecular Biotechnology
- The British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
- ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
- Biotechnology and Bioengineering
- Metabolic Engineering
- PloS One
- Current Molecular Pharmacology
- Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
- Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Articles by Athanasios Mantalaris in JoVE
Ex vivo Mimicry of Normal and Abnormal Human Hematopoiesis
Teresa Mortera-Blanco1, Maria Rende1, Hugo Macedo1, Serene Farah1, Alexander Bismarck1, Athanasios Mantalaris1, Nicki Panoskaltsis2
1Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology, South Kensington campus, Imperial College London, 2Department of Hematology, Northwick Park & St. Mark's campus, Imperial College London
A 3D culture system for hematopoiesis is described using human cord blood and leukemic bone marrow cells. The method is based on the use of a porous synthetic polyurethane scaffold coated with extracellular matrix proteins. This scaffold is adaptable to accommodate a wide range of cells.
Other articles by Athanasios Mantalaris on PubMed
Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of the Human Heme-regulated Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 Alpha (eIF-2 Alpha) Kinase from Bone Marrow Culture
DNA Sequence : the Journal of DNA Sequencing and Mapping. Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12391722
The cDNA encoding human heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor-2 alpha (eIF-2 alpha) kinase was cloned from a human bone marrow culture. Its deduced amino acid sequence comprised of 629 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 71,031 Da. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the gene was also expressed in heart, kidney, spleen, muscle, and stomach.
The Effect of Hyperosmotic Pressure on Antibody Production and Gene Expression in the GS-NS0 Cell Line
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15270706
It has been widely reported that metabolism, cell growth, cell density, product secretion and specific antibody productivity in mammalian cells are strongly affected by osmotic conditions. Previous studies have shown that hyperosmotic pressure suppresses cell growth while enhancing the productivity of individual cells, but the effect of these two changes does not result in an increase in final product concentration in the culture. An improved understanding of the basic cellular processes of a GS-NS0 mammalian cell culture system would assist in the design of a more efficient mammalian cell culture system and in further optimization of production processes. In this study, various properties of mammalian culture systems, such as productivity, cell viability, metabolism, ion balance and the genes regulated during the culture of the GS-NS0 system under osmotic pressure of iso- (290 mOsm/kg) and hyper- (450 mOsm/kg) osmolarity have been investigated, and we demonstrate that there is a decrease in the growth rate and an increase in specific production rate of hyperosmotic cultures as compared with iso-osmotic cultures. Furthermore, differences between iso- and hyper-osmotic cultures have been identified in calcium accumulation and metabolism of NH4+, glucose and lactate. Analysis of gene expression reveals regulation of over 600 genes that are implicated in processes known to be affected by changes in osmotic pressure, such as ion transport, accumulation of osmolytes, cell cycle distribution, proliferation, cytoskeletal organization and cell metabolism.
Proliferation Rates of HepG2 Cells Encapsulated in Alginate Are Increased in a Microgravity Environment Compared with Static Cultures
Artificial Organs. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15670284
This study investigates the effect of rotary culture compared with static culture on the proliferation, cell viability, synthetic function and detoxificatory capacity of HepG2 cells encapsulated in 1% alginate. Cell viability and alginate bead morphology were maintained in the rotary culture system at day 10, while cell number showed a 4.5-fold increase compared with static culture. Protein production was increased in rotary cultures with a 4.1-fold increase in total albumin and a 4.4-fold increase in alpha1 antitrypsin levels in rotary compared with static culture at day 10. CYP4501A1/2 activity was maintained between the two culture systems. In conclusion, rotary culture increases proliferation rates leading to improved bead packing and a concomitant increase in total protein synthesis, along with maintenance of detoxificatory capacity. This allows a greater level of hepatic function to be expressed in a given volume, offering clear advantages for the design of liver support systems.
Application of Global Sensitivity Analysis to Determine Goals for Design of Experiments: an Example Study on Antibody-producing Cell Cultures
Biotechnology Progress. Jul-Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16080692
Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) can be used to quantify the importance of model parameters and their interactions with respect to model output. In this study, the Sobol' method for GSA is applied to a dynamic model of monoclonal antibody-producing mammalian cell cultures in order to identify the parameters that need to be accurately determined experimentally. Our results show that most parameters have low sensitivity indices and exhibit strong interactions with one another. These parameters can be set at their nominal values and unnecessary experimentation can therefore be avoided. In contrast, certain parameters are identified as sensitive, necessitating their estimation given sufficiently rich experimental data. Moreover, parameter sensitivity varies during culture time in a biologically meaningful manner. In conclusion, GSA can serve as an excellent precursor to optimal experiment design.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16233847
Hematopoietic stem cells reside in specific niches in the bone marrow and give rise to either more stem cells or maturing hematopoietic progeny depending on the signals provided in the bone marrow microenvironment. This microenvironment is comprised of cellular components as well as soluble constituents called cytokines. The use of cytokines alone for the ex vivo expansion of stem cells in flat, two-dimensional culture flasks, dishes or bags is inadequate and, given the three-dimensionality of the in vivo bone marrow microenvironment, inappropriate. Three-dimensional culture conditions can therefore provide an ex vivo mimicry of bone marrow, recapitulate the desired niche, and provide a suitable environment for stem cell expansion and differentiation. Choice of scaffold, manipulation and reproducibility of the scaffold properties and directed structuring of the niche, by choosing pore size and porosity may inform the resident stem cells of their fate in a directed fashion. The use of bioreactors for cultivation of hematopoietic cells will allow for culture control, optimization, standardization, scale-up, and a "hands-off" operation making the end-product dependable, predictable and free of contaminants, and therefore suitable for human use and therapeutic applications.
