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In JoVE (1)
- Snabb diagnos av aviär influensavirus hos vilda fåglar: Användning av en bärbar RRT-PCR och Frystorkad reagenser i Field
Other Publications (42)
- Avian Diseases
- Avian Diseases
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- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Avian Diseases
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- Journal of Medical Entomology
- Virus Genes
- The Journal of General Virology
- Avian Diseases
- Archives of Virology
- Avian Diseases
- Public Health Reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974)
- Avian Pathology : Journal of the W.V.P.A
- Molecular Immunology
- The Journal of General Virology
- International Journal for Parasitology
- Emerging Infectious Diseases
- International Journal for Parasitology
- Preventive Veterinary Medicine
- Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
- Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
- Emerging Infectious Diseases
- Virus Research
- The Journal of General Virology
- Tropical Animal Health and Production
- Journal of Virological Methods
- Avian Diseases
- Avian Diseases
- Avian Diseases
- Avian Diseases
- PloS One
- Avian Diseases
- American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
- Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.)
- PloS One
- Virus Research
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Articles by Carol J. Cardona in JoVE
Snabb diagnos av aviär influensavirus hos vilda fåglar: Användning av en bärbar RRT-PCR och Frystorkad reagenser i Field
John Y. Takekawa1, Nichola J. Hill1,2, Annie K. Schultz1, Samuel A. Iverson1, Carol J. Cardona3,4, Walter M. Boyce2, Joseph P. Dudley5
1USGS Western Ecological Research Center, 2Wildlife Health Center, University of California, Davis, 3Department of Population Health and Reproduction, University of California, Davis, 4Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, 5Science Applications International Corporation
Denna studie beskriver diagnos av aviär influensa hos vilda fåglar med hjälp av en bärbar RRT-PCR-system. Metoden drar nytta av frystorkat reagens skärmen vilda fåglar i en icke-laboratoriemiljö, typiskt för ett utbrott scenario. Användning av molekylära verktyg ger exakta och känsliga alternativ för snabb diagnos.
Other articles by Carol J. Cardona on PubMed
Avian Diseases. Jan-Mar, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11922345
This report chronicles recurring outbreaks of Haemoproteus lophortyx infection in captive bobwhite quail. Clinically, the signs of infection included reluctance to move, ruffled appearance, prostration, and death. These signs were associated with parasitemia, anemia, and the presence of large megaloschizonts in skeletal muscles, particularly those of the thighs and back. The average cumulative mortality for flocks experiencing outbreaks was over 20%. In a typical outbreak, mortality rose when the birds were 5-6 wk of age, peaked in 8-to-10-wk-old quail, and declined rapidly when the quail were 9-11 wk old. Outbreaks occurred exclusively between the months of May and October, and warm weather was determined to be a risk factor for H. lophortyx mortality. This protozoan most likely overwinters in native California quail in the area and is transmitted to quail on the ranch by an insect vector that emerges in warm weather. Infection of the large population of naïve bobwhite quail on the ranch leads to amplification of H. lophortyx, resulting in epidemics in successive flocks.
Avian Diseases. Jul-Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14562903
We used slot blot hybridization of the hypervariable regions of the S1 subunit of spike peplomer gene to identify and characterize infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains. Template DNA was created from six reference strain IBVs of different serotypes and immobilized on a nitrocellulose membrane. We synthesized digoxigenin-labeled probes from reference and unknown field viruses and hybridized them to template DNA. All reference strains could be distinguished and isolates identified by serotype if they were at least 95% identical to a reference strain. This slot blot hybridization procedure was specific and reproducible, and strain typing was consistent with the S1 sequencing of the IBV genome. This study thus provides a simple and rapid method for typing of IBV.
