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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (4)
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Articles by Brian D. Lawrence in JoVE
نظام الحرير ثقافة السينما ل في المختبر تحليل وتصميم مادة بيولوجية
Brian D. Lawrence1, Zhi Pan1, Michael D. Weber1, David L. Kaplan2, Mark I. Rosenblatt1
1Margaret M. Dyson Vision Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tufts University
الأفلام الحرير هي فئة جديدة من المواد الحيوية للتخصيص بسهولة لمجموعة من التطبيقات الطبية الحيوية. الفيلم الحرير قدم نظام ثقافة قابلة للتكيف للغاية لمجموعة متنوعة من
Other articles by Brian D. Lawrence on PubMed
Biomacromolecules. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18370418
Silk-based biomaterial systems have been previously explored for a variety of medical and nonmedical materials needs. The unique biophysical features of silks provide options to generate highly tailored structures and morphologies with this unique family of fibrous proteins. To exploit these features, we have optimized the all aqueous processing of silk fibroin into novel surface nanopatterned protein materials. We have exploited control of this nanomorphology to optimize the optical features of these silk protein systems. We demonstrate control of surface morphology down to 125 nm, with fidelity over large length scales. This surface nanopatterning allows the silk protein to be formed into diffractive optics such as diffraction gratings, pattern generators, and lenses due to novel aqueous processing into optically clear materials via control of beta sheet crystallinity. Further, we incorporate biological components, such as hemoglobin and the enzyme peroxidase, during the process of forming the silk diffraction gratings. The ambient processing of the silk protein in water, in combination with these bioactive components, allows these entrained molecules to retain activity and provide added functions and selectivity to the optically active silk films. Thus, combinations of biochemical and optical readout is feasible and provides in a single, disposable/all degradable element with both spectral discrimination and biological function. These new surface nanopatterned, bioactive silk protein-based material systems offer a unique combination of features potentially useful for a range of biosensor needs, particularly when considered in concert with the remarkable mechanical properties of these proteins, their biocompatibility, and controllable biodegradation.
Reversible Secretion of Glycosaminoglycans and Proteoglycans by Cyclically Stretched Valvular Cells in 3D Culture
Annals of Biomedical Engineering. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18425579
Mitral valve leaflets and chordae have been shown to contain different amounts and proportions of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) corresponding to in vivo normal or diseased cyclic strain patterns. To understand the effect of cyclic strains on GAG/PG synthesis by valvular interstitial cells (VICs) isolated from valve leaflet and chordae separately, porcine VICs were seeded within collagen gels and alternately stretched or relaxed for 24 h periods for one week in a custom-designed tissue engineering bioreactor. We found cyclic-stretch-induced upregulation of total GAGs and of individual GAG classes secreted into the culture medium. Leaflet cells showed a delayed response to stretching compared to chordal cells, but altered the proportions of various GAG classes they secreted during the culture duration. Decorin and biglycan PGs were slightly responsive to stretch. We demonstrated that mechanical stretch and relaxation conditions reversibly regulate GAG and PG production in a novel 3D model of valve tissues. This is the first study using cyclic strains to modulate GAG/PG synthesis by valve cells and our results may have implications for the remodeling of the mitral valve as well as other tissues.
Effect of Cyclic Mechanical Strain on Glycosaminoglycan and Proteoglycan Synthesis by Heart Valve Cells
Acta Biomaterialia. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19004676
Heart valves are presumed to remodel their extracellular matrix upon application of mechanical strains. In this study, we investigated the effect of cyclic tensile strain on valvular interstitial cells' synthesis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs), which are altered during myxomatous degeneration. Interstitial cells were isolated from mitral valve leaflets and chordate, and seeded separately within three-dimensional collagen gels. Cell-seeded collagen gels were then subjected to cyclic strains of 2%, 5% or 10% at 1.16 Hz for 48 h using a custom-built stretching device. The application of cyclic strains reduced the total GAGs retained within collagen gels in a magnitude-dependent manner for both leaflet and chordal cells. With increasing strain magnitude, however, secretion of total GAGs into the medium was reduced for leaflet cells and elevated for chordal cells. Retention of 4-sulfated GAGs increased with increasing strain magnitude for both cell types; for the chordal samples, retention of 6-sulfated GAGs was reduced at higher strain magnitudes. Compared to statically constrained or unconstrained conditions, the application of cyclic strain reduced the secretion of 6-sulfated GAGs by both cell types, and elevated secretion of 4-sulfated GAGs by leaflet cells only. Retention of the PG biglycan and secretion of the PG decorin was significantly reduced at 10% strain compared to 2% strain. In addition, there were numerous differences in the strain-dependent retention and secretion of GAGs and PGS within the leaflet and chordal groups. These results demonstrate that GAG and PG synthesis by VICs is regulated by cyclic stretching conditions.
Macromolecular Bioscience. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20112237
Effects of hydration on silk fibroin film properties were investigated for water-annealed and MeOH-treated samples. Hydration increased thickness by 60% for MeOH-immersed films, while water-annealed samples remained constant. MeOH-immersed films showed an 80% mass loss due to water, while water-annealed lost only 40%. O(2) permeability was higher in MeOH-immersed films with Dk values of 10(-10) (mL O(2) x cm) x (cm(-1) x s(-1) x mmHg(-1)), while those of water-annealed films reached only one fifth of this value. All films showed a decrease in Young's modulus and increased plastic deformation by two orders of magnitude when submerged in saline solution. FT-IR showed that beta-sheet content in water-annealed films increased with increasing water vapor pressure, while MeOH-immersed films showed no change.