An Oil-absorber-bioscrubber System to Stabilize Biotreatment of Pollutants Present in Waste Gas. Fluctuating Loads of 1,2-dichloroethane
Environmental Science & Technology. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16468408
Biotreatment technologies offer a cost-effective and efficient method for dealing with point-source releases of solvents. However, a major problem hampering these technologies is the fluctuating pollutant loads, which is especially critical for inhibitory pollutants. Provision of biotreatment systems able to cope with this problem is a significant technological and environmental challenge. This study investigates the potential for an absorber to act as buffer for shock loadings of inhibitory pollutants in waste-gas streams undergoing biological treatment. 1,2-Dichloroethane (DCE) was used as an example of a toxic and inhibitory organic pollutant. The stability of a combined oil-absorber-bioscrubber (OAB) system was compared to that of a bioscrubber only (BO) system when each was subjected to shock loads of DCE. The BO system was inoculated with Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain GJ10 and was submitted to sharp, sequential pulses in DCE inlet load, which caused system instability. Complete inhibition of the BO process occurred for a 3 h DCE pulse, leading to 9125 g of DCE m(-3)bioscrubber total organic discharged (TODDCE). Following the pulse, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that the active strain GJ10 was effectively washed-out. In contrast, the performance of the OAB system was stable during DCE shock loads. The carbon dioxide production remained stable, and low levels of effluent DCE and total organic carbon concentrations were found. For the 3 h pulse TODDCE was only 173 g of DCE m(-3)bioscrubber, and FISH indicated that the GJ10 strain remained active. We conclude that the OAB system offers an effective solution to the biological treatment of waste-gas containing fluctuating pollutant concentrations.
Nondestructive Technique for the Characterization of the Pore Size Distribution of Soft Porous Constructs for Tissue Engineering
Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16548583
Polymer scaffolds tailored for tissue engineering applications possessing the desired pore structure require reproducible fabrication techniques. Nondestructive, quantitative methods for pore characterization are required to determine the pore size and its distribution. In this study, a promising alternative to traditional pore size characterization techniques is presented. We introduce a quantitative, nondestructive and inexpensive method to determine the pore size distribution of large soft porous solids based on the on the displacement of a liquid, that spreads without limits though a porous medium, by nitrogen. The capillary pressure is measured and related to the pore sizes as well as the pore size distribution of the narrowest bottlenecks of the largest interconnected pores in a porous medium. The measured pore diameters correspond to the narrowest bottleneck of the largest pores connecting the bottom with the top surface of a given porous solid. The applicability and reproducibility of the breakthrough technique is demonstrated on two polyurethane foams, manufactured using the thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) process, with almost identical overall porosity (60-70%) but very different pore morphology. By selecting different quenching temperatures to induce polymer phase separation, the pore structure could be regulated while maintaining the overall porosity. Depending on the quenching temperature, the foams exhibited either longitudinally oriented tubular macropores interconnected with micropores or independent macropores connected to adjacent pores via openings in the pore walls. The pore size and its distribution obtained by the breakthrough test were in excellent agreement to conventional characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy combined with image analysis, BET technique, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. This technique is suitable for the characterization of the micro- and macropore structure of soft porous solids intended for tissue engineering applications. The method is sensitive for the smallest bottlenecks of the largest continuous pores throughout the scaffold that contributes to fluid flow.
Stability and Performance of Xanthobacter Autotrophicus GJ10 During 1,2-dichloroethane Biodegradation
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16751558
A nucleic acid-based approach was used to investigate the dynamics of a microbial community dominated by Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 in the degradation of synthetic wastewater containing 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE). This study was performed over a 140-day period in a nonsterile continuous stirred-tank bioreactor (CSTB) subjected to different operational regimens: nutrient-limiting conditions, baseline operation, and the introduction of glucose as a cosubstrate. The microbial community was analyzed by a combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Under nutrient-limiting conditions, DCE degradation was restricted, but this did not affect the dominance of strain GJ10, determined by FISH to comprise 85% of the active population. During baseline operation, DCE degradation improved significantly to over 99.5% and then remained constant throughout the subsequent experimental period. DGGE profiles revealed a stable, complex community, while FISH indicated that strain GJ10 remained the dominant species. During the addition of glucose as a cosubstrate, DGGE profiles showed a proliferation of other species in the CSTB. The percentage of strain GJ10 dropped to 8% of the active population in just 5 days, although this did not affect the DCE biodegradation performance. The return to baseline conditions was accompanied by the reestablishment of strain GJ10 as the dominant species, suggesting that this system responds robustly to external perturbations, both at the functional biodegradation level and at the individual strain level.
Enhanced Derivation of Osteogenic Cells from Murine Embryonic Stem Cells After Treatment with HepG2-conditioned Medium and Modulation of the Embryoid Body Formation Period: Application to Skeletal Tissue Engineering
Tissue Engineering. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16846337
Despite the considerable progress made in directing embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation to therapeutically useful lineages, several issues remain to be resolved before ESCs can be used for cell therapy: 1) increasing the efficiency of specific lineage generation, and 2) developing time- and cost-effective culture systems for controlling ESC differentiation. Our study aimed to develop efficient methods to enhance mesodermal differentiation and thereby upregulate osteogenic differentiation of ESCs. Specifically, murine ESCs (mESCs) were cultured in the presence of 50% conditioned medium (CM) from the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2, which resulted in enhanced mesoderm formation during embryoid body (EB) formation in the CM-treated mESCs (CM-mESCs). By varying the length of EB culture time, we achieved the selective control and stimulation of osteogenic differentiation and suppression of cardiogenic differentiation. Hence, reducing the EB culture of the CM-mESCs to 1 day resulted in 5-10-fold enhancement of osteogenic differentiation, as determined by bone nodule formation, higher alkaline phosphatase activity, the presence of well-organized osteoblast-cadherin in the bone nodules, and increased cbfa-1/runx2 gene expression. In contrast, increasing the EB culture of the CM-mESCs to 5 days resulted in three- to four-fold enhanced cardiogenic differentiation. These findings for development of highly efficient culture systems and protocols for mESC differentiation into osteogenic lineage that are time- and cost-effective can be used in skeletal tissue engineering applications.
