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In JoVE (2)
- Visualisering av Vascular Ca 2 + Signalering Triggade av parakrina Härledda ROS
- Flera parametrar Mätning av permeabiliteten Transition poröppning i isolerade mus hjärta mitokondrier
Other Publications (19)
- The Journal of Cell Biology
- Sleep Medicine
- Molecular Biology of the Cell
- Molecular and Cellular Biology
- Nature Protocols
- Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
- Molecular and Cellular Biology
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- Free Radical Biology & Medicine
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- The Journal of Cell Biology
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
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Articles by Brian J. Hawkins in JoVE
Visualisering av Vascular Ca 2 + Signalering Triggade av parakrina Härledda ROS
Karthik Mallilankaraman1, Rajesh Kumar Gandhirajan1, Brian J. Hawkins2, Muniswamy Madesh1
1Department of Biochemistry, Temple University, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington
En effektiv metod för att få insikt i att visualisera parakrina-derived ROS induktion av endotel Ca2 +-signalering beskrivs. Denna metod tar fördel av att mäta parakrina härrör ROS utlöste Ca2 + mobilisering i vaskulära endotelceller i en co-kultur-modellen.
Flera parametrar Mätning av permeabiliteten Transition poröppning i isolerade mus hjärta mitokondrier
Raluca Marcu, Chris K. Neeley, Georgios Karamanlidis, Brian J. Hawkins
Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine, Mitochondria and Metabolism Center, University of Washington, Seattle
Ett spektrofluorometrisk protokoll för mätning av mitokondriell permeabilitet övergången pore öppning i isolerad mus hjärta mitokondrier presenteras här. Analysen involverar samtidig mätning av mitokondrier Ca
Other articles by Brian J. Hawkins on PubMed
Adaptation of Pulmonary Oxygen Consumption Slow Component Following 6 Weeks of Exercise Training Above and Below the Lactate Threshold in Untrained Men
Chest. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14665524
To examine the effects of 6 weeks of exercise training above or below the lactate threshold (LT) on the slow component (SC) of pulmonary oxygen consumption (.VO(2)).
Selective Role for Superoxide in InsP3 Receptor-mediated Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Endothelial Apoptosis
The Journal of Cell Biology. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16186254
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a divergent role in both cell survival and cell death during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and associated inflammation. In this study, ROS generation by activated macrophages evoked an intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) transient in endothelial cells that was ablated by a combination of superoxide dismutase and an anion channel blocker. [Ca2+]i store depletion, but not extracellular Ca2+ chelation, prevented [Ca2+]i elevation in response to O2*- that was inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) dependent, and cells lacking the three InsP3 receptor (InsP3R) isoforms failed to display the [Ca2+]i transient. Importantly, the O2*--triggered Ca2+ mobilization preceded a loss in mitochondrial membrane potential that was independent of other oxidants and mitochondrially derived ROS. Activation of apoptosis occurred selectively in response to O2*- and could be prevented by [Ca2+]i buffering. This study provides evidence that O2*- facilitates an InsP3R-linked apoptotic cascade and may serve a critical function in I/R injury and inflammation.
Unique Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test Responses in Overweight Middle-aged Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Sleep Medicine. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17275399
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive nighttime obstructions of the upper airway that induce hypoxemia, hypercapnia, sympathetic activation, and arousals. This disorder induces cardiovascular autonomic imbalance and contributes to the development of hypertension. While the diagnostic and prognostic utility of exercise testing is well established in cardiology, the clinical utility of the exercise test in screening for OSA has not been carefully explored. To explore this potential application, we contrasted cardiopulmonary responses to exercise testing in patients recently diagnosed with OSA with apparently healthy counterparts of similar physical inactivity history, age, and body habitus.
Molecular Biology of the Cell. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17360969
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in both cell signaling and pathology. A major source of ROS in endothelial cells is NADPH oxidase, which generates superoxide (O(2)(.-)) on the extracellular side of the plasma membrane but can result in intracellular signaling. To study possible transmembrane flux of O(2)(.-), pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were preloaded with the O(2)(.-)-sensitive fluorophore hydroethidine (HE). Application of an extracellular bolus of O(2)(.-) resulted in rapid and concentration-dependent transient HE oxidation that was followed by a progressive and nonreversible increase in nuclear HE fluorescence. These fluorescence changes were inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD), the anion channel blocker DIDS, and selective silencing of the chloride channel-3 (ClC-3) by treatment with siRNA. Extracellular O(2)(.-) triggered Ca(2+) release in turn triggered mitochondrial membrane potential alterations that were followed by mitochondrial O(2)(.-) production and cellular apoptosis. These "signaling" effects of O(2)(.-) were prevented by DIDS treatment, by depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores with thapsigargin and by chelation of intracellular Ca(2+). This study demonstrates that O(2)(.-) flux across the endothelial cell plasma membrane occurs through ClC-3 channels and induces intracellular Ca(2+) release, which activates mitochondrial O(2)(.-) generation.
