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In JoVE (1)
- Blue Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) for Analysis of Multiprotein Complexes from Cellular Lysates
Other Publications (9)
- Infection and Immunity
- Infection and Immunity
- PloS One
- Immunology Letters
- Artificial Organs
- American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
- Tissue Engineering. Part A
- European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery : Official Journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
- Artificial Organs
Articles by Britta Blumenthal in JoVE
Blue Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) for Analysis of Multiprotein Complexes from Cellular Lysates
Gina J. Fiala1,2,3, Wolfgang W. A. Schamel*2,3, Britta Blumenthal*3
1Spemann Graduate School of Biology and Medicine (SGBM), University of Freiburg, 2Centre for Biological Signalling Studies (bioss) and Biology III, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, 3Department of Molecular Immunology, Max-Planck-Institute of Immunology and Epigenetics
In this video, we describe the characterization of multiprotein complexes (MPCs) by blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). In a first dimension, dialyzed cellular lysates are separated by BN-PAGE to identify individual MPCs. In a second dimension SDS-PAGE, MPCs of interest are further subdivided to analyze their constituents by immunoblotting.
Other articles by Britta Blumenthal on PubMed
The Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factors from Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis and from Escherichia Coli Bind to Different Cellular Receptors but Take the Same Route to the Cytosol
Infection and Immunity. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17438028
The cytotoxic necrotizing factors CNF1 and CNF2 produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and CNF(Y) of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis constitutively activate small GTPases of the Rho family. They deamidate a glutamine (Gln63 in RhoA), which is crucial for GTP hydrolysis. CNF1 and CNF(Y) exhibit 61% identity on the amino acid level, with equal distribution over the whole molecule. Although the two toxins are homologous in the receptor binding domain, we show that they bind to different cellular receptors. CNF(Y) does not enter Caco-2 and CHO-K1 cells, which are responsive to CNF1. In contrast, HeLa, Hep-2, and HEK 293 cells do respond to both toxins. Competition studies with catalytically inactive mutants of the toxins revealed that binding of CNF1 has no influence on the uptake of CNF(Y) into HeLa cells. In contrast, uptake of CNF1 is retarded after preincubation of HeLa cells with the catalytically inactive mutant of CNF(Y), suggesting that the toxin receptors overlap. Moreover, we compared the pathways of the toxins from receptor binding into the cytosol and showed that both toxins are taken up independent of the presence of clathrin or lipid rafts and are released into the cytosol from acidified endosomes.
Infection and Immunity. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19237521
Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) is a protein toxin produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. CNF1 constitutively activates small GTPases of the Rho family by deamidation of a glutamine, which is crucial for GTP hydrolysis. The toxin is taken up into mammalian cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis and is delivered from late endosomes into the cytosol. Here, we show that an approximately 55-kDa fragment of CNF1, which contains the catalytic domain and an additional part of the toxin, is present in the cytosol. The processing of this fragment requires an acidic pH and insertion of the toxin into the endosomal membrane. We define the cleavage site region as the region located between amino acids 532 and 544 of CNF1. The data provide insight into the complex mechanism of uptake of bacterial toxins into mammalian cells.
5-hydroxytryptamine Modulates Migration, Cytokine and Chemokine Release and T-cell Priming Capacity of Dendritic Cells in Vitro and in Vivo
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19649285
Beside its well described role in the central and peripheral nervous system 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), commonly known as serotonin, is also a potent immuno-modulator. Serotoninergic receptors (5-HTR) are expressed by a broad range of inflammatory cell types, including dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we aimed to further characterize the immuno-biological properties of serotoninergic receptors on human monocyte-derived DCs. 5-HT was able to induce oriented migration in immature but not in LPS-matured DCs via activation of 5-HTR(1) and 5-HTR(2) receptor subtypes. Accordingly, 5-HT also increased migration of pulmonary DCs to draining lymph nodes in vivo. By binding to 5-HTR(3), 5-HTR(4) and 5-HTR(7) receptors, 5-HT up-regulated production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Additionally, 5-HT influenced chemokine release by human monocyte-derived DCs: production of the potent Th1 chemoattractant IP-10/CXCL10 was inhibited in mature DCs, whereas CCL22/MDC secretion was up-regulated in both immature and mature DCs. Furthermore, DCs matured in the presence of 5-HT switched to a high IL-10 and low IL-12p70 secreting phenotype. Consistently, 5-HT favoured the outcome of a Th2 immune response both in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our study shows that 5-HT is a potent regulator of human dendritic cell function, and that targeting serotoninergic receptors might be a promising approach for the treatment of inflammatory disorders.