Development and Analysis of a Mathematical Model for Antibody-producing GS-NS0 Cells Under Normal and Hyperosmotic Culture Conditions
Biotechnology Progress. Nov-Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17137302
The GS-NS0 cell line is industrially important and is currently used for the large-scale production of several therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. A novel hybrid model, consisting of both unstructured and structured elements, has been developed to describe cell growth and death, metabolism, and antibody production in the GS-NS0 system under normal culture conditions. A comparison between the hybrid model and a large-scale single-cell model (SCM) describing detailed metabolic processes verified the predictive ability of the hybrid model (when compared with experimental data) and highlighted the practical difficulties involved in utilizing complex models. Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) on the hybrid model identified the specific transcription and translation rates of heavy and light immunoglobulin chains as parameters with the largest impact on the antibody production process. This information, together with the addition of a 24-h lag phase, resulted in the successful extension of the hybrid model to represent GS-NS0 system behavior under hyperosmotic culture conditions.
Intelligent Bioprocessing for Haemotopoietic Cell Cultures Using Monitoring and Design of Experiments
Biotechnology Advances. Jul-Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17428632
The need for successful ex-vivo expansion and directed differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for therapeutic applications has increased over the past decade. Haematopoietic cell cultures are complex and full characterisation of the process environment has yet to be achieved. The complexity and transient nature of HSC cultures make the identification, maintenance and control of optimal operating conditions challenging. Application of real-time, on-line monitoring techniques and process control strategies enhances the ability to operate bioprocesses of desired reproducibility and high product quality. In this review, we discussed the methods by which in vitro culture information necessary for bioprocess control may be obtained, including process considerations, monitoring and analytical tools, and design of experiments (DOE). The successful application of these tools may result in time- and cost-effective cultures for directed differentiation and expansion of haematopoietic components intended for clinical use.
Biotechnology Progress. Nov-Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17949105
Amino acids are necessary to mammalian cell cultures both for protein synthesis and as an energy source. In this study, we present an unstructured mathematical model describing (i) cell growth and death kinetics and (ii) metabolism of glucose and 19 amino acids for HEK-293 and CHO IFN-gamma cell cultures. The proposed mathematical framework is in good agreement with experimental data for both cell lines. It accommodates the inclusion of expressions for other cellular activities, such as the production of recombinant viral vectors or proteins, and can be used as the basis for the development of a model library for mammalian cell cultures.
Tissue Engineering. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17988191
Embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture is fragmented and laborious and involves operator decisions. Most protocols consist of 3 individual steps: maintenance, embryoid body (EB) formation, and differentiation. Integration will assist automation, ultimately aiding scale-up to clinically relevant numbers. These problems were addressed by encapsulating undifferentiated murine ESCs (mESCs) in 1.1% (w/v) low-viscosity alginic acid, 0.1% (v/v) porcine gelatin hydrogel beads (d = 2.3 mm). Six hundred beads containing 10,000 mESCs per bead were cultured in a 50-mL high-aspect-ratio vessel bioreactor. Bioreactor cultures were rotated at 17.5 revolutions per min, cultured in maintenance medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor for 3 days, replaced with EB formation medium for 5 days followed by osteogenic medium containing L-ascorbate-2-phosphate (50 microg/mL), beta-glycerophosphate (10 mM), and dexamethasone (1 microM) for an additional 21 days. After 29 days, 84 times as many cells per bead were observed and mineralized matrix was formed within the alginate beads. Osteogenesis was confirmed using von Kossa, Alizarin Red S staining, alkaline phosphatase activity, immunocytochemistry for osteocalcin, OB-cadherin, collagen type I, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, microcomputed tomography (micro-computed tomography) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging. This simplified, integrated, and potentially scaleable methodology could enable the production of 3-demensional mineralized tissue from ESCs for potential clinical applications.
Through-thickness Plasma Modification of Biodegradable and Nonbiodegradable Porous Polymer Constructs
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18189299
Pure poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and polystyrene surfaces are not very suitable to support cell adhesion/spreading owing to their hydrophobic nature and low surface energy. The interior surfaces of large porous 3D scaffolds were modified and activated using radio-frequency, low-pressure air plasma. An increase in the wettability of the surface was observed after exposure to air plasma, as indicated by the decrease in the contact angles of the wet porous system. The surface composition of the plasma-treated polymers was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. pH-dependent zeta-potential measurements confirm the presence of an increased number of functional groups. However, the plasma-treated surfaces have a less acidic character than the original polymer surfaces as seen by a shift in their isoelectric point. Zeta-potential, as well as contact angle measurements, on 3D scaffolds confirm that plasma treatment is a useful tool to modify the surface properties throughout the interior of large scaffolds.