The Proapoptotic Factors Bax and Bak Regulate T Cell Proliferation Through Control of Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca(2+) Homeostasis
Immunity. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17692540
The Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl-2-antagonist/killer (Bak) are essential regulators of lymphocyte apoptosis, but whether they play a role in viable T cell function remains unclear. Here, we report that T cells lacking both Bax and Bak display defects in antigen-specific proliferation because of Ca(2+)-signaling defects. Bax(-/-), Bak(-/-) T cells displayed defective T cell receptor (TCR)- and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-dependent Ca(2+) mobilization because of altered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) regulation that was reversed by Bax's reintroduction. The ability of TCR-dependent Ca(2+) signals to stimulate mitochondrial NADH production in excess of that utilized for ATP synthesis was dependent on Bax and Bak. Blunting of Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial NADH elevation in the absence of Bax and Bak resulted in decreased reactive-oxygen-species production, which was required for T cell proliferation. Together, the data establish that Bax and Bak play an essential role in the control of T cell proliferation by modulating ER Ca(2+) release.
G Protein-coupled Receptor Ca2+-linked Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Are Essential for Endothelial/leukocyte Adherence
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17724077
Receptor-mediated signaling is commonly associated with multiple functions, including the production of reactive oxygen species. However, whether mitochondrion-derived superoxide (mROS) contributes directly to physiological signaling is controversial. Here we demonstrate a previously unknown mechanism in which physiologic Ca(2+)-evoked mROS production plays a pivotal role in endothelial cell (EC) activation and leukocyte firm adhesion. G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and tyrosine kinase-mediated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake resulted in NADPH oxidase-independent mROS production. However, GPCR-linked mROS production did not alter mitochondrial function or trigger cell death but rather contributed to activation of NF-kappaB and leukocyte adhesion via the EC induction of intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Dismutation of mROS by manganese superoxide dismutase overexpression and a cell-permeative superoxide dismutase mimetic ablated NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and facilitated leukocyte detachment from the endothelium under simulated circulation following GPCR- but not cytokine-induced activation. These results demonstrate that mROS is the downstream effector molecule that translates receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signals into proinflammatory signaling and leukocyte/EC firm adhesion.
Simultaneous Detection of Apoptosis and Mitochondrial Superoxide Production in Live Cells by Flow Cytometry and Confocal Microscopy
Nature Protocols. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17853886
Annexin V and Sytox Green are widely used markers to evaluate apoptosis in various cell types using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Recently, a novel fluoroprobe MitoSOX Red was introduced for selective detection of superoxide in the mitochondria of live cells and was validated for confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. This protocol describes simultaneous measurements of mitochondrial superoxide generation with apoptotic markers (Annexin V and Sytox Green) by both flow cytometry and confocal microscopy in endothelial cell lines. The advantages of the described flow cytometry method over other cell-based techniques are the tremendous speed (1-2 h), exquisite precision and the possibility of simultaneous quantitative measurements of mitochondrial superoxide generation and apoptotic (and other) markers, with maximal preservation of cellular functions. This method combined with fluorescent microscopy may be very useful to reveal important spatial-temporal changes in mitochondrial superoxide production and execution of programmed cell death in virtually any cell type.
