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In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Brendon Watson in JoVE
Крупномасштабные Запись нейронов Зонды Движимое кремния в Поведение грызунов
Marie Vandecasteele1,2, S. M.1, Sébastien Royer1,3, Mariano Belluscio1, Antal Berényi1, Kamran Diba1,4, Shigeyoshi Fujisawa1, Andres Grosmark1, Dun Mao1, Kenji Mizuseki1, Jagdish Patel1, Eran Stark1, David Sullivan1, Brendon Watson1, György Buzsáki1
1Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of New Jersey, 2Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology, Collège de France, 3Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howards Hughes Medical Institute, 4Deptartment of Psychology, University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee
Мы опишем методы для крупномасштабного запись нескольких отдельных единиц и местного потенциала поля в себя грызунов кремниевых зондов. Drive производства, зонд вложений на диск и процесс имплантации датчика показаны на достаточно подробно для легкого тиражирования.
Other articles by Brendon Watson on PubMed
Vision Research. Mar, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11927353
Recent psychophysical experiments suggest that humans can recover only relief structure from motion (SFM); i.e., an object's 3D shape can only be determined up to a stretching transformation along the line of sight. Here we propose a physiologically plausible model for the computation of relief SFM, which is also applicable to the related problem of motion parallax. We assume that the perception of depth from motion is related to the firing of a subset of MT neurons tuned to both velocity and disparity. The model MT neurons are connected to each other laterally to form modulatory interactions. The overall connectivity is such that when a zero-disparity velocity pattern is fed into the system, the most responsive neurons are not those tuned to zero disparity, but instead are those having preferred disparities consistent with the relief structure of the velocity pattern. The model computes the correct relief structure under a wide range of parameters and can also reproduce the SFM illusions involving coaxial cylinders. It is consistent with the psychophysical observation that subjects with stereo impairment are also deficient in perceiving motion parallax, and with the physiological data that the responses of direction- and disparity-tuned MT cells covary with the perceived surface order of bistable SFM stimuli.
Neuron. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16337918
Although spontaneous activity occurs throughout the neocortex, its relation to the activity produced by external or sensory inputs remains unclear. To address this, we used calcium imaging of mouse thalamocortical slices to reconstruct, with single-cell resolution, the spatiotemporal dynamics of activity of layer 4 in the presence or absence of thalamic stimulation. We found spontaneous neuronal coactivations corresponded to intracellular UP states. Thalamic stimulation of sufficient frequency (>10 Hz) triggered cortical activity, and UP states, indistinguishable from those arising spontaneously. Moreover, neurons were activated in identical and precise spatiotemporal patterns in thalamically triggered and spontaneous events. The similarities between cortical activations indicate that intracortical connectivity plays the dominant role in the cortical response to thalamic inputs. Our data demonstrate that precise spatiotemporal activity patterns can be triggered by thalamic inputs and indicate that the thalamus serves to release intrinsic cortical dynamics.
Nature Methods. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16432523
We describe a thalamocortical slice preparation in which connectivity between the mouse lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and primary visual cortex (V1) is preserved. Through DiI injections in fixed brains we traced and created a three-dimensional model of the mouse visual pathways. From this computer model we designed a slice preparation that contains a projection from LGN to V1. We prepared brain slices with these predicted coordinates and demonstrated anatomical LGN-V1 connectivity in these slices after LGN tracer injections. We also revealed functional LGN-V1 connectivity by stimulating LGN electrically and detecting responses in layer 4 of V1 using calcium imaging, field potential recordings and whole-cell recordings. We also identified layer-4 neurons that receive direct thalamocortical input. Finally, we compared cortical activity after LGN stimulation with spontaneous cortical activity and found significant overlap of the spatiotemporal dynamics generated by both types of events.
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17135406
What regulates the spread of activity through cortical circuits? We present here data indicating a pivotal role for a vetoing inhibition restraining modules of pyramidal neurons. We combined fast calcium imaging of network activity with whole-cell recordings to examine epileptiform propagation in mouse neocortical slices. Epileptiform activity was induced by washing Mg2+ ions out of the slice. Pyramidal cells receive barrages of inhibitory inputs in advance of the epileptiform wave. The inhibitory barrages are effectively nullified at low doses of picrotoxin (2.5-5 microM). When present, however, these inhibitory barrages occlude an intense excitatory synaptic drive that would normally exceed action potential threshold by approximately a factor of 10. Despite this level of excitation, the inhibitory barrages suppress firing, thereby limiting further neuronal recruitment to the ictal event. Pyramidal neurons are recruited to the epileptiform event once the inhibitory restraint fails and are recruited in spatially clustered populations (150-250 microm diameter). The recruitment of the cells within a given module is virtually simultaneous, and thus epileptiform events progress in intermittent (0.5-1 Hz) steps across the cortical network. We propose that the interneurons that supply the vetoing inhibition define these modular circuit territories.