Biomaterials. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18377982
Epithelial cells polarize and differentiate into organotypic cell aggregates in response to cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. For example, Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells form spherical cell aggregates (cysts) with distinct apical and basolateral polarity when cultured three dimensionally (embedded) in type I collagen gels. To investigate the effects of individual extracellular factors on epithelial morphogenesis, we engineered fast degrading protease-responsive polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogels functionalized with controlled densities of various bioligands (RGD peptide, laminin-1 (LN)) to allow 3D culturing of MDCK cells, cyst expansion, and morphogenesis/polarization. Cysts formed after 15 days of culture in these hydrogels were analyzed with multiphoton fluorescence microscopy for markers of apical and basolateral membrane domains. Epithelial cysts formed in bioadhesive ligand-functionalized PEG gels exhibited a higher frequency of central lumen and interior apical pole formation as well as basolateral polarization compared to those of unmodified PEG hydrogels. These results demonstrate that incorporation of specific bioadhesive motifs into synthetic hydrogels provides 3D culture environments that support epithelial morphogenesis. These microenvironments provide a flexible and controlled system for systematic investigations into normal and pathologic morphogenic behaviours as well as synthetic environments for promoting tissue morphogenesis for regenerative medicine applications.
Surface Modification of Natural Fibers Using Bacteria: Depositing Bacterial Cellulose Onto Natural Fibers to Create Hierarchical Fiber Reinforced Nanocomposites
Biomacromolecules. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18491942
Triggered biodegradable composites made entirely from renewable resources are urgently sought after to improve material recyclability or be able to divert materials from waste streams. Many biobased polymers and natural fibers usually display poor interfacial adhesion when combined in a composite material. Here we propose a way to modify the surfaces of natural fibers by utilizing bacteria ( Acetobacter xylinum) to deposit nanosized bacterial cellulose around natural fibers, which enhances their adhesion to renewable polymers. This paper describes the process of modifying large quantities of natural fibers with bacterial cellulose through their use as substrates for bacteria during fermentation. The modified fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, single fiber tensile tests, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inverse gas chromatography to determine their surface and mechanical properties. The practical adhesion between the modified fibers and the renewable polymers cellulose acetate butyrate and poly(L-lactic acid) was quantified using the single fiber pullout test.
Stem Cells and Development. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18564030
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) posses the ability to self-renew and differentiate into a multitude of lineages, including the osteogenic lineage in vitro. Currently, most approaches have focused on embryonic body (EB)-mediated osteogenic differentiation, which relies on formation of all three germ layers resulting in limited yields and labour-intensive culture processes. Our study aimed at developing an efficient culture strategy resulting in the upregulated in vitro osteogenic differentiation of murine ESCs (mESCs), which completely avoided EB formation. Specifically, mESCs were cultured in HepG2 conditioned medium for 3 days and then directed into osteogenic differentiation for 21 days without prior EB formation. The mineralised bone nodules generated were characterized by Alizarin red S-staining, phenotypic alkaline phosphatase expression, time-course analysis of ALPase activity, the presence of type I collagen and osteopontin, and osteocalcin, cbfa-1/runx-2, and osterix gene expression. Our method of direct osteogenic differentiation of mESCs represents a novel and efficient approach that results in enhanced yields and could have significant applications in bone tissue engineering.
Stem Cells and Development. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18564031
Current approaches on the chondrogenic differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) involve embryoid body (EB) formation, resulting in a fragmented process where control of differentiation, integration, and scalability are difficult to achieve, thus hampering any potential application to cartilage tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Our study aimed at developing a simplified two-step process which avoids EB formation and results in enhanced chondrogenic differentiation of murine ESCs. Specifically, mESCs were cultured in HepG2 conditioned medium for 3 days and then directed into chondrogenic differentiation for 15 days without prior EB formation. Analysis of chondrogenic differentiation demonstrated well-developed Alcian blue-stained cartilage nodules, production of sulfated glycosaminoglycan and collagen matrix, the presence of structured type II collagen and sox-9 molecules, as well as distinct gene expression of type II collagen, aggrecan, link-protein, scleraxis and sox-9 transcripts. To our knowledge, this represents one of the first reports demonstrating the enhanced derivation of chondrogenic cells from mESCs without EB formation in a simplified and easily integrateable and scalable bioprocess with potential applications in cartilage tissue engineering.
Biocompatible Ion Selective Electrode for Monitoring Metabolic Activity During the Growth and Cultivation of Human Cells
Biosensors & Bioelectronics. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18571918
Ammonia is the main nitrogenous waste product of cellular metabolism and if accumulated in culture media may limit cell growth and affect the quality of cultured cell lines. Therefore, it is crucial to control levels of this metabolite during the in vitro expansion of human cells. This paper describes the successful application of ion selective electrodes (ISE) to continuously monitor ammonium concentrations in a perfused cell bioreactor. The polymeric membranes of the ISE were cast from carboxylated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-COOH) and doped with highly hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The PEG was incorporated into the surface of the sensors in order to reduce the effect of biofouling without impairing their analytical characteristics. The electrodes developed enabled fast and selective measurements of ammonia in the range 0.5-5mM, corresponding well with the concentration determined off-line. Additionally, the UV sterilised sensors were small and flexible enough to be readily inserted into the limited space of the bioreactor. Long-term analytical performance of PEG-modified ISE during continuous measurements in mammalian cell cultures was investigated. The sensors remained stable for the duration of the bioprocess, 7 days.
Biomaterials. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18639332
The majority of methodologies for maintaining human embryonic stem cell (hESC) pluripotency require the use of human or animal feeder cell layers, the most common being murine embryonic fibroblasts. In this study, we applied a protocol aimed at maintaining hESCs in culture without exposure to animal cells or proteins. hESCs were encapsulated in 1.1% (w/v) calcium alginate hydrogels and grown in basic maintenance medium for a period of up to 260 days. Investigation of the cell aggregates formed within the hydrogels yielded no evidence of the formation of any of the three germ layers, although the hESCs retained their pluripotency and could differentiate when they were subsequently cultured in a conditioned environment. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR showed that the hESC aggregates expressed protein and gene markers characteristic of pluripotency including Oct-4, Nanog, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. At the ultrastructural level, the cells were arranged in closely packed clusters and showed no cytoplasmic organelles, suggesting an undifferentiated state. These data show that it is possible to maintain hESCs in an undifferentiated state, without passaging or embryoid body formation, and without animal contamination.
