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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (6)
Articles by Bradley K. McConnell in JoVE
Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats
Yewen Wu1, Xing Yin2, Cori Wijaya2, Ming-He Huang1, Bradley K. McConnell2
1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 2Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston (UH), Texas Medical Center
The rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is useful to study the consequence of a MI on cardiac pathophysiological and physiological function.
Other articles by Bradley K. McConnell on PubMed
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11956238
Dominant mutations in sarcomere protein genes cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, an inherited human disorder with increased ventricular wall thickness, myocyte hypertrophy, and disarray. To understand the early consequences of mutant sarcomere proteins, we have studied mice (designated alphaMHC(403/+)) bearing an Arg403Gln missense mutation in the alpha cardiac myosin heavy chain. We demonstrate that Ca(2+) is reduced in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of alphaMHC(403/+) mice, and levels of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-binding protein calsequestrin are diminished in advance of changes in cardiac histology or morphology. Further evidence for dysregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) in these animals is seen in their decreased expression of the ryanodine receptor Ca(2+)-release channel and its associated membrane proteins and in an increase in ryanodine receptor phosphorylation. Early administration of the L-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor diltiazem restores normal levels of these sarcoplasmic reticular proteins and prevents the development of pathology in alphaMHC(403/+) mice. We conclude that disruption of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) homeostasis is an important early event in the pathogenesis of this disorder and suggest that the use of Ca(2+) channel blockers in advance of established clinical disease could prevent hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by sarcomere protein gene mutations.
Rescue of Cardiomyocyte Dysfunction by Phospholamban Ablation Does Not Prevent Ventricular Failure in Genetic Hypertrophy
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12639992
Cardiac hypertrophy, either compensated or decompensated, is associated with cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction from depressed sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) cycling. Normalization of Ca(2+) cycling by ablation or inhibition of the SR inhibitor phospholamban (PLN) has prevented cardiac failure in experimental dilated cardiomyopathy and is a promising therapeutic approach for human heart failure. However, the potential benefits of restoring SR function on primary cardiac hypertrophy, a common antecedent of human heart failure, are unknown. We therefore tested the efficacy of PLN ablation to correct hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction in two well-characterized and highly relevant genetic mouse models of hypertrophy and cardiac failure, Galphaq overexpression and human familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutant myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C(MUT)) expression. In both models, PLN ablation normalized the characteristically prolonged cardiomyocyte Ca(2+) transients and enhanced unloaded fractional shortening with no change in SR Ca(2+) pump content. However, there was no parallel improvement in in vivo cardiac function or hypertrophy in either model. Likewise, the activation of JNK and calcineurin associated with Galphaq overexpression was not affected. Thus, PLN ablation normalized contractility in isolated myocytes, but failed to rescue the cardiomyopathic phenotype elicited by activation of the Galphaq pathway or MyBP-C mutations.
Reduced Cross-bridge Dependent Stiffness of Skinned Myocardium from Mice Lacking Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15524168
The role of cardiac myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C) on myocardial stiffness was examined in skinned papillary muscles of wild-type (WT(+/+)) and homozygous truncated cardiac MyBP-C (MyBP-C(t/t) male mice. No MyBP-C was detected by gel electrophoresis or by Western blots in the MyBP-C(t/t) myocardium. Rigor-bridge dependent myofilament stiffness, i.e., rigor minus relaxed stiffness, in the MyBP-C(t/t) myocardium (281 +/- 44 kN/m2) was 44% that in WT(+/+) (633 +/- 141 kN/m2). The center-to-center spacing between thick filaments as determined by X-ray diffraction in MyBP-C(t/t) (45.0 +/- 1.2 nm) was not significantly different from that in WT(+/+) (43.2 +/- 0.9 nm). The fraction of cross-sectional area comprised of myofibrils, as determined by electron microscopy, was reduced in the MyBP-C(t/t) (39.9%) by 10% compared to WT(+/+) (44.5%). These data suggest that the 56% reduction in rigor-bridge dependent stiffness of the skinned MyBP-C(t/t) myocardium could not be due solely to a 10% reduction in the number of thick filaments per cross-sectional area and must also be due to approximately 50% reduction in the stiffness of the rigor-bridge attached thick filaments lacking MyBP-C.
