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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (16)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Biotechnology and Bioengineering
- Yeast (Chichester, England)
- Lab on a Chip
- Current Genetics
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Metabolic Engineering
- Eukaryotic Cell
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Genome Biology
- Bioinformatics (Oxford, England)
- Biotechnology and Bioengineering
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
- FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Articles by Birgitte Regenberg in JoVE
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm in Flow Cells
Martin Weiss Nielsen1, Claus Sternberg1, Søren Molin1, Birgitte Regenberg2
1Department of Systems Biology, Danish Technical University, 2Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen
Protocol describing the application of a flow cell system for growing and analyzing microbial biofilms for Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM).
Other articles by Birgitte Regenberg on PubMed
Reproducibility of Oligonucleotide Microarray Transcriptome Analyses. An Interlaboratory Comparison Using Chemostat Cultures of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Oct, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12121991
Assessment of reproducibility of DNA-microarray analysis from published data sets is complicated by the use of different microbial strains, cultivation techniques, and analytical procedures. Because intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility is highly relevant for application of DNA-microarray analysis in functional genomics and metabolic engineering, we designed a set of experiments to specifically address this issue. Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D was grown under defined conditions in glucose-limited chemostats, followed by transcriptome analysis with Affymetrix GeneChip arrays. In each of the laboratories, three independent replicate cultures were grown aerobically as well as anaerobically. Although variations introduced by in vitro handling steps were small and unbiased, greater variation from replicate cultures underscored that, to obtain reliable information, experimental replication is essential. Under aerobic conditions, 86% of the most highly expressed yeast genes showed an average intralaboratory coefficient of variation of 0.23. This is significantly lower than previously reported for shake-flask-culture transcriptome analyses and probably reflects the strict control of growth conditions in chemostats. Using the triplicate data sets and appropriate statistical analysis, the change calls from anaerobic versus aerobic comparisons yielded an over 95% agreement between the laboratories for transcripts that changed by over 2-fold, leaving only a small fraction of genes that exhibited laboratory bias.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12791685
Lithium is highly toxic to yeast when grown in galactose medium mainly because phosphoglucomutase, a key enzyme of galactose metabolism, is inhibited. We studied the global protein and gene expression profiles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in galactose in different time intervals after addition of lithium. These results were related to physiological studies where both secreted and intracellular metabolites were determined. Microarray analysis showed that 664 open reading frames were down-regulated and 725 up-regulated in response to addition of lithium. Genes involved in transcription, translation, and nucleotide metabolism were down-regulated at the transcriptional level, whereas genes responsive to different stresses as well as genes from energy reserve metabolism and monosaccharide metabolism were up-regulated. Compared with the proteomic data, 26% of the down-regulated and 48% of the up-regulated proteins were also identified as being changed on the mRNA level. Functional clusters obtained from proteome data were coincident with transcriptional clusters. Physiological studies showed that acetate, glycerol, and glycogen accumulate in response to lithium, as reflected in expression data, whereas a change from respiro-fermentative to respiratory growth could not be predicted from the expression analyses.
Genome-wide Transcriptional Response of a Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Strain with an Altered Redox Metabolism
Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Feb, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14748081
The genome-wide transcriptional response of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain deleted in GDH1 that encodes a NADP(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase was compared to a wild-type strain under anaerobic steady-state conditions. The GDH1-deleted strain has a significantly reduced NADPH requirement, and therefore, an altered redox metabolism. Identification of genes with significantly changed expression using a t-test and a Bonferroni correction yielded only 16 transcripts when accepting two false-positives, and 7 of these were Open Reading Frames (ORFs) with unknown function. Among the 16 transcripts the only one with a direct link to redox metabolism was GND1, encoding phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. To extract additional information we analyzed the transcription data for a gene subset consisting of all known genes encoding metabolic enzymes that use NAD(+) or NADP(+). The subset was analyzed for genes with significantly changed expression again with a t-test and correction for multiple testing. This approach was found to enrich the analysis since GND1, ZWF1 and ALD6, encoding the most important enzymes for regeneration of NADPH under anaerobic conditions, were down-regulated together with eight other genes encoding NADP(H)-dependent enzymes. This indicates a possible common redox-dependent regulation of these genes. Furthermore, we showed that it might be necessary to analyze the expression of a subset of genes to extract all available information from global transcription analysis.