The Use of Murine Embryonic Stem Cells, Alginate Encapsulation, and Rotary Microgravity Bioreactor in Bone Tissue Engineering
Biomaterials. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18977027
The application of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine requires the development of suitable bioprocesses that facilitate the integrated, reproducible, automatable production of clinically-relevant, scaleable, and integrated bioprocesses that generate sufficient cell numbers resulting in the formation of three-dimensional (3D) mineralised, bone tissue-like constructs. Previously, we have reported the enhanced differentiation of undifferentiated mESCs toward the osteogenic lineage in the absence of embryoid body formation. Herein, we present an efficient and integrated 3D bioprocess based on the encapsulation of undifferentiated mESCs within alginate hydrogels and culture in a rotary cell culture microgravity bioreactor. Specifically, for the first 3 days, encapsulated mESCs were cultured in 50% (v/v) HepG2 conditioned medium to generate a cell population with enhanced mesodermal differentiation capability followed by osteogenic differentiation using osteogenic media containing ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate and dexamethasone. 3D mineralised constructs were generated that displayed the morphological, phenotypical, and molecular attributes of the osteogenic lineage, as well mechanical strength and mineralised calcium/phosphate deposition. Consequently, this bioprocess provides an efficient, automatable, scalable and functional culture system for application to bone tissue engineering in the context of macroscopic bone formation.
Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19033137
In recent years, the potential of stem cell research for tissue engineering-based therapies and regenerative medicine clinical applications has become well established. In 2006, Chung pioneered the first entire organ transplant using adult stem cells and a scaffold for clinical evaluation. With this a new milestone was achieved, with seven patients with myelomeningocele receiving stem cell-derived bladder transplants resulting in substantial improvements in their quality of life. While a bladder is a relatively simple organ, the breakthrough highlights the incredible benefits that can be gained from the cross-disciplinary nature of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) that encompasses stem cell research and stem cell bioprocessing. Unquestionably, the development of bioprocess technologies for the transfer of the current laboratory-based practice of stem cell tissue culture to the clinic as therapeutics necessitates the application of engineering principles and practices to achieve control, reproducibility, automation, validation and safety of the process and the product. The successful translation will require contributions from fundamental research (from developmental biology to the 'omics' technologies and advances in immunology) and from existing industrial practice (biologics), especially on automation, quality assurance and regulation. The timely development, integration and execution of various components will be critical-failures of the past (such as in the commercialization of skin equivalents) on marketing, pricing, production and advertising should not be repeated. This review aims to address the principles required for successful stem cell bioprocessing so that they can be applied deftly to clinical applications.
The Incorporation of 70s Bioactive Glass to the Osteogenic Differentiation of Murine Embryonic Stem Cells in 3D Bioreactors
Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19053163
Transplantation of encapsulated living cells is a promising approach for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. Bioactive glass (bioglass) can be used for drug delivery and other regenerative medicine applications. First of all, we established a scenario of bioglass-incorporated alginate encapsulation. Then we studied the expansion of encapsulated murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) in bioreactors with exposure to 70s bioglass. Finally, an integrated osteogenic differentiation of encapsulated mESCs with the presence of 70s bioglass was investigated. The proliferation and viability of mESCs which had been encapsulated with 70s bioglass was enhanced compared to the regular control and bioglass-conditioned medium culture group. Embryoid body (EB) formation assessment demonstrated the undifferentiated pluripotency of dissociated mESCs. However, no significant difference was observed between the bioglass-incorporated encapsulation group, the bioglass-conditioned medium culture group and the control in terms of expression-specific osteogenic markers. Therefore, the 70s bioglass particles could be incorporated into the integrated bioprocessing of mESCs in 3D bioreactors, which is applicable to bone tissue engineering, such as in diseased or damaged bone restoration. These findings have potential implications and applications for tissue engineering where bioglass substrates could be used for the production of bioengineered bone both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, it would be possible to inject the mineralized tissue-filled and bioglass-incorporated alginate hydrogels directly into the defect area.
The British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19278759
The last few decades of basic science research have provided an increased understanding of the role of osteogenic glycoproteins in bone formation. The isolation of such molecules now permits de novo orthotopic induction with increasing evidence of the ability to also induce bone growth in heterotopic sites. The current editorial focuses on the basic science of bone induction with two subsequent issues dedicated to the translation of these principles into both animal subjects and human clinical applications.
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19426117
TGF-beta has been proposed to stimulate chondrogenesis through intracellular pathways involving small mothers against decapentaplegic proteins (Smads).
Prostaglandin EP2 and EP4 Receptor Agonists in Bone Formation and Bone Healing: In Vivo and in Vitro Evidence
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19426119
Using agonists that selectively stimulate PGE2 receptors, the adverse effects that have limited the clinical utility of PGE2 can be avoided and there may be potential for their use as therapeutic agents in the treatment of bone loss in humans.
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19480608
The role of growth hormone (GH) in augmenting fracture healing has been postulated for over half a century. GH has been shown to play a role in bone metabolism and this can be mediated directly or indirectly through IGF-I.