PloS One. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19092994
Cortical neurons in vitro and in vivo fluctuate spontaneously between two stable membrane potentials: a depolarized UP state and a hyperpolarized DOWN state. UP states temporally correspond with multineuronal firing sequences which may be important for information processing. To examine how thalamic inputs interact with ongoing cortical UP state activity, we used calcium imaging and targeted whole-cell recordings of activated neurons in thalamocortical slices of mouse somatosensory cortex. Whereas thalamic stimulation during DOWN states generated multineuronal, synchronized UP states, identical stimulation during UP states had no effect on the subthreshold membrane dynamics of the vast majority of cells or on ongoing multineuronal temporal patterns. Both thalamocortical and corticocortical PSPs were significantly reduced and neuronal input resistance was significantly decreased during cortical UP states -- mechanistically consistent with UP state insensitivity. Our results demonstrate that cortical dynamics during UP states are insensitive to thalamic inputs.
Frontiers in Neural Circuits. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19129923
Laser microscopy has generally poor temporal resolution, caused by the serial scanning of each pixel. This is a significant problem for imaging or optically manipulating neural circuits, since neuronal activity is fast. To help surmount this limitation, we have developed a "scanless" microscope that does not contain mechanically moving parts. This microscope uses a diffractive spatial light modulator (SLM) to shape an incoming two-photon laser beam into any arbitrary light pattern. This allows the simultaneous imaging or photostimulation of different regions of a sample with three-dimensional precision. To demonstrate the usefulness of this microscope, we perform two-photon uncaging of glutamate to activate dendritic spines and cortical neurons in brain slices. We also use it to carry out fast (60 Hz) two-photon calcium imaging of action potentials in neuronal populations. Thus, SLM microscopy appears to be a powerful tool for imaging and optically manipulating neurons and neuronal circuits. Moreover, the use of SLMs expands the flexibility of laser microscopy, as it can substitute traditional simple fixed lenses with any calculated lens function.
Biophysical Journal. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19619479
As recent advances in calcium sensing technologies facilitate simultaneously imaging action potentials in neuronal populations, complementary analytical tools must also be developed to maximize the utility of this experimental paradigm. Although the observations here are fluorescence movies, the signals of interest--spike trains and/or time varying intracellular calcium concentrations--are hidden. Inferring these hidden signals is often problematic due to noise, nonlinearities, slow imaging rate, and unknown biophysical parameters. We overcome these difficulties by developing sequential Monte Carlo methods (particle filters) based on biophysical models of spiking, calcium dynamics, and fluorescence. We show that even in simple cases, the particle filters outperform the optimal linear (i.e., Wiener) filter, both by obtaining better estimates and by providing error bars. We then relax a number of our model assumptions to incorporate nonlinear saturation of the fluorescence signal, as well external stimulus and spike history dependence (e.g., refractoriness) of the spike trains. Using both simulations and in vitro fluorescence observations, we demonstrate temporal superresolution by inferring when within a frame each spike occurs. Furthermore, the model parameters may be estimated using expectation maximization with only a very limited amount of data (e.g., approximately 5-10 s or 5-40 spikes), without the requirement of any simultaneous electrophysiology or imaging experiments.
Frontiers in Neural Circuits. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19636390
Two-photon imaging has become a useful tool for optical monitoring of neural circuits, but it requires high laser power and serial scanning of each pixel in a sample. This results in slow imaging rates, limiting the measurements of fast signals such as neuronal activity. To improve the speed and signal-to-noise ratio of two-photon imaging, we introduce a simple modification of a two-photon microscope, using a diffractive optical element (DOE) which splits the laser beam into several beamlets that can simultaneously scan the sample. We demonstrate the advantages of DOE scanning by enhancing the speed and sensitivity of two-photon calcium imaging of action potentials in neurons from neocortical brain slices. DOE scanning can easily improve the detection of time-varying signals in two-photon and other non-linear microscopic techniques.
Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20859526
Two-photon microscopy is often performed at slow frame rates due to the need to serially scan all points in a field of view with a single laser beam. To overcome this problem, we have developed two optical methods that split and multiplex a laser beam across the sample. In the first method a diffractive optical element (DOE) generates a fixed number of beamlets that are scanned in parallel resulting in a corresponding increase in speed or in signal-to-noise ratio in time-lapse measurements. The second method uses a computer-controlled spatial light modulator (SLM) to generate any arbitrary spatio-temporal light pattern. With an SLM one can image or photostimulate any predefined region of the image such as neurons or dendritic spines. In addition, SLMs can be used to mimic a large number of optical transfer functions including light path corrections as adaptive optics.