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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (2)
Articles by B. Joy Snider in JoVE
Production of Lentiviral Vectors for Transducing Cells from the Central Nervous System
Mingjie Li, Nada Husic, Ying Lin, B. Joy Snider
Department of Neurology and Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Washington University School of Medicine
In this protocol we describe production, purification and titration of lentiviral vectors. We provide an example of lentiviral vector-mediated gene delivery in primary cultured neurons and astrocytes. Our methods may also apply to other cell types in vitro and in vivo.
Other articles by B. Joy Snider on PubMed
Journal of Neurochemistry. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19476541
Cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) is reduced in cultured neurons undergoing neuronal death caused by inhibitors of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Activation of calcium entry via voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels restores cytosolic Ca(2+) levels and reduces this neuronal death (Snider et al. 2002). We now show that this reduction in [Ca(2+)](i) is transient and occurs early in the cell death process, before activation of caspase 3. Agents that increase Ca(2+) influx such as activation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels or stimulation of Ca(2+) entry via the plasma membrane Na-Ca exchanger attenuate neuronal death only if applied early in the cell death process. Cultures treated with proteasome inhibitors had reduced current density for voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and a less robust increase in [Ca(2+)](i) after depolarization. Levels of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) were reduced and capacitative Ca(2+) entry was impaired early in the cell death process. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) was slightly increased. Preventing the transfer of Ca(2+) from mitochondria to cytosol increased neuronal vulnerability to this death while blockade of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake via the uniporter had no effect. Programmed cell death induced by proteasome inhibition may be caused in part by an early reduction in cytosolic and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+,) possibly mediated by dysfunction of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. These findings may have implications for the treatment of disorders associated with protein misfolding in which proteasome impairment and programmed cell death may occur.
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20130189
Chronic changes in electrical excitability profoundly affect synaptic transmission throughout the lifetime of a neuron. We have previously explored persistent presynaptic silencing, a form of synaptic depression at glutamate synapses produced by ongoing neuronal activity and by strong depolarization. Here we investigate the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in the modulation of presynaptic function. We found that proteasome inhibition prevented the induction of persistent presynaptic silencing. Specifically, application of the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 (carbobenzoxy-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal) prevented decreases in the size of the readily releasable pool of vesicles and in the percentage of active synapses. Presynaptic silencing was accompanied by decreases in levels of the priming proteins Munc13-1 and Rim1. Importantly, overexpression of Rim1alpha prevented the induction of persistent presynaptic silencing. Furthermore, strong depolarization itself increased proteasome enzymatic activity measured in cell lysates. These results suggest that modulation of the UPS by electrical activity contributes to persistent presynaptic silencing by promoting the degradation of key presynaptic proteins.