The Potential Adverse Effects of Aromatase Inhibitors on Wound Healing: in Vitro and in Vivo Evidence
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19645634
Estrogens and several other endogenous substances are recognised as being important in the process of wound healing. However, the effect of aromatase and aromatase inhibition in the wound healing process has yet to be fully defined.
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19747084
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has been shown in vivo to increase bone formation and supplement fracture healing, and may have a role as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of bone loss and fracture healing in humans.
Apoptosis : an International Journal on Programmed Cell Death. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20012365
Requiem, a hypothesized transcription factor with apoptosis-related activity, was previously shown to be a potential cell engineering gene target for improving recombinant protein production. Requiem suppression has resulted in improved viable cell density and extended culture viability, leading to an overall improvement in recombinant protein productivity. However, not much is known about the function of requiem. We found that requiem is highly conserved at both nucleotide and amino acid levels in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells when compared to human and mouse sequences, suggesting that requiem's functional role is evolutionary well conserved. Upon inducing requiem over-expression, proliferation rates of CHO cells were significantly decreased with doubling times increased by 26%. Interestingly, the over-expression of requiem did not decrease cell viability and could not induce apoptosis. However, requiem sensitized the cells to increased caspase-9 activities under staurosporine-induced apoptosis, suggesting that it has a role to play in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis under staurosporine treatment. The nuclear localization of REQUIEM in CHO cells and its conserved plant homeodomain (PHD) zinc fingers seem to further support the hypothesis that requiem encodes for a potential transcription factor. Upon requiem over-expression, we found that the differentially expressed genes involved in transcriptional regulation and cell proliferation and growth were associated both upstream and downstream of p53.
The Development of a Three-dimensional Scaffold for Ex Vivo Biomimicry of Human Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
Biomaterials. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20015543
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a cancer of haematopoietic cells that develops in three-dimensional (3-D) bone marrow niches in vivo. The study of AML has been hampered by lack of appropriate ex vivo models that mimic this microenvironment. We hypothesised that fabrication and optimisation of suitable biomimetic scaffolds for culturing leukaemic cells ex vivo might facilitate the study of AML in its native 3-D niche. We evaluated the growth of three leukaemia subtype-specific cell lines, K-562, HL60 and Kasumi-6, on highly porous scaffolds fabricated from biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymeric materials, such as poly (L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polyurethane (PU), poly (methyl-methacrylate), poly (D, L-lactade), poly (caprolactone), and polystyrene. Our results show that PLGA and PU supported the best seeding efficiency and leukaemic growth. Furthermore, the PLGA and PU scaffolds were coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, collagen type I (62.5 or 125 microg/ml) and fibronectin (25 or 50 microg/ml) to provide biorecognition signals. The 3 leukaemia subtype-specific lines grew best on PU scaffolds coated with 62.5 microg/ml collagen type I over 6 weeks in the absence of exogenous growth factors. In conclusion, PU-collagen scaffolds may provide a practical model to study the biology and treatment of primary AML in an ex vivo mimicry.
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20415596
Bone is one of the most transplanted tissues worldwide. Autograft is the ideal bone graft but is not widely used because of donor site morbidity and restricted availability. Allograft is easily accessible but can transmit infections and elicit an immune response.
The British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20430492
This review, the second in a series of three editorials, focuses on the problems of translating basic scientific research on induction of bone into reliable clinical applications.
The Regulatory Logic of M-xylene Biodegradation by Pseudomonas Putida Mt-2 Exposed by Dynamic Modelling of the Principal Node Ps/Pr of the TOL Plasmid
Environmental Microbiology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20553551
The structure of the extant transcriptional control network of the TOL plasmid pWW0 born by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 for biodegradation of m-xylene is far more complex than one would consider necessary from a mere engineering point of view. In order to penetrate the underlying logic of such a network, which controls a major environmental cleanup bioprocess, we have developed a dynamic model of the key regulatory node formed by the Ps/Pr promoters of pWW0, where the clustering of control elements is maximal. The model layout was validated with batch cultures estimating parameter values and its predictive capability was confirmed with independent sets of experimental data. The model revealed how regulatory outputs originated in the divergent and overlapping Ps/Pr segment, which expresses the transcription factors XylS and XylR respectively, are computed into distinct instructions to the upper and lower catabolic xyl operons for either simultaneous or stepwise consumption of m-xylene and/or succinate. In this respect, the model reveals that the architecture of the Ps/Pr is poised to discriminate the abundance of alternative and competing C sources, in particular m-xylene versus succinate. The proposed framework provides a first systemic understanding of the causality and connectivity of the regulatory elements that shape this exemplary regulatory network, facilitating the use of model analysis towards genetic circuit optimization.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20564244
Statins are potent inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis. Several statins are available with different molecular and pharmacokinetic properties. Simvastatin is more lipophilic than pravastatin and has a higher affinity to phospholipid membranes than atorvastatin, allowing its passive diffusion through the cell membrane. In vitro studies on bone marrow stromal cells, osteoblast-like cells, and embryonic stem cells have shown statins to have cholesterol-independent anabolic effects on bone metabolism; alas, statins were supplemented in osteogenic medium, which does not facilitate elucidation of their potential osteoinductive properties. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, are unique in that they enjoy perpetual self-proliferation, are pluripotent, and are able to differentiate toward all the cellular lineages composing the body, including the osteogenic lineage. Consequently, ESCs represent a potentially potent cell source for future clinical cellular therapies of various bone diseases, even though there are several hurdles that still need to be overcome. Herein we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that simvastatin induces murine ESC (mESC) differentiation toward the osteogenic lineage in the absence of osteoinductive supplements. Specifically, we found that a simvastatin concentration in the micromolar range and higher was toxic to the cells and that an effective concentration for osteoinduction is 0.1 nM, as shown by increased alizarin red staining as well as increased osteocalcin and osetrix gene expression. These results suggest that in the future, lipophilic simvastatin may provide a novel pharmacologic agent for bone tissue engineering applications.