Avian Diseases. Jan-Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15077797
A homologue of interleukin-8, viral interleukin-8 (vIL-8) has been identified in the genome of Marek's disease virus (MDV). This protein attracts peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro although its role in the pathogenesis of Marek's disease (MD) is not known. P chickens, genetically susceptible to MD, and N chickens, genetically resistant to the disease, were inoculated with either RB1B MDVor RB1BvIL-8smGFP, a vIL8 knockout RB1B MDV, to assess the role of vIL8 in the pathogenesis of MD. The tumor incidence was highest in the P birds given the RBIB virus, where the incidence was 100%. Tumor incidence in N birds given RB1B was 41.5%. Thirty-one percent of the P birds given RB1BvIL-8smGFP developed tumors, and no N bird given RB1BvIL-8smGFP developed tumors. Histologically, the tumors from RB1B-inoculated birds were larger and more invasive and had a more homogeneous cellular composition than those from RB1BvIL-8smGFP-inoculated birds, which were best described as microtumors. These microtumors did not obliterate the normal architecture of the tissues, and in contrast to the RBIB tumors, moderate numbers of heterophils were admixed with the proliferating lymphocytes. Susceptible birds receiving RB1B had the highest viral titers throughout the study, followed by the resistant birds inoculated with RB1B. P and N birds receiving RB1BvIL-8smGFP virus had consistently lower levels of viremia than their RB1B-inoculated counterparts although virus could be recovered from the birds during all stages of MD. In addition, the RB1BvIL-8smGFP virus was detected in birds held in contact with the inoculated group, although no tumors developed in contact control birds. This result indicates that RB1BvIL-8smGFP replicates in vivo but not as well as RB1B and that vIL8 is not essential for the completion of the pathogenesis of MD.
Comparison of Four Regions in the Replicase Gene of Heterologous Infectious Bronchitis Virus Strains
Virology. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15183070
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) produces six subgenomic (sg) mRNAs, each containing a 64 nucleotide (nt) leader sequence, derived from the 5' end of the genome by a discontinuous process. Several putative functional domains such as a papain-like proteinase (PL(pro)), main protease (M(pro)), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and RNA helicase encoded by the replicase gene are important for virus replication. We have sequenced four regions of the replicase genes corresponding to the 5'-terminal sequence, PL(pro), M(pro), and RdRp domains from 20 heterologous IBV strains, and compared them with previously published coronavirus sequences. All the coronavirus 5'-termini and PL(pro) domains were divergent, unlike the M(pro) and the RdRp domains that were highly conserved with 28% and 48% conserved residues, respectively. Among IBV strains, the 5' untranslated region including the leader sequence was highly conserved (>94% identical); whereas, the N-terminal coding region and the PL(pro) domains were highly variable ranging from 84.6% to 100%, and 77.6% to 100% identity, respectively. The IBV M(pro) and RdRp domains were highly conserved with 82.7% and 92.7% conserved residues, respectively. The BJ strain was the most different from other IBVs in all four regions of the replicase. Phylogeny-based clustering based on replicase genes was identical to the antigen-based classification of coronaviruses into three groups. However, the IBV strain classification based on replicase gene domains did not correlate with that of the type-specific antigenic groups. The replicase gene sequences of many IBVs recovered from infected chickens were identical to those of vaccine viruses irrespective of serotype, suggesting that either there has been an exchange of genetic material among vaccine and field isolates or that there is a convergent evolution to a specific replicase genotype. There was no correlation between the genotype of any region of the replicase gene and pathotype, suggesting that the replicase is not the sole determinant of IBV pathogenicity.
Avian Diseases. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15529996
A defect in the pupil shape ofrosecomb bantam chickens was noticed by a breeder. The pupil in affected birds appeared to be elongated at the lower margin and consistent with a coloboma of the iris. Upon examination of all birds in the flock, the defect was found in 26% of females and 9% of males. Examination of breeders older than 1 yr led to the discovery ofcolobomas, although there were not enough birds to accurately determine the prevalence of the problem for previous generations. Affected birds were examined for other lesions, and none were found. Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) eggs were incubated and hatched with eggs from the affected flock as sentinels. No SPF chicks developed colobomas of the iris, while 37% of the bantams in the same hatch were affected. This experiment eliminated many possible infectious agents and incubator or brooder malfunction as causes of this eye lesion. An analysis of the flock pedigree suggested that the defect might be inherited and might be related either to feather color or to gender. No statistically significant correlation could be made between feather color and the iris colobomas. However, the trait was twice as likely to occur in females as in males, which suggests that it is a sex-influenced trait. Based on the determination that this was an inherited trait, a breeding strategy to reduce the prevalence of the lesion in which affected birds were removed from the breeding flock was developed and followed for 2 yr. The prevalence of colobomas was 22% in females and 2.9% in males after the first year and 7.8% and 0.8% in females and males, respectively, after the second year.
