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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (4)
Articles by Bonnie M. Marsick in JoVE
Labeling F-actin Barbed Ends with Rhodamine-actin in Permeabilized Neuronal Growth Cones
Bonnie M. Marsick, Paul C. Letourneau
Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota
A method to visualize and quantify F-actin barbed ends in neuronal growth cones is described. After culturing neurons on glass coverslips, cells are permeabilized with a saponin-containing solution. Then, a short incubation with the saponin buffer containing rhodamine-actin incorporates fluorescent actin onto free actin barbed ends.
Other articles by Bonnie M. Marsick on PubMed
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19158291
Recent evidence suggests that growth cone responses to guidance cues require local protein synthesis. Using chick neurons, we investigated whether protein synthesis is required for growth cones of several types to respond to guidance cues. First, we found that global inhibition of protein synthesis stops axonal elongation after 2 h. When protein synthesis inhibitors were added 15 min before adding guidance cues, we found no changes in the typical responses of retinal, sensory, and sympathetic growth cones. In the presence of cycloheximide or anisomycin, ephrin-A2, slit-3, and semaphorin3A still induced growth cone collapse and loss of actin filaments, nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 still induced growth cone protrusion and increased filamentous actin, and sensory growth cones turned toward an NGF source. In compartmented chambers that separated perikarya from axons, axons grew for 24-48 h in the presence of cycloheximide and responded to negative and positive cues. Our results indicate that protein synthesis is not strictly required in the mechanisms for growth cone responses to many guidance cues. Differences between our results and other studies may exist because of different cellular metabolic levels in in vitro conditions and a difference in when axonal functions become dependent on local protein synthesis.
Activation of ADF/cofilin Mediates Attractive Growth Cone Turning Toward Nerve Growth Factor and Netrin-1
Developmental Neurobiology. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20506164
Proper neural circuitry requires that growth cones, motile tips of extending axons, respond to molecular guidance cues expressed in the developing organism. However, it is unclear how guidance cues modify the cytoskeleton to guide growth cone pathfinding. Here, we show acute treatment with two attractive guidance cues, nerve growth factor (NGF) and netrin-1, for embryonic dorsal root ganglion and temporal retinal neurons, respectively, results in increased growth cone membrane protrusion, actin polymerization, and filamentous actin (F-actin). ADF/cofilin (AC) family proteins facilitate F-actin dynamics, and we found the inactive phosphorylated form of AC is decreased in NGF- or netrin-1-treated growth cones. Directly increasing AC activity mimics addition of NGF or netrin-1 to increase growth cone protrusion and F-actin levels. Extracellular gradients of NGF, netrin-1, and a cell-permeable AC elicit attractive growth cone turning and increased F-actin barbed ends, F-actin accumulation, and active AC in growth cone regions proximal to the gradient source. Reducing AC activity blunts turning responses to NGF and netrin. Our results suggest that gradients of NGF and netrin-1 locally activate AC to promote actin polymerization and subsequent growth cone turning toward the side containing higher AC activity.
Activation of Ezrin/radixin/moesin Mediates Attractive Growth Cone Guidance Through Regulation of Growth Cone Actin and Adhesion Receptors
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22219290
The development of a functioning neural network relies on responses of axonal growth cones to molecular guidance cues that are encountered en route to their target tissue. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 serve as attractive cues for chick embryo sensory growth cones in vitro and in vivo, but little is known about the actin-binding proteins necessary to mediate this response. The evolutionarily conserved ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) family of proteins can tether actin filaments to the cell membrane when phosphorylated at a conserved threonine residue. Here we show that acute neurotrophin stimulation rapidly increases active phospho-ERM levels in chick sensory neuron growth cone filopodia, coincident with an increase in filopodial L1 and β-integrin. Disrupting ERM function with a dominant-negative construct (DN-ERM) results in smaller and less motile growth cones with disorganized actin filaments. Previously, we found that NGF treatment increases actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin activity and growth cone F-actin (Marsick et al., 2010). Here, we show this F-actin increase, as well as attractive turning to NGF, is blocked when ERM function is disrupted despite normal activation of ADF/cofilin. We further show that DN-ERM expression disrupts leading edge localization of active ADF/cofilin and free F-actin barbed ends. Moreover, filopodial phospho-ERM levels are increased by incorporation of active ADF/cofilin and reduced by knockdown of L1CAM.Together, these data suggest that ERM proteins organize actin filaments in sensory neuron growth cones and are crucial for neurotrophin-induced remodeling of F-actin and redistribution of adhesion receptors.
Repulsive Axon Guidance Cues Ephrin-A2 and Slit3 Stop Protrusion of the Growth Cone Leading Margin Concurrently with Inhibition of ADF/cofilin and ERM Proteins
Cytoskeleton (Hoboken, N.J.). Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22328420
Axonal growth cones turn away from repulsive guidance cues. This may start with reduced protrusive motility in the region the growth cone leading margin that is closer to the source of repulsive cue. Using explants of E7 chick temporal retina, we examine the effects of two repulsive guidance cues, ephrin-A2 and slit3, on retinal ganglion cell growth cone protrusive activity, total F-actin, free F-actin barbed ends, and the activities (phosphorylation states) of actin regulatory proteins, ADF/cofilin and ERM proteins. Ephrin-A2 rapidly stops protrusive activity simultaneously with reducing F-actin, free barbed ends and the activities of ADF/cofilin and ERM proteins. Slit3 also stops protrusion and reduces the activities of ADF/cofilin and ERM proteins. We interpret these results as indicating that repulsive guidance cues inhibit actin polymerization and actin-membrane linkage to stop protrusive activity. Retrograde F-actin flow withdraws actin to the C-domain, where F-actin bundles interact with myosin II to generate contractile forces that can collapse and retract the growth cone. Our results suggest that common mechanisms are used by repulsive guidance cue to disable growth cone motility and remodel growing axon terminals. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.