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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (21)
- Genesis (New York, N.Y. : 2000)
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- The Journal of Cell Biology
- Nature Immunology
- BMC Neuroscience
- Developmental Biology
- The Journal of Cell Biology
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- BMC Developmental Biology
- Genesis (New York, N.Y. : 2000)
- PloS One
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
- Nature Neuroscience
- PloS One
Articles by Brian G. Condie in JoVE
Whole Mount in Situ Hybridization of E8.5 to E11.5 Mouse Embryos
Qiaozhi Wei, Nancy R. Manley, Brian G. Condie
Department of Genetics, University of Georgia
This whole mount in situ hybridization protocol discusses critical steps that ensure reproducible high quality results for gene expression studies in E8.5-E11.5 day old mouse embryos.
Other articles by Brian G. Condie on PubMed
Genesis (New York, N.Y. : 2000). Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12640621
Current in vitro culture methods for mouse embryos are critically dependent on specially prepared rodent serum. Rodent serum requires careful preparation and stringent assessment of serum quality, while commercially available whole embryo culture serum is expensive and shows considerable lot variability. Thus, preparation and testing of suitable serum represents a considerable investment of time and resources, particularly for laboratories with only short-term embryo culture requirements. In addition, serum supplementation of culture medium may introduce unknown serum components that could interfere with interpretation of experimental results, especially where the study is geared towards analysis of a specific growth factor. Here we describe the composition of a standardized serum free culture medium comprised of commercially available stem cell media supplements. With this method, we have successfully cultured midgestation stage mouse embryos and demonstrated, using both morphological and gene expression criteria, that these embryos exhibited proper developmental progression. We believe this method to be a significant advance in whole embryo culture technology that will be of particular use to laboratories needing to utilize whole embryo culture to study midgestation organogenesis.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12788087
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells capable of differentiating into cell lineages derived from all primary germ layers including neural cells. In this study we describe an efficient method for differentiating rhesus monkey ES cells to neural lineages and the subsequent isolation of an enriched population of Nestin and Musashi positive neural progenitor (NP) cells. Upon differentiation, these cells exhibit electrophysiological characteristics resembling cultured primary neurons. Embryoid bodies (EBs) were formed in ES growth medium supplemented with 50% MEDII. After 7 days in suspension culture, EBs were transferred to adherent culture and either differentiated in serum containing medium or expanded in serum free medium. Immunocytochemistry on differentiating cells derived from EBs revealed large networks of MAP-2 and NF200 positive neurons. DAPI staining showed that the center of the MEDII-treated EBs was filled with rosettes. NPs isolated from adherent EB cultures expanded in serum free medium were passaged and maintained in an undifferentiated state by culture in serum free N2 with 50% MEDII and bFGF. Differentiating neurons derived from NPs fired action potentials in response to depolarizing current injection and expressed functional ionotropic receptors for the neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). NPs derived in this way could serve as models for cellular replacement therapy in primate models of neurodegenerative disease, a source of neural cells for toxicity and drug testing, and as a model of the developing primate nervous system.
Regulation of Cell Death in Mitotic Neural Progenitor Cells by Asymmetric Distribution of Prostate Apoptosis Response 4 (PAR-4) and Simultaneous Elevation of Endogenous Ceramide
The Journal of Cell Biology. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12885759
Cell death and survival of neural progenitor (NP) cells are determined by signals that are largely unknown. We have analyzed pro-apoptotic signaling in individual NP cells that have been derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. NP formation was concomitant with elevated apoptosis and increased expression of ceramide and prostate apoptosis response 4 (PAR-4). Morpholino oligonucleotide-mediated antisense knockdown of PAR-4 or inhibition of ceramide biosynthesis reduced stem cell apoptosis, whereas PAR-4 overexpression and treatment with ceramide analogs elevated apoptosis. Apoptotic cells also stained for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (a nuclear mitosis marker protein), but not for nestin (a marker for NP cells). In mitotic cells, asymmetric distribution of PAR-4 and nestin resulted in one nestin(-)/PAR-4(+) daughter cell, in which ceramide elevation induced apoptosis. The other cell was nestin(+), but PAR-4(-), and was not apoptotic. Asymmetric distribution of PAR-4 and simultaneous elevation of endogenous ceramide provides a possible mechanism underlying asymmetric differentiation and apoptosis of neuronal stem cells in the developing brain.