Detection of Phosphorylated T and B Cell Antigen Receptor Species by Phos-tag SDS- and Blue Native-PAGE
Immunology Letters. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20005898
Detection of phospho-proteins and differently phosphorylated forms of the same protein are important in understanding cell behaviour. One novel method is Phos-tag SDS-PAGE. A dinuclear Mn(2+) complex that binds to phosphate groups (the Phos-tag) is covalently attached to the polyacrylamide gel matrix. Thus, phosphorylated proteins are retarded in their migration and can be distinguished from their non-phosphorylated counterparts. We applied Phos-tag SDS-PAGE to the analysis of the zeta, CD3epsilon and CD3delta subunits of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR-CD3). Pervanadate stimulation generated six different phospho-zeta and each two different CD3epsilon and CD3delta forms. This corresponds to the phosphorylatable tyrosines on their cytoplasmic tails. The phosphorylation pattern was compatible with random phosphorylation events. Further, we showed that the Phos-tag technology can be applied to Blue Native (BN)-PAGE. This extends the applicability to the analysis of native protein complexes. Upon pervanadate stimulation the TCR-CD3 complex was predominantly detected as two distinct phospho-complexes. In contrast, the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) appeared as one phospho-form. Thus, Phos-tag BN-PAGE is useful for the analysis of different phosphorylation states of multiprotein complexes.
Polyurethane Scaffolds Seeded with Genetically Engineered Skeletal Myoblasts: a Promising Tool to Regenerate Myocardial Function
Artificial Organs. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20420589
In animal models, intramyocardial injection of primary skeletal myoblasts is supposed to promote tissue regeneration and to improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction. The usage of genetically engineered myoblasts overexpressing the paracrine factors involved in tissue repair is believed to enhance these effects. However, cell therapy via injection is always accompanied by a high death rate of the injected cells. Here, we describe the construction of a growth factor-producing myoblast-seeded scaffold to overcome this limitation. Skeletal myoblasts were isolated and expanded from newborn Lewis rats. Cells were seeded on polyurethane (PU) scaffolds (Artelon) and transfected with DNA of VEGF-A, HGF, SDF-1, or Akt1 using the lipid-based Metafectene Pro method. Overexpression was verified by ELISA, RT-PCR (VEGF-A, HGF, and SDF-1) and Western blot analysis (Akt1). The seeded scaffolds were transplanted onto damaged myocardium of Lewis rats 2 weeks after myocardial infarction. Six weeks later, their therapeutic potential in vivo was analyzed by measurement of infarction size and capillary density. Primary rat skeletal myoblasts seeded on PU scaffolds were efficiently transfected, achieving transfection rates of 20%. In vitro, we noted a significant increase in expression of VEGF-A, HGF, SDF-1, and Akt1 after transfection. In vivo, transplantation of growth factor-producing myoblast-seeded scaffolds resulted in enhanced angiogenesis (VEGF-A, HGF, and Akt1) or a reduced infarction zone (SDF-1 and Akt1) in the ischemically damaged myocardium. In summary, we constructed a growth factor-producing myoblast-seeded scaffold which combines the beneficial potential of stem cell transplantation with the promising effects of gene-therapeutic approaches. Because this matrix also allows us to circumvent previous cell application drawbacks, it may represent a promising tool for tissue regeneration and the re-establishment of cardiac function after myocardial infarction.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20508067
P2X₇R deficiency is associated with a less severe outcome in acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. Recently, we demonstrated that extracellular adenosine triphosphate is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma by modulating the function of dendritic cells (DCs). However, the role of the purinergic receptor subtype P2X₇ is unknown. To elucidate the role of P2X₇R in allergic airway inflammation (AAI) in vitro and in vivo, P2X₇R expression was measured in lung tissue and immune cells of mice or in humans with allergic asthma. By using a specific P2X₇R-antagonist and P2X₇R-deficient animals, the role of this receptor in acute and chronic experimental asthma was explored. P2X₇R was found to be up-regulated during acute and chronic asthmatic airway inflammation in mice and humans. In vivo experiments revealed the functional relevance of this finding because selective P2X₇R inhibition or P2X₇R deficiency was associated with reduced features of acute and chronic asthma in the ovalbumin-alum or HDM model of AAI. Experiments with bone marrow chimeras emphasized that P2X₇R expression on hematopoietic cells is responsible for the proasthmatic effects of P2X₇R signaling. In the DC-driven model of AAI, P2X₇R-deficient DCs showed a reduced capacity to induce Th2 immunity in vivo. Up-regulation of P2X₇R on BAL macrophages and blood eosinophils could be observed in patients with chronic asthma. Our data suggest that targeting P2X₇R on hematopoietic cells (e.g., DCs or eosinophils) might be a new therapeutic option for the treatment of asthma.