Marek's Disease Virus Meq Transforms Chicken Cells Via the V-Jun Transcriptional Cascade: a Converging Transforming Pathway for Avian Oncoviruses
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16203997
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a highly pathogenic and oncogenic herpesvirus of chickens. MDV encodes a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein, Meq (MDV EcoQ). The bZIP domain of Meq shares homology with Jun/Fos, whereas the transactivation/repressor domain is entirely different. Increasing evidence suggests that Meq is the oncoprotein of MDV. Direct evidence that Meq transforms chicken cells and the underlying mechanism, however, remain completely unknown. Taking advantage of the DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblast transformation system, a well established model for studying avian sarcoma and leukemia oncogenes, we probed the transformation properties and pathways of Meq. We found that Meq transforms DF-1, with a cell morphology akin to v-Jun and v-Ski transformed cells, and protects DF-1 from apoptosis, and the transformed cells are tumorigenic in chorioallantoic membrane assay. Significantly, using microarray and RT-PCR analyses, we have identified up-regulated genes such as JTAP-1, JAC, and HB-EGF, which belong to the v-Jun transforming pathway. In addition, c-Jun was found to form stable dimers with Meq and colocalize with it in the transformed cells. RNA interference to Meq and c-Jun down-modulated the expression of these genes and reduced the growth of the transformed DF-1, suggesting that Meq transforms chicken cells by pirating the Jun pathway. These data suggest that avian herpesvirus and retrovirus oncogenes use a similar strategy in transformation and oncogenesis.
Commercial Immunoassay Kits for the Detection of Influenza Virus Type A: Evaluation of Their Use with Poultry
Avian Diseases. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16404986
Five antigen capture immunoassay test kits, Directigen Flu A (Becton Dickinson), QuickVue Influenza test kit (Quidel), FLU OIA (ThermoBiostar), Zstat Flu (ZymeTx, Inc.) and NOW FLU A Test (Binax) were used to detect avian influenza virus (AIV) in clinical specimens as per manufacturers' protocols. Each kit was shown to be specific for AIV propagated in embryonating chicken eggs (ECE); other respiratory viruses of poultry tested gave negative results. The Directigen Flu A kit proved to be 10-fold more sensitive than the other kits, capable of detecting 10(4.7) mean embryo lethal dose (ELD50)/ml in allantoic fluid; this is more sensitive than the hemagglutination test using chicken erythrocytes. None of the kits proved to be sufficiently sensitive to reliably detect AIV in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected from chickens experimentally infected with AIV subtype H6N2. In two different experiments, individual swabs and pools of five or six swabs were tested. By virus isolation, 39 individual oropharyngeal swabs tested positive for AIV, but Directigen and Flu OIA only detected 2/39 and NOW FLU A 1/39. Zstat and QuickVue did not detect any. Five individual cloacal swabs positive by virus isolation were negative with all five kits. In a second experiment using pools of five swabs, 26 swab pools were positive by virus isolation and 5/26 were positive by Directigen, the only kit to provide any positive results. Five cloacal swab pools were also positive by virus isolation and 1/5 was positive by Directigen; all other test kits were negative. All of these experiments were performed using the H6N2 subtype of AIV. The results are disappointing, as the kits have proven to be insensitive for detecting AIV when compared with the gold standard, virus isolation. This limits their use in diagnostic field investigations. Individual or groups of chickens could be assumed to be positive for AIV if positive by any of the kits, but a negative result with any of the kits would not prove that birds were AIV free.
