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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (10)
Articles by Bindesh Shrestha in JoVE
Direct Analysis of Single Cells by Mass Spectrometry at Atmospheric Pressure
Bindesh Shrestha, Akos Vertes
Department of Chemistry, George Washington University
Single cell analysis is performed by mass spectrometry on plant and animal cells at atmospheric pressure by using a sharpened optical fiber to sample the cells for laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry.
Other articles by Bindesh Shrestha on PubMed
Analytical Chemistry. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17222016
An atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI imaging interface was developed for an orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer and utilized to analyze peptides, carbohydrates, and other small biomolecules using infrared laser excitation. In molecular imaging experiments, the spatial distribution of mock peptide patterns was recovered with a detection limit of approximately 1 fmol/pixel from a variety of MALDI matrixes. With the use of oversampling for the image acquisition, a spatial resolution of 40 microm, 5 times smaller than the laser spot size, was achieved. This approach, however, required that the analyte was largely removed at the point of analysis before the next point was interrogated. Native water in plant tissue was demonstrated to be an efficient natural matrix for AP infrared laser desorption ionization. In soft fruit tissues from bananas, grapes, and strawberries, potassiated ions of the most abundant metabolites, small carbohydrates, and their clusters produced the strongest peaks in the spectra. Molecular imaging of a strawberry skin sample revealed the distribution of the sucrose, glucose/fructose, and citric acid species around the embedded seeds. Infrared AP MALDI mass spectrometric imaging without the addition of an artificial matrix enables the in vivo investigation of small biomolecules and biological processes (e.g., metabolomics) in their natural environment.
Analytical Chemistry. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18088102
The utility of atmospheric pressure infrared MALDI mass spectrometry (AP IR-MALDI) was assessed for plant metabolomics studies. Tissue sections from plant organs, including flowers, ovaries, aggregate fruits, fruits, leaves, tubers, bulbs, and seeds were studied in both positive and negative ion modes. For leaves, single laser pulses sampled the cuticle and upper epidermal cells, whereas multiple pulses were demonstrated to ablate some mesophyll layers. Tandem mass spectra were obtained with collision-activated dissociation to aid with the identification of some observed ions. In the positive mode, most ions were produced as potassium, proton, or sometimes sodium ion adducts, whereas proton loss was dominant in the negative ion mode. Over 50 small metabolites and various lipids were detected in the spectra including, for example, 7 of the 10 intermediates in the citric acid cycle. Key components of the glycolysis pathway occurring in the plant cytosol were found along with intermediates of phospholipid biosynthesis and reactants or products of amino acid, nucleotide, oligosaccharide, and flavonoid biosynthesis. AP IR-MALDI mass spectrometry was used to follow the fluid transport driven by transpiration and image the spatial distributions of several metabolites in a white lily (Lilium candidum) flower petal.
In Situ Metabolic Profiling of Single Cells by Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Analytical Chemistry. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19824712
Depending on age, phase in the cell cycle, nutrition, and environmental factors, individual cells exhibit large metabolic diversity. To explore metabolic variations in cell populations, laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry (MS) was used for the in situ analysis of individual cells at atmospheric pressure. Single cell ablation was achieved by delivering mid-IR laser pulses through the etched tip of a GeO(2)-based glass fiber. Metabolic analysis was performed from single cells and small cell populations of Allium cepa and Narcissus pseudonarcissus bulb epidermis, as well as single eggs of Lytechinus pictus. Of the 332 peaks detected for A. cepa, 35 were assigned to metabolites with the help of accurate ion masses and tandem MS. The metabolic profiles from single cells of the two plant species included a large variety of oligosaccharides including possibly fructans in A. cepa, and alkaloids, e.g., lycorine in N. pseudonarcissus. Analysis of adjacent individual cells with a difference in pigmentation showed that, in addition to essential metabolites found in both variants, the pigmented cells contained anthocyanidins, other flavonoids, and their glucosides. Analysis of single epidermal cells from different scale leaves in an A. cepa bulb showed metabolic differences corresponding to their age. Our results indicate the feasibility of using LAESI-MS for the in situ analysis of metabolites in single cells with potential applications in studying cell differentiation, changes due to disease states, and response to xenobiotics.
Direct Analysis of Lipids and Small Metabolites in Mouse Brain Tissue by AP IR-MALDI and Reactive LAESI Mass Spectrometry
The Analyst. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20349540
Ambient analysis of metabolites and lipids from unprocessed animal tissue by mass spectrometry remains a challenge. The utility of the two novel ambient ionization techniques--atmospheric pressure infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (AP IR-MALDI) and laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI)--is demonstrated for the direct mass spectrometric analysis of lipids and other metabolites from mouse brain. Major brain lipids including cholesterol, various phospholipid species (glycerophosphocholines, sphingomyelin and phosphatidylethanolamines) along with numerous metabolites, for example g-aminobutyric acid (GABA), creatine and choline, were identified in a typical mass spectrum. In a new ionization modality of LAESI, termed reactive LAESI, in-plume reactions with a solute of choice (lithium sulfate) enhanced structure-specific fragmentation of lipid ions for improved molecular assignment in collision-activated dissociation experiments. In-plume processes in reactive LAESI provide additional structural information without contaminating the biological sample with the reactant.
