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In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Ayalkibet Hundesa in JoVE
חסכונית שיטת מעקב אחר מקור מיקרוביאלית באמצעות וירוסים אדם ובעלי חיים ספציפיים
Sílvia Bofill-Mas, Ayalkibet Hundesa, Byron Calgua, Marta Rusiñol, Carlos Maluquer de Motes, Rosina Girones
Laboratory of Water and Food Viral Pollution, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona
המחקר מתאר שיטה חסכונית לזיהוי מקור הזיהום צואה / שתן או זיהום חנקות במים באמצעות כימות qPCR עבור הספציפי של נגיפי DNA, adenoviruses אדם / חזירי / שור ו polyomaviruses, כפי שהוצע כלים MST.
Other articles by Ayalkibet Hundesa on PubMed
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15006765
In this study, a molecular procedure for the detection of adenoviruses of animal origin was developed to evaluate the level of excretion of these viruses by swine and cattle and to design a test to facilitate the tracing of specific sources of environmental viral contamination. Two sets of oligonucleotides were designed, one to detect porcine adenoviruses and the other to detect bovine and ovine adenoviruses. The specificity of the assays was assessed in 31 fecal samples and 12 sewage samples that were collected monthly during a 1-year period. The data also provided information on the environmental prevalence of animal adenoviruses. Porcine adenoviruses were detected in 17 of 24 (70%) pools of swine samples studied, with most isolates being closely related to serotype 3. Bovine adenoviruses were present in 6 of 8 (75%) pools studied, with strains belonging to the genera Mastadenovirus and Atadenovirus and being similar to bovine adenoviruses of types 2, 4, and 7. These sets of primers produced negative results in nested PCR assays when human adenovirus controls and urban-sewage samples were tested. Likewise, the sets of primers previously designed for detection of human adenovirus also produced negative results with animal adenoviruses. These results indicate the importance of further studies to evaluate the usefulness of these tests to trace the source of fecal contamination in water and food and for environmental studies.
Journal of Virological Methods. May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15794979
Environmental samples and contaminated shellfish present frequently low concentrations of more than one viral species. For this reason, a nested multiplex RT-PCR was developed for the detection of adenoviruses, enteroviruses and hepatitis A viruses in different environmental samples such as urban sewage and shellfish. This assay will save time and cost for detection of these enteric viruses with a smaller sample volume, which otherwise can be a limiting factor in routine analysis. The limit of detection was approximately 1 copy for adenovirus and 10 copies for enterovirus and hepatitis A virus per PCR reaction using titrated cell-cultured viruses as template material. In shellfish and environmental samples, this multiplex PCR was optimized to detect all three viruses simultaneously when the concentration of each virus was equal or lower than 1000 copies per PCR reaction. This is the level found predominantly in the environment and in shellfish when the numbers of fecal bacterial and phage indicators are low. The detection of human adenoviruses by PCR has been suggested as a molecular index of fecal contamination of human origin in the environment and food and the multiplex assay developed may be a tool for evaluating the presence of viral contamination in shellfish and water and to expand microbiological control to include viral markers.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17028225
Human adenoviruses (HAdV) and human polyomavirus JCPyV have been previously proposed as indicators of fecal viral contamination in the environment. Different wastewater matrices have been analyzed by applying real-time quantitative PCR procedures for the presence, quantity, and stability of a wide diversity of excreted HAdV and JCPyV. High quantities of HAdV and JCPyV were detected in sewage, effluent wastewater, sludge, and biosolid samples. Both viruses showed high stability in urban sewage. These results confirm the suitability of both viruses as indicators of human fecal viral pollution.
Identification of Human and Animal Adenoviruses and Polyomaviruses for Determination of Sources of Fecal Contamination in the Environment
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17041162
The Adenoviridae and Polyomaviridae families comprise a wide diversity of viruses which may be excreted for long periods in feces or urine. In this study, a preliminary analysis of the prevalence in the environment and the potential usefulness as source-tracking tools of human and animal adenoviruses and polyomaviruses has been developed. Molecular assays based on PCR specifically targeting human adenoviruses (HAdV), porcine adenoviruses (PAdV), bovine adenoviruses (BAdV), and bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV) were applied to environmental samples including urban sewage, slaughterhouse, and river water samples. PAdV and BPyV were detected in a very high percentage of samples potentially affected by either porcine or bovine fecal contamination, respectively. However, BAdV were detected in only one sample, showing a lower prevalence than BPyV in the wastewater samples analyzed. The 22 slaughterhouse samples with fecal contamination of animal origin showed negative results for the presence of HAdV. The river water samples analyzed were positive for the presence of both human and animal adenoviruses and polyomaviruses, indicating the existence of diverse sources of contamination. The identities of the viruses detected were confirmed by analyses of the amplified sequences. All BPyV isolates showed a 97% similarity in nucleotide sequences. This is the first time that PAdV5, BAdV6, and BPyV have been reported to occur in environmental samples. Human and porcine adenoviruses and human and bovine polyomaviruses are proposed as tools for evaluating the presence of viral contamination and for tracking the origin of fecal/urine contamination in environmental samples.