Persistence of Immunity in Commercial Egg-laying Hens Following Vaccination with a Killed H6N2 Avian Influenza Vaccine
Avian Diseases. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17039836
The California poultry industry experienced an outbreak of H6N2 avian influenza beginning in February 2000. The initial infections were detected in three commercial egg-laying flocks and a single noncommercial backyard flock but later spread to new premises. The vaccination of pullet flocks with a commercially prepared, killed autogenous vaccine prior to their placements on farms with infected or previously infected flocks was used as a part of the eradication programs for some multiage, commercial egg production farms. The purpose of this study was to follow three vaccinated flocks on two commercial farms to track the immune responses to vaccination. The antibody-mediated responses of the three flocks followed in this study were markedly different. One flock achieved 100% seroconversion at 12.5 wk of age, but by 32 wk of age, all of the hens were seronegative by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID). In contrast, at 32 wk of age, flocks from the other farm (flocks 2A and 2B) were 95% and 72% seropositive by AGID, respectively. Of the differences that were identified between the vaccination protocols on the two farms, the distinction that could explain the level of disparity between responses is the delivery of the second dose of vaccine with a bacterin on the first farm, which may have interfered with the persistence of immunity in this flock. Hens from flocks 2A and 2B were experimentally challenged at 25 wk of age with H6N2 avian influenza virus. Hens from flock 2A did not transmit virus to naive contact-exposed hens, but hens from flock 2B did. At 34 wk of age, hens from flock 2A were again challenged and naive contact-exposed hens were infected in this second trial. These challenge experiments served to demonstrate that despite detectable antibody responses in flocks 2A and 2B, the birds were protected from infection for less than 21 wk after the second vaccination.
Journal of Medical Entomology. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17915517
Flies were collected by sweep net from the vicinity of two small groups of "backyard" poultry (10-20 chickens per group) that had been identified as infected with exotic Newcastle disease virus (family Paramyxoviridae, genus avulavirus, ENDV) in Los Angeles County, CA, during the 2002-2003 END outbreak. Collected flies were subdivided into pools and homogenized in brain-heart infusion broth with antibiotics. The separated supernatant was tested for the presence of ENDV by inoculation into embryonated chicken eggs. Exotic Newcastle disease virus was isolated from pools of Phaenicia cuprina (Wiedemann), Fannia canicularis (L.), and Musca domestica L., and it was identified by hemagglutination inhibition with Newcastle disease virus antiserum. Viral concentration in positive pools was low (<1 egg infectious dose50 per fly). Isolated virus demonstrated identical monoclonal antibody binding profiles as well as 99% sequence homology in the 635-bp fusion gene sequence compared with ENDV recovered from infected commercial egg layer poultry during the 2002 outbreak.
Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of the California 99 (Cal99) Variant of Infectious Bronchitis Virus
Virus Genes. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 16927130
The California 99 (Cal99) variant of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was first recovered in 1999 from vaccinated broiler chicken flocks in Central California. The S1 hypervariable region of Cal99 genome was most closely related to Arkansas (Ark) serotype viruses. In this study, the complete genome of Cal99 was sequenced, and the structural protein genes were compared with those of commonly used IBV vaccines as well as those of isolates from naturally occurring outbreaks in different parts of the world, to elucidate potential sources of genetic material. Based on sequence comparison, the prototype Cal99 virus is similar to the apathogenic ArkDPI virus, except in the S1 gene and stretches of sequence in the S2 and M structural protein genes, which are more related to Connecticut (Conn) and Massachusetts (Mass) strain viruses, respectively. We speculate that these two fragments came from a Conn and a Mass virus, respectively, and were incorporated into a virus largely derived from ArkDPI. Since Ark, Conn and Mass strains have been simultaneously used as live vaccines in California, both point mutations and recombination among vaccine strains may have contributed to the emergence of the Cal99 variant virus. Analysis of the structural protein genes of six Cal99 isolates demonstrated that viruses of this serotype may differ substantially in the non-S1 structural genes. Finally, we performed a challenge study with Cal99 and demonstrated that the virus causes late-onset respiratory disease, with a severity comparable to that of the M41 IBV challenge strain.
