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In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Byron Calgua in JoVE
طريقة فعالة من حيث التكلفة لتعقب مصدر الميكروبات عن طريق محددة الفيروسات البشرية والحيوانية
Sílvia Bofill-Mas, Ayalkibet Hundesa, Byron Calgua, Marta Rusiñol, Carlos Maluquer de Motes, Rosina Girones
Laboratory of Water and Food Viral Pollution, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona
دراسة توضح طريقة فعالة من حيث التكلفة لتحديد مصدر تلوث برازي / البول أو التلوث النترات في المياه باستخدام qPCR الكمي للفيروسات محددة من الحمض النووي البشري / الخنزير / البقر ، والفيروسات الغدية polyomaviruses ، على النحو المقترح أدوات MST.
Other articles by Byron Calgua on PubMed
Analysis of Adenoviruses and Polyomaviruses Quantified by QPCR As Indicators of Water Quality in Source and Drinking-water Treatment Plants
Water Research. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19230949
Three drinking-water treatment plants were analyzed for the presence of human adenoviruses (HAdV) and JC polyomavirus (JCPyV), previously suggested as viral contamination indicators, in order to define their water quality in relation to the presence of viral pathogens and the efficiency of the treatments applied. The 90% of the river water samples had positive results of HAdV (10(1)-10(4) genome copies (GC)/L); and 48%, of JCPyV (10(0)-10(3)GC/L). Lower concentrations of HAdV and JCPyV were found in different treatment steps of the plants in absence of bacterial standards. Virus removal efficiencies were higher than 5 logs in plants 1 and 3 and could be quantified as >2 logs in plant 2. However, three post-chlorinated samples from plants 2 and 3 (11%) were found to be positive for HAdV by qPCR, but did not show infectivity in the cell cultures assayed. Simple methods based on the adsorption-elution of viruses from glass wool give low-cost and efficient virus recovery from source water and large-volume water samples. Quantification of JCPyV and HAdV using qPCR is useful for evaluating virus removal efficiency in water treatment plants, identification of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) and as a molecular index of the virological quality of water. Though infectivity is not guaranteed when using qPCR techniques in water treated with disinfection processes, the quality of source water, where viruses have proved to have infective capabilities, and the removal efficiency of viral particles may be efficiently quantified.
Comparison of Methods for Concentrating Human Adenoviruses, Polyomavirus JC and Noroviruses in Source Waters and Drinking Water Using Quantitative PCR
Journal of Virological Methods. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19428577
Human adenovirus and JC polyomavirus have been proposed as viral indicators of human faecal contamination of water. This study compared concentration and nucleic acid extraction methods and defines a protocol for quantifying human adenoviruses (HAdV), JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) and noroviruses (NoV) in source and drinking water. River water samples and spiked tap water samples were used to evaluate virus recovery, applying quantitative PCR (qPCR) to five concentration methods. In the case of 10-L samples, the use of ultrafiltration cartridges produced acceptable recoveries for HAdV and JCPyV, but they were inefficient for noroviruses and could not be applied to high-volume and river water samples with medium turbidity. The glass wool method with pre-acidification gave similar recoveries and made it possible to detect NoV. In the case of 50-L samples, the method that produced the highest recovery efficiency and applicability was glass wool filtration. Comparing different sample volumes of a river used as source water showed that the largest number of viruses were quantified when lower volumes (1L) were tested (1.5 x 10(4) HAdV genome copies (GC)/L and 2.8 x 10(3) JCPyV GC/L). The methods developed are easy to standardize and may be valuable tools for the control of viral contamination in source water and for assessing the efficiency of virus removal in drinking water treatment plants.
Journal of Virology. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19812170
The family Asfarviridae contains only a single virus species, African swine fever virus (ASFV). ASFV is a viral agent with significant economic impact due to its devastating effects on populations of domesticated pigs during outbreaks but has not been reported to infect humans. We report here the discovery of novel viral sequences in human serum and sewage which are clearly related to the asfarvirus family but highly divergent from ASFV. Detection of these sequences suggests that greater genetic diversity may exist among asfarviruses than previously thought and raises the possibility that human infection by asfarviruses may occur.