Simultaneous Targeting of Requiem & Alg-2 in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells for Improved Recombinant Protein Production
Molecular Biotechnology. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20571937
Apoptosis is known to be the main cause of cell death in the bioreactor environment, leading to the loss of recombinant protein productivity. In a previous study, transcriptional profiling was used to identify and target four early apoptosis-signaling genes: FADD, FAIM, Alg-2, and Requiem. The resulting cell lines had increased viable cell numbers and extended culture viability, which translated to increased protein productivity. Combinatorial targeting of two genes simultaneously has previously been shown to be more effective than targeting one gene alone. In this study, we sought to determine if targeting Requiem and Alg-2 was more effective than targeting Requiem alone. We found that targeting Requiem and Alg-2 did not result in extended culture viability, but resulted in an increase in maximum viable cell numbers and cumulative IVCD under fed-batch conditions. This in turn led to an approximately 1.5-fold increase in recombinant protein productivity.
The British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21144628
This final review in a series of three focuses on how the advances made in the realm of molecular and cellular bone biology have been translated into experimental animal and human surgery.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21186815
In this study, we demonstrate that bacterial cellulose (BC) networks can be cross-linked via glyoxalization. The fracture surfaces of samples show that, in the dry state, less delamination occurs for glyoxalized BC networks compared to unmodified BC networks, suggesting that covalent bond coupling between BC layers occurs during the glyoxalization process. Young's moduli of dry unmodified BC networks do not change significantly after glyoxalization. The stress and strain at failure are, however, reduced after glyoxalization. However, the wet mechanical properties of the BC networks are improved by glyoxalization. Raman spectroscopy is used to demonstrate that the stress-transfer efficiency of deformed dry and wet glyoxalized BC networks is significantly increased compared to unmodified material. This enhanced stress-transfer within the networks is shown to be a consequence of the covalent coupling induced during glyoxalization and offers a facile route for enhancing the mechanical properties of BC networks for a variety of applications.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21309085
Peripheral lymphoid organs (PLOs), the primary sites of development of adaptive immune responses, display a complex structural organization reflecting separation of cellular subsets (e.g., T and B lymphocytes) and functional compartments which is critical for immune function. The generation of in vitro culture systems capable of recapitulating salient features of PLOs for experimental, biotechnological, and clinical applications would be highly desirable, but has been hampered so far by the complexity of these systems. We have previously developed a three-dimensional bioreactor system for long-term, functional culture of human bone marrow cells on macroporous microspheres in a packed-bed bioreactor with frequent medium change. Here we adapt the same system for culture of human primary cells from PLOs (tonsil) in the absence of specific exogenous growth factors or activators. Cells in this system displayed higher viability over several weeks, and maintain population diversity and cell surface markers largely comparable to primary cells. Light microscopy showed cells organizing in large diverse clusters within the scaffold pores and presence of B cell-enriched areas. Strikingly, these cultures generated a significant number of antibody-producing B cells when challenged with a panel of diverse antigens, as expected from a lymphoid tissue. Thus the three-dimensional tonsil bioreactor culture system may serve as a useful model of PLOs by recapitulating their structural organization and function ex vivo.
Metabolic Engineering. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21315172
The majority of models describing the kinetic properties of a microorganism for a given substrate are unstructured and empirical. They are formulated in this manner so that the complex mechanism of cell growth is simplified. Herein, a novel approach for modelling microbial growth kinetics is proposed, linking biomass growth and substrate consumption rates to the gene regulatory programmes that control these processes. A dynamic model of the TOL (pWW0) plasmid of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 has been developed, describing the molecular interactions that lead to the transcription of the upper and meta operons, known to produce the enzymes for the oxidative catabolism of m-xylene. The genetic circuit model was combined with a growth kinetic model decoupling biomass growth and substrate consumption rates, which are expressed as independent functions of the rate-limiting enzymes produced by the operons. Estimation of model parameters and validation of the model's predictive capability were successfully performed in batch cultures of mt-2 fed with different concentrations of m-xylene, as confirmed by relative mRNA concentration measurements of the promoters encoded in TOL. The growth formation and substrate utilisation patterns could not be accurately described by traditional Monod-type models for a wide range of conditions, demonstrating the critical importance of gene regulation for the development of advanced models closely predicting complex bioprocesses. In contrast, the proposed strategy, which utilises quantitative information pertaining to upstream molecular events that control the production of rate-limiting enzymes, predicts the catabolism of a substrate and biomass formation and could be of central importance for the design of optimal bioprocesses.
Modelling the Delta1/Notch1 Pathway: in Search of the Mediator(s) of Neural Stem Cell Differentiation
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21346804
The Notch1 signalling pathway has been shown to control neural stem cell fate through lateral inhibition of mash1, a key promoter of neuronal differentiation. Interaction between the Delta1 ligand of a differentiating cell and the Notch1 protein of a neighbouring cell results in cleavage of the trans-membrane protein, releasing the intracellular domain (NICD) leading to the up regulation of hes1. Hes1 homodimerisation leads to down regulation of mash1. Most mathematical models currently represent this pathway up to the formation of the HES1 dimer. Herein, we present a detailed model ranging from the cleavage of the NICD and how this signal propagates through the Delta1/Notch1 pathway to repress the expression of the proneural genes. Consistent with the current literature, we assume that cells at the self renewal state are represented by a stable limit cycle and through in silico experimentation we conclude that a drastic change in the main pathway is required in order for the transition from self-renewal to differentiation to take place. Specifically, a model analysis based approach is utilised in order to generate hypotheses regarding potential mediators of this change. Through this process of model based hypotheses generation and testing, the degradation rates of Hes1 and Mash1 mRNA and the dissociation constant of Mash1-E47 heterodimers are identified as the most potent mediators of the transition towards neural differentiation.