The Journal of General Virology. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18420808
Most low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses cause no or mild disease in avian species. Little is known about the mechanisms of host defence and the immune responses of avian influenza-infected birds. This study showed that chicken macrophages are susceptible to infection with LPAI H9N2 and H6N2 viruses and that infection led to apoptosis. In H9N2 virus-infected chicken macrophages, Toll-like receptor 7 responded to infection and mediated the cytokine responses. Whilst pro-inflammatory cytokines were largely upregulated, the interferon (IFN) response was fairly weak and IFN-inducible genes were differentially regulated. Among the regulated genes, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens II were downregulated, which also occurred in the lungs of H9N2-infected chickens. Additionally, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-4 receptor and CD74 (MHC class II invariable chain) were also downregulated, all of which are pivotal in the activation of CD4+ helper T cells and humoral immunity. Remarkably, in H9N2 virus-infected chickens, the antibody response was severely suppressed. This was in contrast to the robust antibody response in chickens infected with H6N2 virus, in which expression of MHC class II antigens was upregulated. These data suggest that neutralizing antibodies and humoral immunity may not be developed efficiently in H9N2-infected chickens. These findings raise questions about how some LPAI viruses differentially regulate avian immune responses and whether they have similar effects on mammalian immune function.
Avian Diseases. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18646469
Although live bird markets (LBMs) have been associated with outbreaks of avian influenza (AI), there are some LBM systems where AI outbreaks are extremely rare events. The California LBMs have not had any detected avian influenza viruses (AIVs) since December 2005. Responses to a detailed questionnaire on the practices and characteristics of the participants in the California low-pathogenic (LP) AI control program have been described to characterize possible reasons for the lack of AI outbreaks in LBMs. Compliance with an LPAI control program that contains active surveillance, prevention, and rapid response measures by those involved in the LBM system, rendering services to dispose of carcasses, no wholesalers, and few third-party bird deliveries was associated with the lack of LPAIV circulating in the Southern California LBM system.
Archives of Virology. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18825481
An H11N9 low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus, A/duck/WA/663/97, was isolated from a sick Mandarin duck kept in an outdoor bird exhibit. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of the virus suggested that it originated from free-flying birds, a concept supported by genetic similarity with waterfowl isolates from the same geographic area and time period. This duck-origin virus had genetic features typical of H11 and N9 viruses, including no neuraminidase stalk deletion, no differences in putative glycosylation sites in either surface protein, and no addition of basic amino acid residues at the hemagglutinin cleavage site compared to published sequences. It replicated in both avian and mammalian cells in vitro, and experimentally challenged chickens developed mild acute upper respiratory lesions but no clinical signs of disease. It elicited immune responses in chickens, resulting in seroconversion in all infected birds, although antibody titers remained low over the experimental period.
Persistence of Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus (ENDV) in Laboratory Infected Musca Domestica and Fannia Canicularis
Avian Diseases. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18939622
House flies (Musca domestica) and little house flies (Fannia canicularis) were examined for their ability to take up and harbor a velogenic strain of exotic Newcastle disease virus (ENDV) (family Paramyxoviridae, genus Avulavirus). Laboratory-reared flies were allowed to feed on evaporated milk containing ENDV at a virus concentration of 10(8.3) egg infectious dose (EID)50/0.1 ml or on poultry feces containing an ENDV titer of 10(5.8) EID50/0.1 g. Flies exposed to either infectious food source for 24 hr became transiently infected with virus. Virus persisted predominantly in the mid- and hindgut, with relatively little virus isolated from the remainder of the fly body. Virus persisted similarly in both fly species that were fed evaporated milk containing ENDV, with a maximum ENDV titer of 10(5.98) EID50/fly for the house fly and 10(4.78) EID50/fly for the little house fly at 1 day postexposure; titers decreased on subsequent days to 10(2.38) EID50/fly for house fly and > or = 1 EID50/fly for little house fly at 5 days postexposure. Both fly species acquired viral titers greater than the infective dose for a susceptible chicken (10(3.0) EID50-10(4.0) EID50). In addition, flies fed evaporated milk containing a high titer of ENDV maintained viral titers above the infective dose for up to 4 days postexposure to the infectious food source. Flies fed on infective feces retained a chicken infective dose for only one day. The decrease in viral titer over time was significantly explained by logistic regression for both fly species (P < 0.05). The slope of the regression line was not different for the two fly species (P < 0.05), indicating a similar rate of virus loss.