Scaffold-based Transplantation of Akt1-overexpressing Skeletal Myoblasts: Functional Regeneration is Associated with Angiogenesis and Reduced Infarction Size
Tissue Engineering. Part A. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20695763
Myoblast-based therapy can improve cardiac function after infarction and is conventionally performed by direct injection. A scaffold-based transfer could overcome injection-associated problems. In upgrading this approach we transplanted skeletal myoblasts (SkM) overexpressing the prosurvival gene Akt1. SkM were transfected with pcDNA3-huda-Akt1 and seeded on polyurethane scaffolds. These scaffolds were transplanted in rats 2 weeks after myocardial infarction. Hemodynamics were analyzed before therapy and 6 weeks later. Infarction size and capillary density were performed thereafter. Additional groups received injections of Akt1-transfected or untransfected myoblasts, scaffolds seeded with untransfected myoblasts, or sham operation. Deterioration of global systolic left ventricular function could be inhibited by all therapeutic approaches. In addition, transplantation of Akt1-transfected cells, either scaffold-based or injected, was superior with regard to systolic properties of the left ventricular wall. This effect was accompanied by smaller infarction sizes and angiogenesis. Scaffolds with untransfected myoblasts yielded also smaller infarctions than injections of untransfected myoblasts. Both Akt groups profited with regard to dP/dt(min). In contrast, other diastolic parameters pointed at impaired relaxation and stiffer myocardium especially in the Akt1-scaffold group. In conclusion, SkM overexpressing Akt1 can maintain myocardial function after infarction, reduce infarction size, and induce neovascularization. Scaffold-based cell transfer does not augment this reverse remodeling capacity.
Functional Regeneration of Ischemic Myocardium by Transplanted Cells Overexpressing Stromal Cell-derived Factor-1 (SDF-1): Intramyocardial Injection Versus Scaffold-based Application
European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery : Official Journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21684755
Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a potent chemotaxin. Increased SDF-1 levels can be found in ischemic myocardium and might protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that transplantation of stem cells overexpressing SDF-1 might improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). We compared intramyocardial injection with a scaffold-based application of SDF-1-transfected cells.
Hepatocyte Growth Factor-Transfected Skeletal Myoblasts to Limit the Development of Postinfarction Heart Failure
Artificial Organs. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21899570
Stem cells transplanted to an injured heart affect the host myocardium indirectly. The cytokine hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) may play a key role in this paracrine activity. We hypothesized that HGF-overexpressing stem cells would restore cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). Because there is a high rate of cell death when injecting the cells intramyocardially, we used scaffold-based cell transfer. Skeletal myoblasts (SkMs) were isolated and expanded from newborn Lewis rats. Cells were transfected with pcDNA3-huHGF and seeded on polyurethane (PU) scaffolds or diluted in medium for cell injection. The seeded scaffolds were transplanted in rats two weeks after MI (group: PU-HGF-SkM) or the infection solution was intramyocardially injected (group: Inj-HGF-SkM). Two groups (Inj-SkM and PU-SkM) have been prepared with untransfected cells and sham group without any cell therapy served as control (n = 10 each group). At the beginning of treatment (baseline) and six weeks later, hemodynamic parameters were assessed. At the end of the study, histological analysis was employed. In sham animals we detected a decrease in systolic and diastolic function during the observation time. Treatment with untransfected myoblasts did not lead to any significant changes in hemodynamic parameters between the intervention and six weeks later. In group PU-HGF-SkM, systolic parameters like dP/dt(max), dP/dt(min) and isovolumic contraction improved significantly from baseline to study end. Some diastolic parameters were inferior as compared to baseline (SB-Ked, pressure half time [PHT], Tau). In group Inj-HGF-SkM, only PHT was impaired as compared to preinterventional values. Histological analysis showed significantly more capillaries in the infarction border zone in groups PU-HGF-SkM than in sham and Inj-SkM group. The infarction size was not affected by the therapy. Transplanting HGF-transfected myoblasts after MI can limit the development of ventricular dysfunction. Scaffold-based therapy in combination with gene therapy accelerates this capacity. This hemodynamic amelioration is accompanied by neovascularization, but not by smaller infarction sizes.