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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (5)
Articles by Brenda L.K. Coles in JoVE
Isolation of Retinal Stem Cells from the Mouse Eye
Brenda L.K. Coles, Derek van der Kooy
Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto
In this video, we will demonstrate how to isolate retinal stem cells from the ciliary epithelium of the mouse eye and grow them in culture to form clonal retinal spheres. The spheres that are isolated possess the cardinal properties of stem cells: self-renewal and multipotentiality.
Other articles by Brenda L.K. Coles on PubMed
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nov, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15505221
This study identifies and characterizes retinal stem cells (RSCs) in early postnatal to seventh-decade human eyes. Different subregions of human eyes were dissociated and cultured by using a clonal sphere-forming assay. The stem cells were derived only from the pars plicata and pars plana of the retinal ciliary margin, at a frequency of approximately 1:500. To test for long-term self-renewal, both the sphere assay and monolayer passaging were used. By using the single sphere passaging assay, primary spheres were dissociated and replated, and individual spheres demonstrated 100% self-renewal, with single spheres giving rise to one or more new spheres in each subsequent passage. The clonal retinal spheres were plated under differentiation conditions to assay the differentiation potential of their progeny. The spheres were produced all of the different retinal cell types, demonstrating multipotentiality. Therefore, the human eye contains a small population of cells (approximately equal to 10,000 cells per eye) that have retinal stem-cell characteristics (proliferation, self-renewal, and multipotentiality). To test the in vivo potential of the stem cells and their progeny, we transplanted dissociated human retinal sphere cells, containing both stem cells and progenitors, into the eyes of postnatal day 1 NOD/SCID mice and embryonic chick eyes. The progeny of the RSCs were able to survive, migrate, integrate, and differentiate into the neural retina, especially as photoreceptors. Their facile isolation, integration, and differentiation suggest that human RSCs eventually may be valuable in treating human retinal diseases.
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16420417
Retinal stem cells [with the potential to produce either neural retinal progenitors or retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) progenitors] exist in the mammalian eye throughout life, and indeed the greatest absolute increase in the stem population occurs postnatally. The stem cells proliferate embryonically and thus may help to build the retina initially, but in postnatal mammals they clearly do not proliferate to regenerate the retina in response to injury. Using Chx10(orJ/orJ) and Mitf(mi/mi) mice, with small eye phenotypes due to the reduction of the neural retinal progenitor population and the retinal pigmented epithelial progenitor population, respectively, we now report that the retinal stem cell population, when assayed from the ciliary margin, increases 3-8-fold in both mutants. These findings suggest that the mammalian retinal stem cell population may be capable of responding to genetically induced signals from the progenitor populations.
Developmental Biology. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17316600
Retinal stem cells (RSCs) exist as rare pigmented ciliary epithelial cells in adult mammalian eyes. We hypothesized that RSCs are at the top of the retinal cell lineage. Thus, genes expressed early in embryonic development to establish the retinal field in forebrain neuroectoderm may play important roles in RSCs. Pax6, a paired domain and homeodomain-containing transcription factor, is one of the earliest genes expressed in the eye field and is considered a master control gene for retinal and eye development. Here, we demonstrate that Pax6 is enriched in RSCs. Inactivation of Pax6 in vivo results in loss of competent RSCs as assayed by the failure to form clonal RSC spheres from the optic vesicles of conventional Pax6 knockout embryos and from the ciliary epithelial cells of adult Pax6 conditional knockout mice. In vitro clonal inactivation of Pax6 in adult RSCs results in a serious proliferation defect, suggesting that Pax6 is required for the proliferation and expansion of RSCs.
Developmental Biology. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17574231
The epithelial layers of the ciliary body (CB) and iris are non-neural structures that differentiate from the anterior region of the eyecup, the ciliary margin (CM). We show here that activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway is sufficient and necessary for the normal development of anterior eye structures. Pharmacological activation of beta-catenin signaling with lithium (Li(+)) treatment in retinal explants in vitro induced the ectopic expression of the CM markers Otx1 and Msx1. Cre-mediated stabilization of beta-catenin expression in the peripheral retina in vivo induced a cell autonomous upregulation of CM markers at the expense of neural retina (NR) markers and inhibited neurogenesis. Consistent with a cell autonomous conversion to peripheral eye fates, the proliferation index in the region of the retina that expressed stabilized beta-catenin was identical to the wild-type CM and there was an expansion of CB-like structures at later stages. Conversely, Cre-mediated inactivation of beta-catenin reduced CM marker expression as well as the size of the CM and CB/iris. Aberrant CB development in both mouse models was also associated with a reduction in the number of retinal stem cells in vitro. In summary, activation of canonical Wnt signaling is sufficient to promote the development of peripheral eyecup fates at the expense of the NR and is also required for the normal development of anterior eyecup structures.
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20014120
Retinal stem cells (RSCs) are present in the ciliary margin of the adult human eye and can give rise to all retinal cell types. Here we show that modulation of retinal transcription factor gene expression in human RSCs greatly enriches photoreceptor progeny, and that strong enrichment was obtained with the combined transduction of OTX2 and CRX together with the modulation of CHX10. When these genetically modified human RSC progeny are transplanted into mouse eyes, their retinal integration and differentiation is superior to unmodified RSC progeny. Moreover, electrophysiologic and behavioral tests show that these transplanted cells promote functional recovery in transducin mutant mice. This study suggests that gene modulation in human RSCs may provide a source of photoreceptor cells for the treatment of photoreceptor disease.