Public Health Reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974). May-Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19006974
Since the reemergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 HPAI) in 2003, a panzootic that is historically unprecedented in the number of infected flocks, geographic spread, and economic consequences for agriculture has developed. The epidemic has affected a wide range of birds and mammals, including humans. The ineffective management of outbreaks, mainly due to a lack of knowledge among those involved in detection, prevention, and response, points to the need for training on H5N1 HPAI. The main challenges are the multidisciplinary approach required, the lack of experts, the need to train at all levels, and the diversity of outbreak scenarios. Avian Flu School addresses these challenges through a three-level train-the-trainer program intended to minimize the health and economic impacts of H5N1 HPAI by improving a community's ability to prevent and respond, while protecting themselves and others. The course teaches need-to-know facts using highly flexible, interactive, and relevant materials.
Transmission of Low-pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus of Subtype H6N2 from Chickens to Pekin Ducks and Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica)
Avian Pathology : Journal of the W.V.P.A. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19156581
In this experiment we evaluated the transmission characteristics of a chicken-adapted low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) of subtype H6N2, from infected chickens to Japanese quail and Pekin ducks, which are commonly sold in live bird markets located in Southern California. The layout of the cages and bird-handling practices were similar to those found in Southern California live bird markets. Five out of 20 chickens were inoculated with LPAIV H6N2, and placed in direct contact with five chickens and in indirect contact with 10 chickens, 10 Japanese quail and 10 Pekin ducks. Transmission of LPAIV was followed in each bird daily for 15 days post inoculation by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing of oropharyngeal and cloacal swab samples. This strain of H6N2 LPAIV, isolated from commercial poultry in California, was transmitted to chickens, quail, and ducks from chickens. An antibody response was detected in ducks by haemagglutination inhibition tests, but avian influenza virus was only detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in one duck. Avian influenza virus was detected in quail (5 and 7 days post inoculation) before chickens (8 and 9 days post inoculation), all of which were in indirect contact with infected chickens; however, this difference was not statistically significant.
Immune-related Gene Expression in Response to H11N9 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Chicken and Pekin Duck Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
Molecular Immunology. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19250679
The duck and chicken are important hosts of avian influenza virus (AIV) with distinctive responses to infection. Frequently, AIV infections in ducks are asymptomatic and long-lasting in contrast to the clinically apparent and transient infections observed in chickens. These differences may be due in part to the host response to AIV infection. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we examined the expression of immune-related genes in response to low pathogenic AIV H11N9 infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from the blood of chickens and Pekin ducks. While chicken PBMC expressed IL-1beta and IL-6 at high levels similar to mammalian species, duck PBMC expression levels were minimal or unchanged. Similarly, duck IFN-beta expression was nearly unaffected, whereas chicken expression was highly upregulated. Chicken IFN-gamma was expressed to higher levels than duck IFN-gamma, while IFN-alpha was expressed similarly by both species. IL-2 was elevated early in infection in duck PBMC, but returned to baseline levels by the end of the experiment; in contrast, IL-2 was weakly induced in chicken PBMC at late time points. TLR-7 and MHC class I molecule expressions were conserved between species, whereas duck MHC class II expression was downregulated and chicken expression was unchanged. These results show distinct PBMC expression patterns of pro-inflammatory cytokines and IFNs between species. The differences in pro-inflammatory cytokine and IFN expression reflect the asymptomatic and lasting infection observed in ducks and the tendency towards clinical signs and rapid clearance seen in chickens. These results highlight important differences in the host response to AIV of two species thought to be critical in the genesis and maintenance of epidemic strains of AIV.