Transcriptional Profiling of Extracellular Amino Acid Sensing in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and the Role of Stp1p and Stp2p
Yeast (Chichester, England). Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15197729
S. cerevisiae responds to the presence of amino acids in the environment through the membrane-bound complex SPS, by altering transcription of several genes. Global transcription analysis shows that 46 genes are induced by L-citrulline. Under the given conditions there appears to be only one pathway for induction with L-citrulline, and this pathway is completely dependent on the SPS component, Ssy1p, and either of the transcription factors, Stp1p and Stp2p. Besides the effects on amino acid permease genes, an ssy1 and an stp1 stp2 mutant exhibit a number of other transcriptional phenotypes, such as increased expression of genes subject to nitrogen catabolite repression and genes involved in stress response. A group of genes involved in the upper part of the glycolysis, including those encoding hexose transporters Hxt4p, Hxt5p, Hxt6p, Hxt7p, hexokinase Hxk1p, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase Tdh1p and glucokinase (Glk1p), shows increased transcription levels in either or both of the mutants. Also, most of the structural genes involved in trehalose and glycogen synthesis and a few genes in the glyoxylate cycle and the pentose phosphate pathway are derepressed in the ssy1 and stp1 stp2 strains.
Lab on a Chip. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15570380
Laminar flow in microfluidic chambers was used to construct low (one dimensional) density arrays suitable for miniaturized biochemical assays. By varying the ratio of flows of two guiding streams flanking a sample stream, precise focusing and positioning of the latter was achieved, and reactive species carried in the sample stream were deposited on functionalized chip surfaces as discrete 50 microm wide lanes. Using different model systems we have confirmed the method's suitability for qualitative screening and quantification tasks in receptor-ligand assays, recording biotin-streptavidin interactions, DNA-hybridization and DNA-triplex formation. The system is simple, fast, reproducible, flexible, and has small sample requirements.
Grr1p is Required for Transcriptional Induction of Amino Acid Permease Genes and Proper Transcriptional Regulation of Genes in Carbon Metabolism of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
Current Genetics. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15611869
The F-box protein Grr1p is involved in cell cycle regulation, glucose repression and transcriptional induction of the amino acid permease (AAP) gene AGP1. We investigated the role of Grr1p in amino acid-mediated induction of AAP genes by performing batch cultivations with a wild-type strain and a grr1Delta strain and adding citrulline in the exponential phase. Whole-genome transcription analyses were performed on samples from each cultivation, both immediately before and 30 min after citrulline addition. Transcriptional induction of the AAP genes AGP1, BAP2, BAP3, DIP5, GNP1 and TAT1 is fully dependent on Grr1p. Comparison of the grr1Delta strain with the reference strain in the absence of citrulline revealed that GRR1 disruption leads to increased transcription of numerous genes. These encode enzymes in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the pentose-phosphate pathway and both glucose and starch metabolism. Promoter analysis showed that many of the genes with increased transcription display Mig1p- and/or Msn2p/Msn4p-binding sites. Increased expression of glucose-repressed genes in the grr1Delta strain may be explained by the reduced expression of the hexose transporter genes HXT1, HXT2, HXT3 and HXT4 and a subsequent lowering of the glucose uptake; and the effect of GRR1 deletion on general carbon metabolism may therefore be indirect. Finally, none of the genes known to be primarily involved in cell cycle regulation displayed different expression levels in the grr1Delta cells as compared with the reference strain, suggesting that the role of Grr1p in cell cycle regulation does not include any transcriptional component.
Improvement of Galactose Uptake in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Through Overexpression of Phosphoglucomutase: Example of Transcript Analysis As a Tool in Inverse Metabolic Engineering
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16269670
Through genome-wide transcript analysis of a reference strain and two recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different rates of galactose uptake, we obtained information about the global transcriptional response to metabolic engineering of the GAL gene regulatory network. One of the recombinant strains overexpressed the gene encoding the transcriptional activator Gal4, and in the other strain the genes encoding Gal80, Gal6, and Mig1, which are negative regulators of the GAL system, were deleted. Even though the galactose uptake rates were significantly different in the three strains, we surprisingly did not find any significant changes in the expression of the genes encoding the enzymes catalyzing the first steps of the pathway (i.e., the genes encoding Gal2, Gal1, Gal7, and Gal10). We did, however, find that PGM2, encoding the major isoenzyme of phosphoglucomutase, was slightly up-regulated in the two recombinant strains with higher galactose uptake rates. This indicated that PGM2 is a target for overexpression in terms of increasing the flux through the Leloir pathway, and through overexpression of PGM2 the galactose uptake rate could be increased by 70% compared to that of the reference strain. Based on our findings, we concluded that phosphoglucomutase plays a key role in controlling the flux through the Leloir pathway, probably due to increased conversion of glucose-1-phosphate to glucose-6-phosphate. This conclusion was supported by measurements of sugar phosphates, which showed that there were increased concentrations of glucose-6-phosphate, galactose-6-phosphate, and fructose-6-phosphate in the strain construct overexpressing PGM2.
