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In JoVE (1)
- Using Reverse Genetics to Manipulate the NSs Gene of the Rift Valley Fever Virus MP-12 Strain to Improve Vaccine Safety and Efficacy
Other Publications (6)
Articles by Birte Kalveram in JoVE
Using Reverse Genetics to Manipulate the NSs Gene of the Rift Valley Fever Virus MP-12 Strain to Improve Vaccine Safety and Efficacy
Birte Kalveram, Olga Lihoradova, Sabarish V. Indran, Tetsuro Ikegami
Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch
The reverse genetics system for the Rift Valley fever virus MP-12 vaccine strain is a useful tool for creating additional MP-12 mutants with increased attenuation and immunogenicity. We describe the protocol to generate and characterize NSs mutant strains.
Other articles by Birte Kalveram on PubMed
Molecular and Cellular Biology. May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15831455
FAT10 is a small ubiquitin-like modifier that is encoded in the major histocompatibility complex and is synergistically inducible by tumor necrosis factor alpha and gamma interferon. It is composed of two ubiquitin-like domains and possesses a free C-terminal diglycine motif that is required for the formation of FAT10 conjugates. Here we show that unconjugated FAT10 and a FAT10 conjugate were rapidly degraded by the proteasome at a similar rate. Fusion of FAT10 to the N terminus of very long-lived proteins enhanced their degradation rate as potently as fusion with ubiquitin did. FAT10-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins were not cleaved but entirely degraded, suggesting that FAT10-specific deconjugating enzymes were not present in the analyzed cell lines. Interestingly, the prevention of ubiquitylation of FAT10 by mutation of all lysines or by expression in ubiquitylation-deficient cells did not affect FAT10 degradation. Thus, conjugation with FAT10 is an alternative and ubiquitin-independent targeting mechanism for degradation by the proteasome, which, in contrast to polyubiquitylation, is cytokine inducible and irreversible.
The UBA Domains of NUB1L Are Required for Binding but Not for Accelerated Degradation of the Ubiquitin-like Modifier FAT10
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16707496
Proteins selected for degradation are labeled with multiple molecules of ubiquitin and are subsequently cleaved by the 26 S proteasome. A family of proteins containing at least one ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain and one ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain have been shown to act as soluble ubiquitin receptors of the 26 S proteasome and introduce a new level of specificity into the degradation system. They bind ubiquitylated proteins via their UBA domains and the 26 S proteasome via their UBL domain and facilitate the contact between substrate and protease. NEDD8 ultimate buster-1 long (NUB1L) belongs to this class of proteins and contains one UBL and three UBA domains. We recently reported that NUB1L interacts with the ubiquitin-like modifier FAT10 and accelerates its degradation and that of its conjugates. Here we show that a deletion mutant of NUB1L lacking the UBL domain is still able to bind FAT10 but not the proteasome and no longer accelerates FAT10 degradation. A version of NUB1L lacking all three UBA domains, on the other hand, looses the ability to bind FAT10 but is still able to interact with the proteasome and accelerates the degradation of FAT10. The degradation of a FAT10 mutant containing only the C-terminal UBL domain is also still accelerated by NUB1L, even though the two proteins do not interact. In addition, we show that FAT10 and either one of its UBL domains alone can interact directly with the 26 S proteasome. We propose that NUB1L not only acts as a linker between the 26 S proteasome and ubiquitin-like proteins, but also as a facilitator of proteasomal degradation.
The Ubiquitin-like Modifier FAT10 Interacts with HDAC6 and Localizes to Aggresomes Under Proteasome Inhibition
Journal of Cell Science. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19033385
During misfolded-protein stress, the cytoplasmic protein histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) functions as a linker between the dynein motor and polyubiquitin to mediate the transport of polyubiquitylated cargo to the aggresome. Here, we identify a new binding partner of HDAC6, the ubiquitin-like modifier FAT10 (also known as UBD), which is cytokine-inducible and - similar to ubiquitin - serves as a signal for proteasomal degradation. In vivo, the two proteins only interacted under conditions of proteasome impairment. The binding of HDAC6 to FAT10 was mediated by two separate domains: the C-terminal ubiquitin-binding zinc-finger (BUZ domain) of HDAC6 and its first catalytic domain, even though catalytic activity of HDAC6 was not required for this interaction. Both endogenous and ectopically expressed FAT10 as well as the model conjugate FAT10-GFP localized to the aggresome in a microtubule-dependent manner. Furthermore, FAT10-containing as well as ubiquitin-containing aggresomes were reduced in both size and number in HDAC6-deficient fibroblasts. We conclude that, if FAT10 fails to subject its target proteins to proteasomal degradation, an alternative route is taken to ensure their sequestration and possibly also their subsequent removal by transporting them to the aggresome via the association with HDAC6.
FEBS Letters. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19166848
The ubiquitin-like modifier FAT10 targets proteins for degradation by the proteasome, a process accelerated by the UBL-UBA domain protein NEDD8 ultimate buster 1-long. Here, we show that FAT10-mediated degradation occurs independently of poly-ubiquitylation as purified 26S proteasome readily degraded FAT10-dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) but not ubiquitin-DHFR in vitro. Interestingly, the 26S proteasome could only degrade FAT10-DHFR when NUB1L was present. Knock-down of NUB1L attenuated the degradation of FAT10-DHFR in intact cells suggesting that NUB1L determines the degradation rate of FAT10-linked proteins. In conclusion, our data establish FAT10 as a ubiquitin-independent but NUB1L-dependent targeting signal for proteasomal degradation.
Nature Communications. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20975683
The ubiquitin-like modifier FAT10 targets proteins for degradation by the proteasome and is activated by the E1 enzyme UBA6. In this study, we identify the UBA6-specific E2 enzyme (USE1) as an interaction partner of FAT10. Activated FAT10 can be transferred from UBA6 onto USE1 in vitro, and endogenous USE1 and FAT10 can be coimmunoprecipitated from intact cells. Small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of USE1 mRNA resulted in a strong reduction of FAT10 conjugate formation under endogenous conditions, suggesting that USE1 is a major E2 enzyme in the FAT10 conjugation cascade. Interestingly, USE1 is not only the first E2 enzyme but also the first known substrate of FAT10 conjugation, as it was efficiently auto-FAT10ylated in cis but not in trans.
NSs Protein of Rift Valley Fever Virus Promotes Posttranslational Downregulation of the TFIIH Subunit P62
Journal of Virology. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21543505
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) is an important emerging pathogen of humans and ruminants. Its NSs protein has previously been identified as a major virulence factor that suppresses host defense through three distinct mechanisms: it directly inhibits beta interferon (IFN-β) promoter activity, it promotes the degradation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), and it suppresses host transcription by disrupting the assembly of the basal transcription factor TFIIH through sequestration of its p44 subunit. Here, we report that in addition to PKR, NSs also promotes the degradation of the TFIIH subunit p62. Infection of cells with the RVFV MP-12 vaccine strain reduced p62 protein levels to below the detection limit early in the course of infection. This NSs-mediated downregulation of p62 was posttranslational, as it was unaffected by pharmacological inhibition of transcription or translation and MP-12 infection had no effect on p62 mRNA levels. Treatment of cells with proteasome inhibitors but not inhibition of lysosomal acidification or nuclear export resulted in a stabilization of p62 in the presence of NSs. Furthermore, p62 could be coprecipitated with NSs from lysates of infected cells. These data suggest that the RVFV NSs protein is able to interact with the TFIIH subunit p62 inside infected cells and promotes its degradation, which can occur directly in the nucleus.