Differential Regulation of Antiviral and Proinflammatory Cytokines and Suppression of Fas-mediated Apoptosis by NS1 of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Chicken Macrophages
The Journal of General Virology. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19264628
The NS1 protein is known to suppress immune responses in influenza virus-infected hosts. However, the role of NS1 in apoptosis in infected cells is disputed. In this study, through the use of a mutant A/pheasant/California/2373/1998 (H9N2) avian influenza virus (AIV) with a truncated NS1, we have demonstrated that a functional NS1 protein suppresses the induction of interferons in chicken macrophages. However, NS1 appeared to be irrelevant to the regulation of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6, indicating that distinct mechanisms may be employed in the regulation of antiviral and proinflammatory cytokines in chicken immune cells. Our study also showed that this H9N2 AIV induced apoptosis extrinsically through the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL)-mediated pathway. We found that NS1 suppressed the apoptotic process through suppression of the induction of FasL, but not tumour necrosis factor-alpha or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. Furthermore, our data indicated that the disruption of a potential binding site for the p85beta subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in the carboxyl terminus of NS1, while having no effect on the regulation of IFN induction, may contribute to the suppression of Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, suppression of Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis by NS1 is one of the critical mechanisms necessary to increase infectivity in AIV-infected chicken macrophages.
Host Inflammatory Response Governs Fitness in an Avian Ectoparasite, the Northern Fowl Mite (Ornithonyssus Sylviarum)
International Journal for Parasitology. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19367920
Vertebrate immune responses to ectoparasites influence pathogen transmission and host fitness costs. Few studies have characterized natural immune responses to ectoparasites and resultant fitness effects on the ectoparasite. These are critical gaps in understanding vertebrate-ectoparasite interaction, disease ecology and host-parasite co-adaptation. This study focused on an ectoparasite of birds--the northern fowl mite (NFM) (Ornithonyssus sylviarum). Based on prior evidence that chickens develop resistance to NFM, these experiments tested two hypotheses: (i) skin inflammation blocks mite access to blood,impairing development, reproduction and survival; and (ii) host immunogenetic variation influences the inflammatory response and subsequent effects on the ectoparasite. On infested hosts, histology of skin inflammation revealed increased epidermal cell number and size, immigration of leukocytes and deposition of serous exudates on the skin surface. Survival of adult mites and their offspring decreased as the area of skin inflammation increased during an infestation. Inflammation increased the distance to blood vessels beyond the length of mite mouthparts (100-160 lm) and prevented protonymphs and adults from reaching a blood source. Consequently, protonymphs could not complete development, evidenced by a significant inverse relationship between inflammation and protonymph feeding success, as well as an increasing protonymph/adult ratio. Adult females were unable to feed and reproduce, indicated by an inverse relationship between inflammation and egg production, and decreasing female/juvenile ratio. These combined impacts of host inflammation reversed NFM population growth. Intensity of inflammation was influenced by the genotype of the major histocompatibility complex(MHC), supporting previous research that linked these immunological loci with NFM resistance. Overall, these data provide a model for a mechanism of avian resistance to an ectoparasitic arthropod and the fitness costs to the parasite of that host defense.
Invasions by Eurasian Avian Influenza Virus H6 Genes and Replacement of the Virus' North American Clade
Emerging Infectious Diseases. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19624918
The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV) (H5N1) underlines the potential for global AIV movement through birds. The phylogenies of AIV genes from avian hosts usually separate into Eurasian and North American clades, reflecting limited bird migration between the hemispheres. However, mounting evidence that some H6 sequences from North America cluster with Eurasian subtype H6 sequences calls the strict hemispheric divide into question. We conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the extent and timing of cross-hemisphere movements by the H6 gene. Results suggested that Eurasian H6 subtype has invaded North America several times, with the first invasions occurring 10 years before the first detection of invading isolates. The members of the North American clade decreased from 100% in the 1980s to 20% in the 2000s among H6 isolates from North America. Unraveling the reasons for this large-scale gene movement between hemispheres might identify drivers of global AIV circulation.