Current Molecular Pharmacology. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21787288
Prostaglandin E2 is known to be a potent metabolite in bone biology. Its effects are mediated via four receptor subtypes with different properties, effects and mechanisms of action. The EP2 and EP4 receptors have been extensively investigated as bone anabolic therapy targets in the literature. The aim of this review was to analyse the available evidence supporting the use of selective agonists for those receptors for anabolic bone application purposes. Although several studies report on the presence of the EP2 receptor in several cell types, efforts to directly confirm the presence of this receptor in human bone cells have not been successful. The EP4 receptor however has been identified in human bone cells and its significant role in bone biology has been demonstrated with the use of selective agonists, antagonists and transgenic small animals. The use of selective EP4 agonists reversed established osteoporotic changes, enhanced the bone-implant interface strength and was shown to have a synergistic effect when used with other bone cell targeting pharmacological agents such as BMP-2 and bisphosphonates. Further elucidation of the side-effect profile of prostanoid and non-prostanoid agonists is required for these agents to proceed towards clinical applications.
Biomaterials. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21908041
Cord blood expansion ex vivo can be achieved in liquid suspension through the addition of cytokines at the expense of often undesirable cell differentiation. In order to derive a cytokine-free dynamic culture system, we hypothesised that a three-dimensional (3D) environment in the form of highly porous scaffolds made of poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or polyurethane (PU) for the biomimetic growth of cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMNCs), would facilitate expansion of hematopoietic cells without exogenous cytokines. Both scaffolds supported cellular expansion ex vivo. Cytokine-free, long-term culture was best in PU coated with collagen type I (54-fold expansion). In contrast, traditional 2D well-plate cultures collapsed within 4 days in the absence of cytokines. CBMNCs cultured in the scaffolds were visualised by scanning electron microscopy and immunophenotypic/immunostaining analysis and the studies validated the presence of a dynamic culture containing erythroid precursors (CD45(-)/CD71(+)/CD235a(+)), hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (CD38(-)CD34(+), CD117(+)), maturing myeloid cells (CD38(+), MPO(+)), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes and megakaryocytes (FVIII(+)). Colony forming unit (CFU) assays indicated that BFU-E and CFU-GM increased (p < 0.05) whereas CFU-GEMM were maintained at week 4. In conclusion, this 3D culture system is capable of long-term, cytokine-free expansion of CBMNCs, enabling the study of hematopoiesis and providing a potential platform for drug discovery and therapeutic applications ex vivo.
Computational Approach for Understanding and Improving GS-NS0 Antibody Production Under Hyperosmotic Conditions
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22018734
A systematic computational framework is proposed for studying the underlying mechanisms of hyperosmotic conditions on GS-NS0 antibody production and to predict the optimal hyperosmotic induction time. Both IgG mRNA and polypeptide chain concentrations were positively related to the specific antibody productivity (q(Ab)) for normal and hyperosmotic conditions throughout. Hyperosmotic conditions resulted in 100% increase in specific IgG mRNA transcription rates; however, mRNA half-lives were 25% lower at both the mid-exponential and stationary phases. The IgG specific translation rates were higher (24%) at the mid-exponential phase for hyperosmotic cultures but were comparable in later phases. The main mechanism through which hyperosmotic conditions improve q(Ab) was concluded to be the heightened specific transcription rates. The predictive capability of the model was experimentally verified by identifying the optimal hyperosmotic induction time for biphasic GS-NS0 cultures at 72 h. The systematic approach that seamlessly combined experimentation and mathematical modelling, allowed both for the model based design of experiments that yielded valuable biological insight and for the prediction of the optimal hyperosmotic induction time. This framework enables "closing-the-loop" in mammalian cell bioprocess modelling by guiding experimentation through modelling.
Development of a Novel Three-dimensional, Automatable and Integrated Bioprocess for the Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells into Pulmonary Alveolar Cells in a Rotating Vessel Bioreactor System
Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods. Apr, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22047052
Application of stem cells for cell therapy of respiratory diseases is a developing field. We have previously established several protocols for the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESC) into alveolar epithelial cells, which require a high degree of operator interference and result in a low yield of target cells. Herein, we have shown that, by provision of a medium conditioned using A549 cells and by integration of classic steps of ESC differentiation into a single step through encapsulation in hydrogels (three-dimensional) and culture in a rotary bioreactor, murine ESC (mESC) could be directed to differentiate into distal respiratory epithelial cells. Type I and II pneumocytes (with a yield of 50% for type II) and Clara cells were demonstrated by the expression of aquaporin 5, surfactant protein C, and Clara cell secretory protein, respectively. We identified target cells as early as day 5 of culture and stably maintained our differentiated cells in vitro for 100 days. Electron microscopy demonstrated microvilli and intracellular lamellar bodies (LB), and fluorescent staining confirmed the active process of exocytosis of these LB in differentiated type II cells. When these cells were decapsulated and cultured in static conditions in flask cultures (two-dimensional), they retained their characteristic type II phenotype and morphology. In conclusion, our protocol offers integrated bioprocessing, shorter time of differentiation, lower cost, no use of growth factors, high reproducibility, and high phenotypic and functional stability, as well as being amenable to automation and being scalable, which would move this field closer to future clinical applications.