Biomaterials. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17950837
The medical utility of proteins, e.g. therapeutic enzymes, is greatly restricted by their labile nature and inadequate delivery. Most therapeutic enzymes do not accumulate in their targets and are inactivated by proteases. Targeting of enzymes encapsulated into substrate-permeable polymer nano-carriers (PNC) impermeable for proteases might overcome these limitations. To test this hypothesis, we designed endothelial targeted PNC loaded with catalase, an H(2)O(2)-detoxifying enzyme, and tested if this approach protects against vascular oxidative stress, a pathological process implicated in ischemia-reperfusion and other disease conditions. Encapsulation of catalase (MW 247 kD), peroxidase (MW 42 kD) and xanthine oxidase (XO, MW 300 kD) into approximately 300 nm diameter PNC composed of co-polymers of polyethylene glycol and poly-lactic/poly-glycolic acid (PEG-PLGA) was in the range approximately 10% for all enzymes. PNC/catalase and PNC/peroxidase were protected from external proteolysis and exerted enzymatic activity on their PNC diffusible substrates, H(2)O(2) and ortho-phenylendiamine, whereas activity of encapsulated XO was negligible due to polymer impermeability to the substrate. PNC targeted to platelet-endothelial cell (EC) adhesion molecule-1 delivered active encapsulated catalase to ECs and protected the endothelium against oxidative stress in cell culture and animal studies. Vascular targeting of PNC-loaded detoxifying enzymes may find wide medical applications including management of oxidative stress and other toxicities.
Caveolae Are an Essential Component of the Pathway for Endothelial Cell Signaling Associated with Abrupt Reduction of Shear Stress
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18573285
Abrupt cessation of flow representing the acute loss of shear stress (simulated ischemia) to flow-adapted pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC) leads to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that signals for EC proliferation. We evaluated the role of caveolin-1 on this cellular response with mouse PMVEC that were preconditioned for 72 h to laminar flow at 5 dyn/cm(2) followed by stop of flow ("ischemia"). Preconditioning resulted in a 2.7-fold increase in cellular expression of K(ATP) (K(IR) 6.2) channels but no change in expression level of caveolin-1, gp91(phox), or MAP kinases. The initial response to ischemia in wild type cells was cell membrane depolarization that was abolished by gene targeting of K(IR) 6.2. The subsequent response was increased ROS production associated with activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX2) and then phosphorylation of MAP kinases (Erk, JNK). After 24 h of ischemia in wild type cells, the cell proliferation index increased 2.5 fold and the % of cells in S+G(2)/M phases increased 6-fold. This signaling cascade (cell membrane depolarization, ROS production, MAP kinase activation and cell proliferation) was abrogated in caveolin-1 null PMVEC or by treatment of wild type cells with filipin. These studies indicate that caveolin-1 functions as a shear sensor in flow-adapted EC resulting in ROS-mediated cell signaling and endothelial cell proliferation following the abrupt reduction in flow.
Inhalational Anesthetics Induce Cell Damage by Disruption of Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis with Different Potencies
Anesthesiology. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18648233
The authors hypothesized that inhalational anesthetics induced cell damage by causing abnormal calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum via excessive activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors, with isoflurane having greater potency than sevoflurane or desflurane.
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19332555
Ethanol intoxication stimulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines, increases the formation of reactive oxygen species, and induces mitochondrial impairment. However, information is limited as to the exact sequence and components involved in ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity. Acute ethanol exposure enhances mitochondrial superoxide (O(2)(*-)) production and impairs mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling. In turn, O(2)(*-) facilitates cytochrome c release and mitochondrial membrane potential loss that is not dependent upon H(2)O(2) and divalent cations and requires Bak in a Bax-independent fashion. Furthermore, triggering of Bak's proapoptotic activity requires the cytosolic presence of Bid, a BH3-only protein that is processed by the initiator caspase-2. Together, these studies identify an O(2)(*-)-driven, caspase-initiated apoptotic pathway that selectively involves the Bcl-2 family proteins Bid and Bak. This pathway manifests itself during chronic ethanol consumption in aged animals and identifies caspase-2, Bid, and Bak as essential mediators of O(2)(*-)-induced apoptosis that may prove effective targets for the development of therapeutics to treat alcoholic liver disease.
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19855129
Atrial fibrillation is the most common clinical cardiac arrhythmia. It is often initiated by ectopic beats arising from the pulmonary veins and atrium, but the source and mechanism of these beats remains unclear. The melanin synthesis enzyme dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) is involved in intracellular calcium and reactive species regulation in melanocytes. Given that dysregulation of intracellular calcium and reactive species has been described in patients with atrial fibrillation, we investigated the role of DCT in this process. Here, we characterize a unique DCT-expressing cell population within murine and human hearts that populated the pulmonary veins, atria, and atrioventricular canal. Expression profiling demonstrated that this population expressed adrenergic and muscarinic receptors and displayed transcriptional profiles distinct from dermal melanocytes. Adult mice lacking DCT displayed normal cardiac development but an increased susceptibility to atrial arrhythmias. Cultured primary cardiac melanocyte-like cells were excitable, and those lacking DCT displayed prolonged repolarization with early afterdepolarizations. Furthermore, mice with mutations in the tyrosine kinase receptor Kit lacked cardiac melanocyte-like cells and did not develop atrial arrhythmias in the absence of DCT. These data suggest that dysfunction of melanocyte-like cells in the atrium and pulmonary veins may contribute to atrial arrhythmias.
Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19897030
Nitric oxide (NO) and other reactive nitrogen species target multiple sites in the mitochondria to influence cellular bioenergetics and survival. Kinetic imaging studies revealed that NO from either activated macrophages or donor compounds rapidly diffuses to the mitochondria, causing a dose-dependent progressive increase in NO-dependent DAF fluorescence, which corresponded to mitochondrial membrane potential loss and initiated alterations in cellular bioenergetics that ultimately led to necrotic cell death. Cellular dysfunction is mediated by an elevated 3-nitrotyrosine signature of the mitochondrial complex I subunit NDUFB8, which is vital for normal mitochondrial function as evidenced by selective knockdown via siRNA. Overexpression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase substantially decreased NDUFB8 nitration and restored mitochondrial homeostasis. Further, treatment of cells with either necrostatin-1 or siRNA knockdown of RIP1 and RIP3 prevented NO-mediated necrosis. This work demonstrates that the interaction between NO and mitochondrially derived superoxide alters mitochondrial bioenergetics and cell function, thus providing a molecular mechanism for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species-mediated alterations in mitochondrial homeostasis.
Mitochondrial Complex II Prevents Hypoxic but Not Calcium- and Proapoptotic Bcl-2 Protein-induced Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Loss
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20566649
Mitochondrial membrane potential loss has severe bioenergetic consequences and contributes to many human diseases including myocardial infarction, stroke, cancer, and neurodegeneration. However, despite its prominence and importance in cellular energy production, the basic mechanism whereby the mitochondrial membrane potential is established remains unclear. Our studies elucidate that complex II-driven electron flow is the primary means by which the mitochondrial membrane is polarized under hypoxic conditions and that lack of the complex II substrate succinate resulted in reversible membrane potential loss that could be restored rapidly by succinate supplementation. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I and F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase induced mitochondrial depolarization that was independent of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) family proteins, or high amplitude swelling and could not be reversed by succinate. Importantly, succinate metabolism under hypoxic conditions restores membrane potential and ATP levels. Furthermore, a reliance on complex II-mediated electron flow allows cells from mitochondrial disease patients devoid of a functional complex I to maintain a mitochondrial membrane potential that conveys both a mitochondrial structure and the ability to sequester agonist-induced calcium similar to that of normal cells. This finding is important as it sets the stage for complex II functional preservation as an attractive therapy to maintain mitochondrial function during hypoxia.
Methamphetamine Causes Mitrochondrial Oxidative Damage in Human T Lymphocytes Leading to Functional Impairment
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20668216
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is known to be associated with an inordinate rate of infections. Although many studies have described the association of METH exposure and immunosuppression, so far the underlying mechanism still remains elusive. In this study, we present evidence that METH exposure resulted in mitochondrial oxidative damage and caused dysfunction of primary human T cells. METH treatment of T lymphocytes led to a rise in intracellular calcium levels that enhanced the generation of reactive oxygen species. TCR-CD28 linked calcium mobilization and subsequent uptake by mitochondria in METH-treated T cells correlated with an increase in mitochondrion-derived superoxide. Exposure to METH-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the form of marked decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, increased mitochondrial mass, enhanced protein nitrosylation and diminished protein levels of complexes I, III, and IV of the electron transport chain. These changes paralleled reduced IL-2 secretion and T cell proliferative responses after TCR-CD28 stimulation indicating impaired T cell function. Furthermore, antioxidants attenuated METH-induced mitochondrial damage by preserving the protein levels of mitochondrial complexes I, III, and IV. Altogether, our data indicate that METH can cause T cell dysfunction via induction of oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury as underlying mechanism of immune impairment secondary to METH abuse.