Disruption of Protein Kinase A Interaction with A-kinase-anchoring Proteins in the Heart in Vivo: Effects on Cardiac Contractility, Protein Kinase A Phosphorylation, and Troponin I Proteolysis
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18945669
Protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation is regulated by targeting of PKA to its substrate as a result of binding of regulatory subunit, R, to A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs). We investigated the effects of disrupting PKA targeting to AKAPs in the heart by expressing the 24-amino acid regulatory subunit RII-binding peptide, Ht31, its inactive analog, Ht31P, or enhanced green fluorescent protein by adenoviral gene transfer into rat hearts in vivo. Ht31 expression resulted in loss of the striated staining pattern of type II PKA (RII), indicating loss of PKA from binding sites on endogenous AKAPs. In the absence of isoproterenol stimulation, Ht31-expressing hearts had decreased +dP/dtmax and -dP/dtmin but no change in left ventricular ejection fraction or stroke volume and decreased end diastolic pressure versus controls. This suggests that cardiac output is unchanged despite decreased +dP/dt and -dP/dt. There was also no difference in PKA phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), phospholamban, or ryanodine receptor (RyR2). Upon isoproterenol infusion, +dP/dtmax and -dP/dtmin did not differ between Ht31 hearts and controls. At higher doses of isoproterenol, left ventricular ejection fraction and stroke volume increased versus isoproterenol-stimulated controls. This occurred in the context of decreased PKA phosphorylation of cTnI, RyR2, and phospholamban versus controls. We previously showed that expression of N-terminal-cleaved cTnI (cTnI-ND) in transgenic mice improves cardiac function. Increased cTnI N-terminal truncation was also observed in Ht31-expressing hearts versus controls. Increased cTnI-ND may help compensate for reduced PKA phosphorylation as occurs in heart failure.
Heart Protection by Combination Therapy with Esmolol and Milrinone at Late-ischemia and Early Reperfusion
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy / Sponsored by the International Society of Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21562974
The present study determined whether late-ischemia/early reperfusion therapy with the β(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR) blocker esmolol and phosphodiesterase III inhibitor milrinone reduced left ventricular (LV) myocardial infarct size (IS).
Peptides. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22108711
Cardiac epinephrine and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are produced by intrinsic cardiac adrenergic cells (ICA cells) residing in human and animal hearts. ICA cells are neuroparicine cells expressing δ-opioid receptors (DOR). We hypothesized that δ-opioid stimulation of ICA cells enhances epinephrine and CGRP release, which results in the augmentation of heart contraction. Rats were injected with DOR-agonist DPDPE (100 μg/kg) with or without 10-min pretreatment with either β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) blocker propranolol (2mg/kg) or CGRP-receptor (CGRPR) blocker CGRP(8-37) (300 μg/kg), or their combination. Hemodynamics were monitored with echocardiogram and systolic blood pressure (SBP) was monitored via a tail arterial catheter. Changes in left ventricular fraction-shortening (LVFS) and heart rate (HR) were observed at 5-min after DPDPE infusion. At 5-min DPDPE induced a 36 ± 18% (p<0.001) increase of the LVFS, which continues to increase to 51 ± 24% (p<0.0001) by 10 min, and 68 ± 19% (p<0.001) by 20 min. The increase in LVFS was accompanied by the decrease of HR by 9±5% (p<0.01) by 5 min and 11 ± 6% (p<0.001) by 15 min post DPDPE infusion. This magnitude of HR reduction was observed for the remainder of the 20 min. Despite the HR-reduction, cardiac output was increased by 17 ± 8% (p<0.05) and 28±5% (p<0.001) by 5- and 20-min post DPDPE administration, respectively. There was a modest (9 ± 9%, p=0.03) decrease in SBP that was not apparent until 20 min post DPDPE infusion. The positive inotropism of DPDPE was abrogated in animals pretreated with propranolol, CGRP(8-37), or combined propranolol+CGRP(8-37). Furthermore, in whole animal and cardiomyocyte cell culture preparations, DPDPE induced myocardial protein-kinase A (PKA) activation which was abrogated in the animals pretreated with propranolol+CGRP(8-37). DOR agonists augment myocardial contraction through enhanced β-AR and CGRPR co-signaling.