In Silico Aided Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae for Improved Bioethanol Production
Metabolic Engineering. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16289778
In silico genome-scale cell models are promising tools for accelerating the design of cells with improved and desired properties. We demonstrated this by using a genome-scale reconstructed metabolic network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to score a number of strategies for metabolic engineering of the redox metabolism that will lead to decreased glycerol and increased ethanol yields on glucose under anaerobic conditions. The best-scored strategies were predicted to completely eliminate formation of glycerol and increase ethanol yield with 10%. We successfully pursued one of the best strategies by expressing a non-phosphorylating, NADP(+)-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in S. cerevisiae. The resulting strain had a 40% lower glycerol yield on glucose while the ethanol yield increased with 3% without affecting the maximum specific growth rate. Similarly, expression of GAPN in a strain harbouring xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase led to an improvement in ethanol yield by up to 25% on xylose/glucose mixtures.
Deletion of RTS1, Encoding a Regulatory Subunit of Protein Phosphatase 2A, Results in Constitutive Amino Acid Signaling Via Increased Stp1p Processing
Eukaryotic Cell. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16400180
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, extracellular amino acids are sensed at the plasma membrane by the SPS sensor, consisting of the transporter homologue Ssy1p, Ptr3p, and the endoprotease Ssy5p. Amino acid sensing results in proteolytic truncation of the transcription factors Stp1p and Stp2p, followed by their relocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where they activate transcription of amino acid permease genes. We screened a transposon mutant library for constitutively signaling mutants, with the aim of identifying down-regulating components of the SPS-mediated pathway. Three isolated mutants were carrying a transposon in the RTS1 gene, which encodes a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. We investigated the basal activity of the AGP1 and BAP2 promoters in rts1delta cells and found increased transcription from these promoters, as well as increased Stp1p processing, even in the absence of amino acids. Based on our findings we propose that the phosphatase complex containing Rts1p keeps the SPS-mediated pathway down-regulated in the absence of extracellular amino acids by dephosphorylating a component of the pathway.
Global Transcriptional and Physiological Responses of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae to Ammonium, L-alanine, or L-glutamine Limitation
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16957246
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encounters a range of nitrogen sources at various concentrations in its environment. The impact of these two parameters on transcription and metabolism was studied by growing S. cerevisiae in chemostat cultures with l-glutamine, l-alanine, or l-ammonium in limitation and by growing cells in an excess of ammonium. Cells grown in l-alanine-limited cultures had higher biomass yield per nitrogen mole (19%) than those from ammonium-limited cultures. Whole-genome transcript profiles were analyzed with a genome-scale metabolic model that suggested increased anabolic activity in l-alanine-limited cells. The changes in these cells were found to be focused around pyruvate, acetyl coenzyme A, glyoxylate, and alpha-ketoglutarate via increased levels of ALT1, DAL7, PYC1, GDH2, and ADH5 and decreased levels of GDH3, CIT2, and ACS1 transcripts. The transcript profiles were then clustered. Approximately 1,400 transcripts showed altered levels when amino acid-grown cells were compared to those from ammonium. Another 400 genes had low transcript levels when ammonium was in excess. Overrepresentation of the GATAAG element in their promoters suggests that nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) may be responsible for this regulation. Ninety-one genes had transcript levels on both l-glutamine and ammonium that were decreased compared to those on l-alanine, independent of the concentration. The GATAAG element in these genes suggests two groups of NCR-responsive genes, those that respond to high levels of nitrogen and those that respond to levels below 30 muM. In conclusion, our results reveal that the nitrogen source has substantial influence on the transcriptome of yeasts and that transcriptional changes may be correlated to physiology via a metabolic model.
Growth-rate Regulated Genes Have Profound Impact on Interpretation of Transcriptome Profiling in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
Genome Biology. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17105650
Growth rate is central to the development of cells in all organisms. However, little is known about the impact of changing growth rates. We used continuous cultures to control growth rate and studied the transcriptional program of the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with generation times varying between 2 and 35 hours.
Bioinformatics (Oxford, England). Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16257984
Hierarchical and relocation clustering (e.g. K-means and self-organizing maps) have been successful tools in the display and analysis of whole genome DNA microarray expression data. However, the results of hierarchical clustering are sensitive to outliers, and most relocation methods give results which are dependent on the initialization of the algorithm. Therefore, it is difficult to assess the significance of the results. We have developed a consensus clustering algorithm, where the final result is averaged over multiple clustering runs, giving a robust and reproducible clustering, capable of capturing small signal variations. The algorithm preserves valuable properties of hierarchical clustering, which is useful for visualization and interpretation of the results.