Distribution of Human Polyomaviruses, Adenoviruses, and Hepatitis E Virus in the Environment and in a Drinking-water Treatment Plant
Environmental Science & Technology. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17180997
Large numbers of viruses are excreted in human feces and urine, which even at low concentrations may cause illness when ingested. Some of these viruses have not been traditionally monitored in terms of waterborne diseases and are considered emergent viruses, such as hepatitis E virus (HEV) and JC and BK polyomavirus (JCPyV and BKPyV). The high prevalence of human adenoviruses (HAdV) and polyomaviruses, which both show DNA genomes, in sewage from widely divergent areas has suggested the relevance of evaluating these viruses as possible indicators of viral contamination. The concentration of these viruses was analyzed in sewage and river water and after treatment in a drinking-water treatment plant including chlorination, flocculation, ozonation, and granulate active carbon (GAC) filtration. Samples of GAC-filtered water were collected before a second chlorination treatment. The river used as a source of fresh water presented an average concentration of 2.6 x 10(1) JCPyV and 4 x 10(2) HAdV GC (genome copies)/L. A removal of 2 logarithms (99%) of HAdV and JCPyV was observed in the drinking-water treatment plant. All the GAC-filtered water samples studied contained HAdV, with a mean value of 4.3 HAdV GC/L. HEV strains belonging to genotype 3 were frequently detected in low concentrations in urban sewage and in biosolids or sewage containing swine feces but not in the river water samples studied. The detection of viruses by molecular techniques is useful for genetically describe emergent viruses in community wastewaters and water supplies. Quantification of JCPyV and HAdV using quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) may be useful for evaluating virus removal efficiency in water treatment plants and as an index of the virological quality of water and of the potential presence of human viruses.
Development of a Quantitative PCR Assay for the Quantitation of Bovine Polyomavirus As a Microbial Source-tracking Tool
Journal of Virological Methods. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19887085
Adenoviruses and polyomaviruses are two distinct DNA viral families that are excreted in high concentrations and distributed in human and animal populations. Targeting specific virus included in these families has proved to be a promising and useful tool for tracing specifically sources of environmental contamination. In this study, a quantitative PCR assay that is specific for bovine polyomaviruses was developed and used to determine the excretion level and concentration of bovine polyomaviruses in urine and environmental samples, including urban sewage, slaughterhouse sewage, and river water. A set of primers and a TaqMan probe were designed to target a 77-bp region of the bovine polyomavirus VP1 gene, and the conditions of the reaction were optimized. A detection limit was established at 1-10 genome copies per test tube. The assay was specific and produced negative results when samples containing human or porcine fecal contamination were analyzed. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of bovine polyomaviruses excreted in bovine urine samples (mean values of 10(4) GC/l). Bovine polyomaviruses were also detected and quantified in slaughterhouse wastewater and river waters, which shows the spread of these viruses in many environmental samples containing contamination of bovine origin. The procedure described in this paper provides a quantitative source-tracking tool for the analysis of bovine polyomaviruses as indicators of the presence of bovine contamination in environmental samples.
Analysis of the Evolution in the Circulation of HAV and HEV in Eastern Spain by Testing Urban Sewage Samples
Journal of Water and Health. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20154397
The aim of the study was to analyse the evolution of the prevalence of HAV and HEV in the population of eastern Spain by analysing the viruses excreted in urban sewage. Raw urban sewage samples were collected and analysed during several years using RT-PCR techniques and sequencing analysis. Two limiting regions were analysed, one of them having implemented HAV vaccination programs. Acute symptomatic HEV cases were also examined. Results were compared with those from previous studies in the area using identical methodology. The percentage of positive HAV samples in urban sewage fell from 57.4% to 3.1% in 5-10 years in the two studied areas in Spain. Around 30% of the urban sewage samples were positive for HEV in the absence of agricultural sources of contamination. HEV RNA was also detected in four clinical cases of acute hepatitis. The dramatic reduction in the presence of HAV in raw urban sewage observed in eastern Spain could be most likely related to the general improvement in sanitation. However, these improvements would not have an equivalent effect on the circulation of HEV and this observation could be explained by the presence of animal reservoirs for HEV, which act as external sources of infections.