Nature Immunology. Nov, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14528302
Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are required for T cell maturation within the thymus. In the nude (Foxn1(nu/nu)) mouse, TECs fail to differentiate. We have generated a hypomorphic allele called Foxn1(Delta), from which an N-terminal domain was deleted. The phenotype was thymus specific, identifying a tissue-specific activity for this domain. Foxn1(Delta/Delta) mice showed abnormal thymic architecture, lacking cortical and medullary domains. In contrast to thymi in mice with the null allele, the Foxn1(Delta/Delta) thymus promoted T cell development, but with specific defects at both the double-negative and double-positive stages. Thus, initiation and progression of TEC differentiation are genetically separable functions of Foxn1, and the N-terminal domain is required for crosstalk-dependent TEC differentiation.
BMC Neuroscience. Oct, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14572319
We have developed a culture system for the efficient and directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) to neural precursors and neurons.HESC were maintained by manual passaging and were differentiated to a morphologically distinct OCT-4+/SSEA-4- monolayer cell type prior to the derivation of embryoid bodies. Embryoid bodies were grown in suspension in serum free conditions, in the presence of 50% conditioned medium from the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2 (MedII).
Developmental Biology. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14975719
Pitx2, a homeodomain transcription factor, is essential for normal development of the pituitary gland, craniofacial region, eyes, heart, abdominal viscera, and limbs. Complete loss of Pitx2 in mice (Pitx2(-/-)) results in embryonic lethality by approximately e15 due to cardiac defects, whereas embryos with partial loss of function (Pitx2(neo/-) or Pitx2(neo/neo)) survive until later in development (e17-e19). Pitx2 is expressed in discrete populations of postmitotic neurons in the mouse brain, but its role in mammalian central nervous system (CNS) development is not known. We undertook an analysis of Pitx2-deficient embryos to determine whether loss of Pitx2 affects CNS development. The CNS is normal in hypomorphic e16.5 Pitx2(neo/-) and e18.5 Pitx2(neo/neo) embryos, with no evidence of midline or other defects. Midgestation (e10.5) Pitx2(-/-) embryos have normally formed neural tube structures and cerebral vesicles, whereas older (e14.5) Pitx2(-/-) embryos exhibit loss of gene expression and axonal projections in the subthalamic nucleus (a group of cells in the ventrolateral thalamus) and in the developing superior colliculus of dorsal midbrain. Our results suggest a role for Pitx2 in regulating regionally specific terminal neuronal differentiation in the developing ventrolateral thalamus and midbrain.
Blood. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15070671
Human embryonic stem (huES) cells have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell lineages and potentially provide a source of differentiated cells for many therapeutic uses. However, little is known about the mechanism of differentiation of huES cells and factors regulating cell development. We have used high-quality microarrays containing 16 659 seventy-base pair oligonucleotides to examine gene expression in 6 of the 11 available huES cell lines. Expression was compared against pooled RNA from multiple tissues (universal RNA) and genes enriched in huES cells were identified. All 6 cell lines expressed multiple markers of the undifferentiated state and shared significant homology in gene expression (overall similarity coefficient > 0.85).A common subset of 92 genes was identified that included Nanog, GTCM-1, connexin 43 (GJA1), oct-4, and TDGF1 (cripto). Gene expression was confirmed by a variety of techniques including comparison with databases, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, focused cDNA microarrays, and immunocytochemistry. Comparison with published "stemness" genes revealed a limited overlap, suggesting little similarity with other stem cell populations. Several novel ES cell-specific expressed sequence tags were identified and mapped to the human genome. These results represent the first detailed characterization of undifferentiated huES cells and provide a unique set of markers to profile and better understand the biology of huES cells.
Selective Apoptosis of Pluripotent Mouse and Human Stem Cells by Novel Ceramide Analogues Prevents Teratoma Formation and Enriches for Neural Precursors in ES Cell-derived Neural Transplants
The Journal of Cell Biology. Nov, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15545317
The formation of stem cell-derived tumors (teratomas) is observed when engrafting undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells, embryoid body-derived cells (EBCs), or mammalian embryos and is a significant obstacle to stem cell therapy. We show that in tumors formed after engraftment of EBCs into mouse brain, expression of the pluripotency marker Oct-4 colocalized with that of prostate apoptosis response-4 (PAR-4), a protein mediating ceramide-induced apoptosis during neural differentiation of ES cells. We tested the ability of the novel ceramide analogue N-oleoyl serinol (S18) to eliminate mouse and human Oct-4(+)/PAR-4(+) cells and to increase the proportion of nestin(+) neuroprogenitors in EBC-derived cell cultures and grafts. S18-treated EBCs persisted in the hippocampal area and showed neuronal lineage differentiation as indicated by the expression of beta-tubulin III. However, untreated cells formed numerous teratomas that contained derivatives of endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Our results show for the first time that ceramide-induced apoptosis eliminates residual, pluripotent EBCs, prevents teratoma formation, and enriches the EBCs for cells that undergo neural differentiation after transplantation.
Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Dopaminergic Neurons in Serum-free Suspension Culture
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15579641
The use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) as a source of dopaminergic neurons for Parkinson's disease cell therapy will require the development of simple and reliable cell differentiation protocols. The use of cell cocultures, added extracellular signaling factors, or transgenic approaches to drive hESC differentiation could lead to additional regulatory as well as cell production delays for these therapies. Because the neuronal cell lineage seems to require limited or no signaling for its formation, we tested the ability of hESCs to differentiate to form dopamine-producing neurons in a simple serum-free suspension culture system. BG01 and BG03 hESCs were differentiated as suspension aggregates, and neural progenitors and neurons were detectable after 2-4 weeks. Plated neurons responded appropriately to electrophysiological cues. This differentiation was inhibited by early exposure to bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-4, but a pulse of BMP-4 from days 5 to 9 caused induction of peripheral neuronal differentiation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and whole-mount immunocytochemistry demonstrated the expression of multiple markers of the midbrain dopaminergic phenotype in serum-free differentiations. Neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were killed by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a neurotoxic catecholamine. Upon plating, these cells released dopamine and other catecholamines in response to K+ depolarization. Surviving TH+ neurons, derived from the cells differentiated in serum-free suspension cultures, were detected 8 weeks after transplantation into 6-OHDA-lesioned rat brains. This work suggests that hESCs can differentiate in simple serum-free suspension cultures to produce the large number of cells required for transplantation studies.
The Mouse Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transporter Gene: Expression During Embryogenesis, Analysis of Its Core Promoter in Neural Stem Cells and a Reconsideration of Its Alternate Splicing
Gene. May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15826867
The vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter, VIAAT (also known as vesicular GABA transporter VGAT) transports GABA or glycine into synaptic vesicles. To initiate an analysis of the expression and regulation of VIAAT during neurogenesis we have cloned and characterized the mouse Viaat gene. We find that the mouse Viaat coding sequence is encoded by two exons spanning 5.3 kb. A survey of expression by whole mount in situ hybridization of mouse embryos indicates that Viaat is activated early in neuron differentiation and is expressed widely within the developing CNS; however, we did not detect expression in the superficial non-neural structures that express the GABA synthase Gad1. Analysis of the Viaat promoter indicates that a minimal promoter region containing a CG rich sequence is sufficient for efficient expression in neural stem and precursor cells. Our analysis of the Viaat sequence and splicing does not support the existence of two Viaat isoforms as previously proposed [Ebihara et al., Brain Res. Mol Brain Res. 110 (2003), 126-139]. Instead, the alternative isoform Viaat-a appears to be due to PCR artifacts that have occurred independently in multiple labs.
Direct Binding to Ceramide Activates Protein Kinase Czeta Before the Formation of a Pro-apoptotic Complex with PAR-4 in Differentiating Stem Cells
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15901738
We have reported that ceramide mediates binding of atypical protein kinase C (PKC) zeta to its inhibitor protein, PAR-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4), thereby inducing apoptosis in differentiating embryonic stem cells. Using a novel method of lipid vesicle-mediated affinity chromatography, we showed here that endogenous ceramide binds directly to the PKCzeta.PAR-4 complex. Ceramide and its analogs activated PKCzeta prior to binding to PAR-4, as determined by increased levels of phosphorylated PKCzeta and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and emergence of a PAR-4-to-phosphorylated PKCzeta fluorescence resonance energy transfer signal that co-localizes with ceramide. Elevated expression and activation of PKCzeta increased cell survival, whereas expression of PAR-4 promoted apoptosis. This suggests that PKCzeta counteracts apoptosis, unless its ceramide-induced activation is compromised by binding to PAR-4. A luciferase reporter assay showed that ceramide analogs activate nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB unless PAR-4-dependent inhibition of PKCzeta suppresses NF-kappaB activation. Taken together, our results show that direct physical association with ceramide and PAR-4 regulates the activity of PKCzeta. They also indicate that this interaction regulates the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and NF-kappaB.
