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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (8)
Articles by Birgit Werner in JoVE
Whole-cell Recordings of Light Evoked Excitatory Synaptic Currents in the Retinal Slice
Birgit Werner1, Paul B. Cook1,2, Christopher L. Passaglia1,3
1Program in Neuroscience, Boston University, 2Department of Biology, Boston University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University
This video shows the process of whole-cell voltage clamp recordings in the retinal slice of the aquatic tiger salamander. We demonstrate the preparation of the slice as well as how to perform patch clamp recordings during visual stimulation of the retina.
Other articles by Birgit Werner on PubMed
Properties of a Trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-dechlorinating Mixed Culture with a Dehalococcoides As Putative Dechlorinating Species
FEMS Microbiology Ecology. Feb, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 19712337
An anaerobic mixed culture enriched over 16 transfers (1/10) from Saale river sediment reductively dehalogenated 1,2,4- and 1,2,3-trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TrCDD) to di- and monochlorinated congeners in the presence of pyruvate (or lactate) and fumarate as cosubstrates. Besides TrCDD, tetrachloroethene and 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene were dechlorinated. Dioxin dehalogenation was sensitive to pasteurization, but was not remarkably influenced by inhibitors of methanogens, sulfate-reducing bacteria or Gram-positive bacteria. The rate of 1,3-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin formation increased with rising initial concentrations of 1,2,4-TrCDD (1-250 microM) from 0.05 to 5.4 micromol l(-1) day(-1). Two isolates, belonging to Sulfurospirillum and Trichococcus, did not show reductive dehalogenation. 16S rDNA-targeted methods further revealed the presence of Acetobacterium, Desulfitobacterium, Desulfuromonas and Dehalococcoides. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated the presence of Dehalococcoides in highest most probable number (MPN) dilutions that were positive for dioxin dechlorination.
[Case Management in the Burgau Therapy Center--1: Transitional After-care Project Reduces a Cross-section of Problems]
Pflege Zeitschrift. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16013292
[Case Management at the Burgau Therapy Center--2: Collaborative Search for Solutions and Implementing Plans]
Pflege Zeitschrift. Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16106835
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16203984
For more than a century, the process of stabilization has been a central issue in the research of learning and memory. Namely, after a skill or memory is acquired, it must be consolidated before it becomes resistant to disruption by subsequent learning. Although it is clear that there are many cases in which learning can be disrupted, it is unclear when learning something new disrupts what has already been learned. Herein, we provide two answers to this question with the demonstration that perceptual learning of a visual stimulus disrupts or interferes with the consolidation of a previously learned visual stimulus. In this study, we trained subjects on two different hyperacuity tasks and determined whether learning of the second task disrupted that of the first. We first show that disruption of learning occurs between visual stimuli presented at the same orientation in the same retinotopic location but not for the same stimuli presented at retinotopically disparate locations or different orientations at the same location. Second, we show that disruption from stimuli in the same retinotopic location is ameliorated if the subjects wait for 1 h before training on the second task. These results indicate that disruption, at least in visual learning, is specific to features of the tasks and that a temporal delay of 1 h can stabilize visual learning. This research shows that visual learning is susceptible to disruption and elucidates the processes by which the brain can consolidate learning and thus protect what is learned from being overwritten.
Does Methylphenidate Cause a Cytogenetic Effect in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?
Environmental Health Perspectives. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17589603
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents (6-12% affected). Treatment with methylphenidate (MPH) in the United States has increased to a current prescription rate of > 5 million per year. However, a 2005 study by El-Zein and co-workers [Cancer Lett 230:284-291] reporting a 3-fold increase in genomic damage in all 12 analyzed children after 3 months of therapy with MPH resulted in much concern about potential carcinogenic effects. Here we provide new information concerning the cytogenetic effect of MPH in children. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND METHODS: In a prospective study, we analyzed the genomic damage in children with ADHD (initial sample size 38 children) before and 1 (30 children), 3 (21 children), and 6 (8 children) months after initiation of MPH therapy. In addition, we investigated a group of 9 children receiving chronic MPH therapy. Patients were recruited within a study of our Clinical Research Group on ADHD in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the University of Würzburg. Assessment and treatment of patients were performed during inpatient or outpatient health care. The measure for genomic damage was the frequency of micronuclei, a subset of chromosomal aberrations, in peripheral lymphocytes.
Journal of Neurophysiology. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18579656
The retina can respond to a wide array of features in the visual input. It was recently reported that the retina can even recognize complicated temporal input patterns and signal violations in the patterns. When a sequence of flashes was presented, ganglion cells exhibited a variety of firing profiles and many cells showed an "omitted stimulus response" (OSR), in which they fired strongly if a flash in the sequence was omitted. We examined the synaptic origins of the OSR by recording excitatory synaptic currents from ganglion cells in the salamander retina in response to periodic flash sequences. Consistent with previous spike recordings, ganglion cells exhibited an OSR in their current response and the OSR shifted in time with a change in flash frequency such that it could predict when the next flash should have occurred. Although the behavior may seem sophisticated, we show that a simple linear-nonlinear model with a spike threshold can account for the OSR in on ganglion cells and that the variety of complex firing profiles seen in other ganglion cells can be explained by adding contributions from the off pathway. We discuss the physiological and simulation results and their implications for understanding retinal mechanisms of visual information processing.
Pflege. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21964933
Although the bedpan is a subject of everyday nursing practice, little research was found concerning this issue. Patients often describe that the use of the bedpan is uncomfortable and painful. Studies also underline that using a bedpan is very embarrassing and shameful for the patients. Their privacy is violated considerably. In this quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study, the frequency and duration of use of the bedpan was measured in acute care. 362 women and 367 men were included in the study, 18.2 % of them needed the bedpan for a certain time. It was used more often during the night than during the day, departmental differences were also identified. Women used the bedpan most at the orthopedic and medical wards, followed by the prenatal ward (for urine). Men from surgical wards used the bedpan most (12.3 %), followed by medical wards (8.3 %). Most patients required assistance while using the bedpan. Because of this the resulting workload for nurses should be underestimated. The introduction of alternative urine drainage systems could lead to more autonomy of patients and might reduce the workload for nurses.
Molecular Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.). 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22105607
Although rapidly becoming a valuable tool for gene silencing, regulation or editing in vitro, the direct transfer of small interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNAs) into cells is still an unsolved problem for in vivo applications. For the first time, we show that specific modifications of antisense oligomers allow autonomous passage into cell lines and primary cells without further adjuvant or coupling to a cell-penetrating peptide. For this reason, we termed the specifically modified oligonucleotides "cell membrane-crossing oligomers" (CMCOs). CMCOs targeted to various conserved regions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 were tested and compared with nontargeting CMCOs. Analyses of uninfected and infected cells incubated with labeled CMCOs revealed that the compounds were enriched in infected cells and some of the tested CMCOs exhibited a potent antiviral effect. Finally, the CMCOs did not exert any cytotoxicity and did not inhibit proliferation of the cells. In vitro, our CMCOs are promising candidates as biologically active anti-HIV reagents for future in vivo applications.