Water Research. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20619868
Pollution of water by sewage and run-off from farms produces a serious public health problem in many countries. Viruses, along with bacteria and protozoa in the intestine or in urine are shed and transported through the sewer system. Even in highly industrialized countries, pathogens, including viruses, are prevalent throughout the environment. Molecular methods are used to monitor viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens, and to track pathogen- and source-specific markers in the environment. Molecular techniques, specifically polymerase chain reaction-based methods, provide sensitive, rapid, and quantitative analytical tools with which to study such pathogens, including new or emerging strains. These techniques are used to evaluate the microbiological quality of food and water, and to assess the efficiency of virus removal in drinking and wastewater treatment plants. The range of methods available for the application of molecular techniques has increased, and the costs involved have fallen. These developments have allowed the potential standardization and automation of certain techniques. In some cases they facilitate the identification, genotyping, enumeration, viability assessment, and source-tracking of human and animal contamination. Additionally, recent improvements in detection technologies have allowed the simultaneous detection of multiple targets in a single assay. However, the molecular techniques available today and those under development require further refinement in order to be standardized and applicable to a diversity of matrices. Water disinfection treatments may have an effect on the viability of pathogens and the numbers obtained by molecular techniques may overestimate the quantification of infectious microorganisms. The pros and cons of molecular techniques for the detection and quantification of pathogens in water are discussed.
Isolation of a Novel Monkey Adenovirus Reveals a New Phylogenetic Clade in the Evolutionary History of Simian Adenoviruses
Virology Journal. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21414228
Adenoviruses of primates include human (HAdV) and simian (SAdV) isolates classified into 8 species (Human Adenovirus A to G, and Simian Adenovirus A). In this study, a novel adenovirus was isolated from a colony of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and subcultured in VERO cells. Its complete genome was purified and a region encompassing the hexon gene, the protease gene, the DNA binding protein (DBP) and the 100 kDa protein was amplified by PCR and sequenced by primer walking. Sequence analysis of these four genes showed that the new isolate had 80% identity to other primate adenoviruses and lacked recombination events. The study of the evolutionary relationships of this new monkey AdV based on the combined sequences of the four genes supported a close relationship to SAdV-3 and SAdV-6, lineages isolated from Rhesus monkeys. The clade formed by these three types is separated from the remaining clades and establishes a novel branch that is related to species HAdV-A, F and G. However, the genetic distance corresponding to the newly isolated monkey AdV considerably differs from these as to belong to a new, not yet established species. Results presented here widen our knowledge on SAdV and represents an important contribution to the understanding of the evolutionary history of primate adenoviruses.
MBio. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21972239
At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. IMPORTANCE: At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that the viral universe is far more vast and diverse than previously suspected.
Occurrence of Water-borne Enteric Viruses in Two Settlements Based in Eastern Chad: Analysis of Hepatitis E Virus, Hepatitis A Virus and Human Adenovirus in Water Sources
Journal of Water and Health. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21976198
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of water-borne acute hepatitis in areas with poor sanitation. In 2004 an outbreak of HEV infection affected around 2,000 people in Eastern Chad (Dar Sila). This paper describes the decrease in the incidence of acute jaundice syndrome (AJS) from 2004 until 2009 when a mean incidence of 0.48 cases/1,000 people/year was recorded in the region. Outbreaks of AJS were identified in some of the camps in 2007 and 2008. Moreover, water samples from drinking water sources were screened for human adenoviruses considered as viral indicators and for hepatitis A virus and HEV. Screening of faecal samples from donkeys for HEV gave negative results. Some of the samples were also analysed for faecal coliforms showing values before disinfection treatment between 3 and >50 colony forming units per 100 mL. All water samples tested were negative for HEV and HAV; however, the presence of low levels of human adenoviruses in 4 out of 16 samples analysed indicates possible human faecal contamination of groundwater. Consequently, breakdowns in the treatment of drinking water and/or increased excretion of hepatitis viruses, which could be related to the arrival of a new population, could spread future outbreaks through drinking water.