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16614005
The NOTCH signaling pathway performs a wide range of critical functions in a number of different cell types during development and differentiation. The role of NOTCH signals in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has not been tested. We measured the activity of canonical NOTCH signaling in undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells and tested the requirement for NOTCH activity in hESC self-renewal or differentiation by growing hESCs in the presence of gamma-secretase inhibitors. Our results suggest that NOTCH signaling is not required for the propagation of undifferentiated human ES cells but instead is required for the maintenance of the differentiating cell types that accumulate in human ES cell cultures. Our studies suggest that NOTCH signaling is not required in human embryonic differentiation until the formation of extraembryonic, germ layer, or tissue-specific stem cells and progenitors.
Ceramide Regulates Atypical PKCzeta/lambda-mediated Cell Polarity in Primitive Ectoderm Cells. A Novel Function of Sphingolipids in Morphogenesis
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17105725
In mammals, the primitive ectoderm is an epithelium of polarized cells that differentiates into all embryonic tissues. Our study shows that in primitive ectoderm cells, the sphingolipid ceramide was elevated and co-distributed with the small GTPase Cdc42 and cortical F-actin at the apicolateral cell membrane. Pharmacological or RNA interference-mediated inhibition of ceramide biosynthesis enhanced apoptosis and impaired primitive ectoderm formation in embryoid bodies differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells. Primitive ectoderm formation was restored by incubation with ceramide or a ceramide analog. Ceramide depletion prevented plasma membrane translocation of PKCzeta/lambda, its interaction with Cdc42, and phosphorylation of GSK-3beta, a substrate of PKCzeta/lambda. Recombinant PKCzeta formed a complex with the polarity protein Par6 and Cdc42 when bound to ceramide containing lipid vesicles. Our data suggest a novel mechanism by which a ceramide-induced, apicolateral polarity complex with PKCzeta/lambda regulates primitive ectoderm cell polarity and morphogenesis.
Specific Expression of LacZ and Cre Recombinase in Fetal Thymic Epithelial Cells by Multiplex Gene Targeting at the Foxn1 Locus
BMC Developmental Biology. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17577402
Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) promote thymocyte maturation and are required for the early stages of thymocyte development and for positive selection. However, investigation of the mechanisms by which TECs perform these functions has been inhibited by the lack of genetic tools. Since the Foxn1 gene is expressed in all presumptive TECs from the early stages of thymus organogenesis and broadly in the adult thymus, it is an ideal locus for driving gene expression in differentiating and mature TECs.
Textpresso Site-specific Recombinases: A Text-mining Server for the Recombinase Literature Including Cre Mice and Conditional Alleles
Genesis (New York, N.Y. : 2000). Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19882667
Textpresso Site Specific Recombinases (http://ssrc.genetics.uga.edu/) is a text-mining web server for searching a database of more than 9,000 full-text publications. The papers and abstracts in this database represent a wide range of topics related to site-specific recombinase (SSR) research tools. Included in the database are most of the papers that report the characterization or use of mouse strains that express Cre recombinase as well as papers that describe or analyze mouse lines that carry conditional (floxed) alleles or SSR-activated transgenes/knockins. The database also includes reports describing SSR-based cloning methods such as the Gateway or the Creator systems, papers reporting the development or use of SSR-based tools in systems such as Drosophila, bacteria, parasites, stem cells, yeast, plants, zebrafish, and Xenopus as well as publications that describe the biochemistry, genetics, or molecular structure of the SSRs themselves. Textpresso Site Specific Recombinases is the only comprehensive text-mining resource available for the literature describing the biology and technical applications of SSRs.
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20333300
Previous studies have shown that disruption of GABA signaling in mice via mutations in the Gad1, Gabrb3 or Viaat genes leads to the development of non-neural developmental defects such as cleft palate. Studies of the Gabrb3 and Gad1 mutant mice have suggested that GABA function could be required either in the central nervous system or in the palate itself for normal palatogenesis.
