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In JoVE (1)
- Detection of Nitric Oxide and Superoxide Radical Anion by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy from Cells using Spin Traps
Other Publications (1)
Articles by Bhavani Gopalakrishnan in JoVE
Detection of Nitric Oxide and Superoxide Radical Anion by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy from Cells using Spin Traps
Bhavani Gopalakrishnan1, Kevin M. Nash1, Murugesan Velayutham1, Frederick A. Villamena1,2
1The Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University, 2Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was employed to detect nitric oxide from bovine aortic endothelial cells and superoxide radical anion from human neutrophils using iron (II)-N-methyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate, Fe(MGD)2 and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyroroline-N-oxide, DMPO, respectively.
Other articles by Bhavani Gopalakrishnan on PubMed
Inhibition of ROS-induced Apoptosis in Endothelial Cells by Nitrone Spin Traps Via Induction of Phase II Enzymes and Suppression of Mitochondria-dependent Pro-apoptotic Signaling
Biochemical Pharmacology. Aug, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22580046
Oxidative stress is the main etiological factor behind the pathogenesis of various diseases including inflammation, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Due to the spin trapping abilities and various pharmacological properties of nitrones, their application as therapeutic agent has been gaining attention. Though the antioxidant properties of the nitrones are well known, the mechanism by which they modulate the cellular defense machinery against oxidative stress is not well investigated and requires further elucidation. Here, we have investigated the mechanisms of cytoprotection of the nitrone spin traps against oxidative stress in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Cytoprotective properties of both the cyclic nitrone 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) and linear nitrone α-phenyl N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) against H(2)O(2)-induced cytotoxicity were investigated. Preincubation of BAEC with PBN or DMPO resulted in the inhibition of H(2)O(2)-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Nitrone-treatment resulted in the induction and restoration of phase II antioxidant enzymes via nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) in oxidatively-challenged cells. Furthermore, the nitrones were found to inhibit the mitochondrial depolarization and subsequent activation of caspase-3 induced by H(2)O(2). Significant down-regulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins p53 and Bax, and up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and p-Bad were observed when the cells were preincubated with the nitrones prior to H(2)O(2)-treatment. It was also observed that Nrf-2 silencing completely abolished the protective effects of nitrones. Hence, these findings suggest that nitrones confer protection to the endothelial cells against oxidative stress by modulating phase II antioxidant enzymes and subsequently inhibiting mitochondria-dependent apoptotic cascade.