Newly Described Human Polyomaviruses Merkel Cell, KI and WU Are Present in Urban Sewage and May Represent Potential Environmental Contaminants
Virology Journal. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20584272
Recently, three new polyomaviruses (KI, WU and Merkel cell polyomavirus) have been reported to infect humans. It has also been suggested that lymphotropic polyomavirus, a virus of simian origin, infects humans. KI and WU polyomaviruses have been detected mainly in specimens from the respiratory tract while Merkel cell polyomavirus has been described in a very high percentage of Merkel cell carcinomas. The distribution, excretion level and transmission routes of these viruses remain unknown.Here we analyzed the presence and characteristics of newly described human polyomaviruses in urban sewage and river water in order to assess the excretion level and the potential role of water as a route of transmission of these viruses. Nested-PCR assays were designed for the sensitive detection of the viruses studied and the amplicons obtained were confirmed by sequencing analysis. The viruses were concentrated following a methodology previously developed for the detection of JC and BK human polyomaviruses in environmental samples. JC polyomavirus and human adenoviruses were used as markers of human contamination in the samples. Merkel cell polyomavirus was detected in 7/8 urban sewage samples collected and in 2/7 river water samples. Also one urine sample from a pregnant woman, out of 4 samples analyzed, was positive for this virus. KI and WU polyomaviruses were identified in 1/8 and 2/8 sewage samples respectively. The viral strains detected were highly homologous with other strains reported from several other geographical areas. Lymphotropic polyomavirus was not detected in any of the 13 sewage neither in 9 biosolid/sludge samples analyzed.This is the first description of a virus isolated from sewage and river water with a strong association with cancer. Our data indicate that the Merkel cell polyomavirus is prevalent in the population and that it may be disseminated through the fecal/urine contamination of water. The procedure developed may constitute a useful tool for studying the excreted strains, prevalence and transmission of these recently described polyomaviruses.
Water Research. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20619868
Pollution of water by sewage and run-off from farms produces a serious public health problem in many countries. Viruses, along with bacteria and protozoa in the intestine or in urine are shed and transported through the sewer system. Even in highly industrialized countries, pathogens, including viruses, are prevalent throughout the environment. Molecular methods are used to monitor viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens, and to track pathogen- and source-specific markers in the environment. Molecular techniques, specifically polymerase chain reaction-based methods, provide sensitive, rapid, and quantitative analytical tools with which to study such pathogens, including new or emerging strains. These techniques are used to evaluate the microbiological quality of food and water, and to assess the efficiency of virus removal in drinking and wastewater treatment plants. The range of methods available for the application of molecular techniques has increased, and the costs involved have fallen. These developments have allowed the potential standardization and automation of certain techniques. In some cases they facilitate the identification, genotyping, enumeration, viability assessment, and source-tracking of human and animal contamination. Additionally, recent improvements in detection technologies have allowed the simultaneous detection of multiple targets in a single assay. However, the molecular techniques available today and those under development require further refinement in order to be standardized and applicable to a diversity of matrices. Water disinfection treatments may have an effect on the viability of pathogens and the numbers obtained by molecular techniques may overestimate the quantification of infectious microorganisms. The pros and cons of molecular techniques for the detection and quantification of pathogens in water are discussed.
Detection and Quantitation of Infectious Human Adenoviruses and JC Polyomaviruses in Water by Immunofluorescence Assay
Journal of Virological Methods. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20863853
Human adenoviruses (HAdV) and JC polyomaviruses (JCPyV) have been proposed as markers of fecal/urine contamination of human origin. An indirect immunofluorescence assay has been developed to quantify infectious human adenoviruses types 2 and 41 and JC polyomaviruses strain Mad-4 in water samples. The immunofluorescence assay was compared with other quantitative techniques used commonly such as plaque assay, tissue culture infectious dose-50 and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The immunofluorescence assays showed to be specific for the detection of infectious viruses, obtaining negative results when UV or heat-inactivated viruses were analyzed. The assays required less time and showed higher sensitivity for the detection of infectious viral particles than other cell culture techniques (1 log(10) more) evaluated. River water samples spiked previously with human adenoviruses and raw sewage samples were also analyzed using the proposed immunofluorescence assay as well as by qPCR. The results show quantitations with 2 log(10) reduction in the numbers of infectious viruses compared with the number of genome copies detected by qPCR. The immunofluorescence assay developed is fast, sensitive, specific, and a standardizable technique for the quantitation and detection of infectious viruses in water samples.
MBio. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21972239
At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. IMPORTANCE: At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that the viral universe is far more vast and diverse than previously suspected.
Occurrence of Water-borne Enteric Viruses in Two Settlements Based in Eastern Chad: Analysis of Hepatitis E Virus, Hepatitis A Virus and Human Adenovirus in Water Sources
Journal of Water and Health. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21976198
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of water-borne acute hepatitis in areas with poor sanitation. In 2004 an outbreak of HEV infection affected around 2,000 people in Eastern Chad (Dar Sila). This paper describes the decrease in the incidence of acute jaundice syndrome (AJS) from 2004 until 2009 when a mean incidence of 0.48 cases/1,000 people/year was recorded in the region. Outbreaks of AJS were identified in some of the camps in 2007 and 2008. Moreover, water samples from drinking water sources were screened for human adenoviruses considered as viral indicators and for hepatitis A virus and HEV. Screening of faecal samples from donkeys for HEV gave negative results. Some of the samples were also analysed for faecal coliforms showing values before disinfection treatment between 3 and >50 colony forming units per 100 mL. All water samples tested were negative for HEV and HAV; however, the presence of low levels of human adenoviruses in 4 out of 16 samples analysed indicates possible human faecal contamination of groundwater. Consequently, breakdowns in the treatment of drinking water and/or increased excretion of hepatitis viruses, which could be related to the arrival of a new population, could spread future outbreaks through drinking water.