Minimally Invasive Monitoring of Cellulose Degradation by Desorption Electrospray Ionization and Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry
The Analyst. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20672159
Minimally invasive desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) and laser ablation electrospray ionization-MS (LAESI-MS) were used to look for soluble cellulose degradation products produced by accelerated aging in unsized cotton paper. Soluble extracts from papers aged 144 to 26,856 hours were first analyzed in solution using traditional electrospray ionization-MS (ESI-MS). Results were compared to those from direct analysis of condensed phase degradation products extracted from the absorbent paper substrate using DESI-MS and LAESI-MS. ESI-MS results showed evidence of oligosaccharide degradation products ranging from cellobiose to cellononaose; using DESI-MS and LAESI-MS, products from cellobiose to cellodecaose and glucose to cellooctaose, respectively, were observed. As degradation proceeded, increased quantities of both low and high molecular weight oligosaccharides were observed. The analytical approaches developed in the control study were applied for the detection of degradation products in two naturally-aged books dating from the 19th century, both made from cotton and linen. Oligosaccharides ranging from glucose to cellopentaose were observed.
Direct Detection of Diverse Metabolic Changes in Virally Transformed and Tax-expressing Cells by Mass Spectrometry
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20830293
Viral transformation of a cell starts at the genetic level, followed by changes in the proteome and the metabolome of the host. There is limited information on the broad metabolic changes in HTLV transformed cells.
Analytical Chemistry. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21388149
Molecular imaging by mass spectrometry (MS) is emerging as a tool to determine the distribution of proteins, lipids, and metabolites in tissues. The existing imaging methods, however, mostly rely on predefined rectangular grids for sampling that ignore the natural cellular organization of the tissue. Here we demonstrate that laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) MS can be utilized for in situ cell-by-cell imaging of plant tissues. The cell-by-cell molecular image of the metabolite cyanidin, the ion responsible for purple pigmentation in onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells, correlated well with the color of cells in the tissue. Chemical imaging using single-cells as voxels reflects the spatial distribution of biochemical differences within a tissue without the distortion stemming from sampling multiple cells within the laser focal spot. Microsampling by laser ablation also has the benefit of enabling the analysis of very small cell populations for biochemical heterogeneity. For example, with a ∼30 μm ablation spot we were able to analyze 3-4 achlorophyllous cells within an oil gland on a sour orange (Citrus aurantium) leaf. To explore cell-to-cell variations within and between tissues, multivariate statistical analysis on LAESI-MS data from epidermal cells of an A. cepa bulb and a C. aurantium leaf and from human buccal epithelial cell populations was performed using the method of orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The OPLS-DA analysis of mass spectra, containing over 300 peaks each, provided guidance in identifying a small number of metabolites most responsible for the variance between the cell populations. These metabolites can be viewed as promising candidates for biomarkers that, however, require further verification.
Rapid, Non-targeted Discovery of Biochemical Transformation and Biomarker Candidates in Oncovirus-infected Cell Lines Using LAESI Mass Spectrometry
Chemical Communications (Cambridge, England). Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22167302
Finding insights into how viruses hijack metabolic processes and biomarkers for viral diseases often require hypotheses about target compounds and/or labelling techniques. Here we present a method based on laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to rapidly identify potential protein and metabolite biomarkers of oncovirus infection in B lymphocytes.
Analytical Chemistry. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22242626
In this paper we introduce laser ablation atmospheric pressure photoionization (LAAPPI), a novel atmospheric pressure ion source for mass spectrometry. In LAAPPI the analytes are ablated from water-rich solid samples or from aqueous solutions with an infrared (IR) laser running at 2.94 μm wavelength. Approximately 12 mm above the sample surface, the ablation plume is intercepted with an orthogonal hot solvent (e.g., toluene or anisole) jet, which is generated by a heated nebulizer microchip and directed toward the mass spectrometer inlet. The ablated analytes are desolvated and ionized in the gas-phase by atmospheric pressure photoionization using a 10 eV vacuum ultraviolet krypton discharge lamp. The effect of operational parameters and spray solvent on the performance of LAAPPI is studied. LAAPPI offers ∼300 μm lateral resolution comparable to, e.g., matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization. In addition to polar compounds, LAAPPI efficiently ionizes neutral and nonpolar compounds. The bioanalytical application of the method is demonstrated by the direct LAAPPI analysis of rat brain tissue sections and sour orange (Citrus aurantium) leaves.
Direct Analysis of Phycobilisomal Antenna Proteins and Metabolites in Small Cyanobacterial Populations by Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Analytical Chemistry. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22141353
Due to their significance in energy and environmental and natural product research, as well as their large genetic diversity, rapid in situ analysis of cyanobacteria is of increasing interest. Metabolic profiles and the composition of energy harvesting antenna protein complexes are needed to understand how environmental factors affect the functioning of these microorganisms. Here, we show that laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry enables the direct analysis of phycobilisomal antenna proteins and report on numerous metabolites from intact cyanobacteria. Small populations (n < 616 ± 76) of vegetative Anabaena sp. PCC7120 cyanobacterial cells are analyzed by LAESI mass spectrometry. The spectra reveal the ratio of phycocyanin (C-PC) and allophycocyanin (APC) in the antenna complex, the subunit composition of the phycobiliproteins, and the tentative identity of over 30 metabolites and lipids. Metabolites are tentatively identified by accurate mass measurements, isotope distribution patterns, and literature searches. The rapid simultaneous analysis of abundant proteins and diverse metabolites enables the evaluation of the environmental response and metabolic adaptation of cyanobacteria and other microorganisms.