The Roles of Galactitol, Galactose-1-phosphate, and Phosphoglucomutase in Galactose-induced Toxicity in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18421797
The uptake and catabolism of galactose by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is much lower than for glucose and fructose, and in applications of this yeast for utilization of complex substrates that contain galactose, for example, lignocellulose and raffinose, this causes prolonged fermentations. Galactose is metabolized via the Leloir pathway, and besides the industrial interest in improving the flux through this pathway it is also of medical relevance to study the Leloir pathway. Thus, genetic disorders in the genes encoding galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase or galactokinase result in galactose toxicity both in patients with galactosemia and in yeast. In order to elucidate galactose related toxicity, which may explain the low uptake and catabolic rates of S. cerevisiae, we have studied the physiological characteristics and intracellular metabolite profiles of recombinant S. cerevisiae strains with improved or impaired growth on galactose. Aerobic batch cultivations on galactose of strains with different combinations of overexpression of the genes GAL1, GAL2, GAL7, and GAL10, which encode proteins that together convert extracellular galactose into glucose-1-phosphate, revealed a decrease in the maximum specific growth rate when compared to the reference strain. The hypothesized toxic intermediate galactose-1-phosphate cannot be the sole cause of galactose related toxicity, but indications were found that galactose-1-phosphate might cause a negative effect through inhibition of phosphoglucomutase. Furthermore, we show that galactitol is formed in S. cerevisiae, and that the combination of elevated intracellular galactitol concentration, and the ratio between galactose-1-phosphate concentration and phosphoglucomutase activity seems to be important for galactose related toxicity causing decreased growth rates.
Adaptation to Diverse Nitrogen-limited Environments by Deletion or Extrachromosomal Element Formation of the GAP1 Locus
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20937885
To study adaptive evolution in defined environments, we performed evolution experiments with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) in nitrogen-limited chemostat cultures. We used DNA microarrays to identify copy-number variation associated with adaptation and observed frequent amplifications and deletions at the GAP1 locus. GAP1 encodes the general amino acid permease, which transports amino acids across the plasma membrane. We identified a self-propagating extrachromosomal circular DNA molecule that results from intrachromosomal recombination between long terminal repeats (LTRs) flanking GAP1. Extrachromosomal DNA circles (GAP1(circle)) contain GAP1, the replication origin ARS1116, and a single hybrid LTR derived from recombination between the two flanking LTRs. Formation of the GAP1(circle) is associated with deletion of chromosomal GAP1 (gap1Δ) and production of a single hybrid LTR at the GAP1 chromosomal locus. The GAP1(circle) is selected following prolonged culturing in L-glutamine-limited chemostats in a manner analogous to the selection of oncogenes present on double minutes in human cancers. Clones carrying only the gap1Δ allele were selected under various non-amino acid nitrogen limitations including ammonium, urea, and allantoin limitation. Previous studies have shown that the rate of intrachromosomal recombination between tandem repeats is stimulated by transcription of the intervening sequence. The high level of GAP1 expression in nitrogen-limited chemostats suggests that the frequency of GAP1(circle) and gap1Δ generation may be increased under nitrogen-limiting conditions. We propose that this genomic architecture facilitates evolvability of S. cerevisiae populations exposed to variation in levels and sources of environmental nitrogen.
Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21082308
Growing awareness of heterogeneity in cells of microbial populations has emphasized the importance of advanced microscopy for visualization and understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cell-to-cell variation. In this review, we highlight some of the recent advances in confocal microscopy, super-resolution optical microscopy (STED, SIM, PALM) as well as atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Using examples of bistability in microbial populations as well as biofilm development and differentiation in bacterial and yeast consortia, we demonstrate the importance of microscopy for visualization of variation between cells in phenotypic traits such as gene expression.
FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22332975
Microbial biofilms can be defined as multi-cellular aggregates adhering to a surface and embedded in an extracellular matrix. The non-pathogenic yeast, S. cerevisiae, follows the common traits of microbial biofilms with cell-cell and cells-surface adhesion. S. cerevisiae is shown to produce an extracellular matrix, respond to quorum sensing and multi-cellular aggregates have lowered susceptibility to antifungals. Adhesion is mediated by a family of cell surface proteins of which Flo11 has been shown to be essential for biofilm development. FLO11 expression is regulated via a number of regulatory pathways including the protein kinase A and a MAPK pathway. Advanced genetic tools and resources have been developed for S. cerevisiae including a deletion mutant-strain collection in a biofilm forming strain background and GFP-fusion protein collections. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae biofilm is well applied for confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorophore tagging of proteins, DNA and RNA. These techniques can be used to uncover the molecular mechanisms for biofilm development, drug resistance and for the study of molecular interactions, cell-response to environmental cues, cell to cell variation and niches in S. cerevisiae biofilm. Being closely related to Candida species, S. cerevisiae is a model to investigate biofilms of pathogenic yeast. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.