The Journal of Cell Biology. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20679432
Oxidant stress influences many cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and cell death. A well-recognized link between these processes and oxidant stress is via alterations in Ca(2+) signaling. However, precisely how oxidants influence Ca(2+) signaling remains unclear. Oxidant stress led to a phenotypic shift in Ca(2+) mobilization from an oscillatory to a sustained elevated pattern via calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC)-mediated capacitive Ca(2+) entry, and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1)- and Orai1-deficient cells are resistant to oxidant stress. Functionally, oxidant-induced Ca(2+) entry alters mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling and bioenergetics and triggers cell death. STIM1 is S-glutathionylated at cysteine 56 in response to oxidant stress and evokes constitutive Ca(2+) entry independent of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. These experiments reveal that cysteine 56 is a sensor for oxidant-dependent activation of STIM1 and demonstrate a molecular link between oxidant stress and Ca(2+) signaling via the CRAC channel.
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20876216
Elevated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by endothelial enzymes, including NADPH-oxidase, is implicated in vascular oxidative stress and endothelial proinflammatory activation involving exposure of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) conjugated with antibodies to platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) bind specifically to endothelium and inhibit effects of corresponding ROS, H(2)O(2), and superoxide anion. In this study, anti-PECAM/SOD, but not anti-PECAM/catalase or nontargeted enzymes, including polyethylene glycol (PEG)-SOD, inhibited 2- to 3-fold VCAM expression caused by tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1β, and lipopolysaccharide. Anti- PECAM/SOD, but not nontargeted counterparts, accumulated in vascular endothelium after intravenous injection, localized in endothelial endosomes, and inhibited by 70% lipopolysaccharide-caused VCAM-1 expression in mice. Anti-PECAM/SOD colocalized with EEA-1-positive endothelial vesicles and quenched ROS produced in response to TNF. Inhibitors of NADPH oxidase and anion channel ClC3 blocked TNF-induced VCAM expression, affirming that superoxide produced and transported by these proteins, respectively, mediates inflammatory signaling. Anti-PECAM/SOD abolished VCAM expression caused by poly(I:C)-induced activation of toll-like receptor 3 localized in intracellular vesicles. These results directly implicate endosomal influx of superoxide in endothelial inflammatory response and suggest that site-specific interception of this signal attained by targeted delivery of anti-PECAM/SOD into endothelial endosomes may have anti-inflammatory effects.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21816823
Studies have shown that HIV-infected patients develop neurocognitive disorders characterized by neuronal dysfunction. The lack of productive infection of neurons by HIV suggests that viral and cellular proteins, with neurotoxic activities, released from HIV-1-infected target cells can cause this neuronal deregulation. The viral protein R (Vpr), a protein encoded by HIV-1, has been shown to alter the expression of various important cytokines and inflammatory proteins in infected and uninfected cells; however the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Using a human neuronal cell line, we found that Vpr can be taken up by neurons causing: (i) deregulation of calcium homeostasis, (ii) endoplasmic reticulum-calcium release, (iii) activation of the oxidative stress pathway, (iv) mitochondrial dysfunction and v- synaptic retraction. In search for the cellular factors involved, we performed microRNAs and gene array assays using human neurons (primary cultures or cell line, SH-SY5Y) that we treated with recombinant Vpr proteins. Interestingly, Vpr deregulates the levels of several microRNAs (e.g. miR-34a) and their target genes (e.g. CREB), which could lead to neuronal dysfunctions. Therefore, we conclude that Vpr plays a major role in neuronal dysfunction through deregulating microRNAs and their target genes, a phenomenon that could lead to the development of neurocognitive disorders.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21956116
Over the last decade, small noncoding RNA molecules such as microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators in the expression and function of eukaryotic genomes. It has been suggested that viral infections and neurological disease outcome may also be shaped by the influence of small RNAs. This has prompted us to suggest that HIV infection alters the endogenous miRNA expression patterns, thereby contributing to neuronal deregulation and AIDS dementia. Therefore, using primary cultures and neuronal cell lines, we examined the impact of a viral protein (HIV-1 Tat) on the expression of miRNAs due to its characteristic features such as release from the infected cells and taken up by noninfected cells. Using microRNA array assay, we demonstrated that Tat deregulates the levels of several miRNAs. Interestingly, miR-34a was among the most highly induced miRNAs in Tat-treated neurons. Tat also decreases the levels of miR-34a target genes such as CREB protein as shown by real time PCR. The effect of Tat was neutralized in the presence of anti-miR-34a. Using in situ hybridization assay, we found that the levels of miR-34a increase in Tat transgenic mice when compared with the parental mice. Therefore, we conclude that deregulation of neuronal functions by HIV-1 Tat protein is miRNA-dependent.