Gata3-deficient Mice Develop Parathyroid Abnormalities Due to Dysregulation of the Parathyroid-specific Transcription Factor Gcm2
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20484821
Heterozygous mutations of GATA3, which encodes a dual zinc-finger transcription factor, cause hypoparathyroidism with sensorineural deafness and renal dysplasia. Here, we have investigated the role of GATA3 in parathyroid function by challenging Gata3+/- mice with a diet low in calcium and vitamin D so as to expose any defects in parathyroid function. This led to a higher mortality among Gata3+/- mice compared with Gata3+/+ mice. Compared with their wild-type littermates, Gata3+/- mice had lower plasma concentrations of calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) and smaller parathyroid glands with a reduced Ki-67 proliferation rate. At E11.5, Gata3+/- embryos had smaller parathyroid-thymus primordia with fewer cells expressing the parathyroid-specific gene glial cells missing 2 (Gcm2), the homolog of human GCMB. In contrast, E11.5 Gata3-/- embryos had no Gcm2 expression and by E12.5 had gross defects in the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, including absent parathyroid-thymus primordia. Electrophoretic mobility shift, luciferase reporter, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that GATA3 binds specifically to a functional double-GATA motif within the GCMB promoter. Thus, GATA3 is critical for the differentiation and survival of parathyroid progenitor cells and, with GCM2/B, forms part of a transcriptional cascade in parathyroid development and function.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20498049
Hox genes play evolutionarily conserved roles in specifying axial position during embryogenesis. A prevailing paradigm is that changes in Hox gene expression drive evolution of metazoan body plans. Conservation of Hox function across species, and among paralogous Hox genes within a species, supports a model of functional equivalence. In this report, we demonstrate that zebrafish hoxa3a (zfhoxa3a) expressed from the mouse Hoxa3 locus can substitute for mouse Hoxa3 in some tissues, but has distinct or null phenotypes in others. We further show, by using an allele encoding a chimeric protein, that this difference maps primarily to the zfhoxa3a C-terminal domain. Our data imply that the mouse and zebrafish proteins have diverged considerably since their last common ancestor, and that the major difference between them resides in the C-terminal domain. Our data further show that Hox protein function can evolve independently in different cell types or for specific functions. The inability of zfhoxa3a to perform all of the normal roles of mouse Hoxa3 illustrates that Hox orthologues are not always functionally interchangeable.
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20800818
Transcriptional regulatory networks are the central regulatory mechanisms that control organ identity, patterning, and differentiation. In the case of the thymus, several key transcription factors have been identified that are critical for various aspects of thymus organogenesis and thymic epithelial cell (TEC) differentiation. The thymus forms from the third pharyngeal pouch endoderm during embryogenesis. Organ development progresses from initial thymus cell fate specification, through multiple stages of TEC differentiation and cortical (cTEC) and medullary (mTEC) formation. Transcription factors have been identified for each of these stages: a Hoxa3-dependent cascade at initial fate specification, Foxn1 for early (and later) TEC differentiation, and NF-kappaB for mTEC differentiation. As important as these factors are, their interrelationships are not understood, and many more transcription factors are likely required for complete thymus organogenesis to occur. In this chapter, we review the literature on these known genes, as well as identify gaps in our knowledge for future studies.
An Evolving NGF-Hoxd1 Signaling Pathway Mediates Development of Divergent Neural Circuits in Vertebrates
Nature Neuroscience. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21151121
Species are endowed with unique sensory capabilities that are encoded by divergent neural circuits. One potential explanation for how divergent circuits have evolved is that conserved extrinsic signals are differentially interpreted by developing neurons of different species to yield unique patterns of axonal connections. Although nerve growth factor (NGF) controls survival, maturation and axonal projections of nociceptors of different vertebrates, whether the NGF signal is differentially transduced in different species to yield unique features of nociceptor circuits is unclear. We identified a species-specific signaling module induced by NGF and mediated by a rapidly evolving Hox transcription factor, Hoxd1. NGF promoted robust expression of Hoxd1 in mice, but not chickens, both in vivo and in vitro. Mice lacking Hoxd1 displayed altered nociceptor circuitry that resembles that normally found in chicks. Conversely, ectopic expression of Hoxd1 in developing chick nociceptors promoted a pattern of axonal projections reminiscent of the mouse. Thus, conserved growth factors control divergent neuronal transcriptional events that mediate interspecies differences in neural circuits and the behaviors that they control.
A Focused in Situ Hybridization Screen Identifies Candidate Transcriptional Regulators of Thymic Epithelial Cell Development and Function
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22087235
Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are necessary for normal T cell development. Currently, one transcription factor, Foxn1 is known to be necessary for the progression of fetal TEC differentiation. However, some aspects of fetal TEC differentiation occur in Foxn1 mutants, suggesting the existence of additional transcriptional regulators of TEC differentiation. The goal of this study was to identify some of the additional candidate transcription factors that may be involved in the specification and/or differentiation of TECs during fetal development.