Host Inflammatory Response Governs Fitness in an Avian Ectoparasite, the Northern Fowl Mite (Ornithonyssus Sylviarum)
International Journal for Parasitology. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19640462
Vertebrate immune responses to ectoparasites influence pathogen transmission and host fitness costs. Few studies have characterized natural immune responses to ectoparasites and resultant fitness effects on the ectoparasite. These are critical gaps in understanding vertebrate-ectoparasite interaction, disease ecology and host-parasite co-adaptation. This study focused on an ectoparasite of birds--the northern fowl mite (NFM) (Ornithonyssus sylviarum). Based on prior evidence that chickens develop resistance to NFM, these experiments tested two hypotheses: i) skin inflammation blocks mite access to blood, impairing development, reproduction and survival; and ii) host immunogenetic variation influences the inflammatory response and subsequent effects on the ectoparasite. On infested hosts, histology of skin inflammation revealed increased epidermal cell number and size, immigration of leukocytes and deposition of serous exudates on the skin surface. Survival of adult mites and their offspring decreased as the area of skin inflammation increased during an infestation. Inflammation increased the distance to blood vessels beyond the length of mite mouthparts (100-160 mum) and prevented protonymphs and adults from reaching a blood source. Consequently, protonymphs could not complete development, evidenced by a significant inverse relationship between inflammation and protonymph feeding success, as well as an increasing protonymph/adult ratio. Adult females were unable to feed and reproduce, indicated by an inverse relationship between inflammation and egg production, and decreasing female / juvenile ratio. These combined impacts of host inflammation reversed NFM population growth. Intensity of inflammation was influenced by the genotype of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), supporting previous research that linked these immunological loci with NFM resistance. Overall, these data provide a model for a mechanism of avian resistance to an ectoparasitic arthropod and the fitness costs to the parasite of that host defense.
Simulation of an Early Warning System Using Sentinel Birds to Detect a Change of a Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (LPAIV) to High Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (HPAIV)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18977544
The placement of sentinel birds in a commercial poultry flock infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) may be an effective way of detecting subsequent change in the isolate to a high pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV). Data collected from the 2002 Chilean HPAIV outbreak, along with information from a literature review of laboratory studies involving A/chicken/Chile/176822/02 (H7N3/LP) and A/chicken/Chile/184240-1/02 (H7N3/HP) viruses, were used to construct a computer simulation model. Mortality rates of the original LPAIV-infected population and the sentinel population were compared to detect the presence of HPAIV. A total of 12 increased mortality threshold scenarios were examined, using one-day absolute (2, 3, or 4 birds) or relative (0.5, 1.0, or 1.5%) mortality thresholds, and two-day absolute (1, 2, or 3 birds) or relative (0.25, 0.50, or 1.00%) mortality thresholds, to indicate the change from LPAIV to HPAIV in the sentinel and original populations, respectively. Results showed that following a one-day approach, threshold mortalities occurred on average at 7.35, 7.82, and 8.17 (0.5, 1.0, or 1.5%) and 6.21, 6.38, and 6.45 (2, 3, or 4 birds) days after the first infectious case for the original and sentinel populations, respectively. The two-day approach delayed the occurrence of threshold mortalities, on average, to 7.64, 8.05, and 8.62 (0.25, 0.50, or 1.00%) and 6.86, 6.78, and 7.23 (1, 2, or 3 birds) days after the first infectious case for the original and sentinel populations, respectively. Although, significant (p<0.10) differences were observed among different combinations of detection times for the original and sentinel populations, the use of sentinel birds has a maximum mean advantage, over monitoring mortality exclusively in the original population, of 1.96 and 1.84 days for one- and two-day threshold moralities, respectively. Additionally, the early warning system based on a sentinel vs. original population presented a decrease of the probabilities of a false alarm, from 0.04-0.45 to <0.01-0.10%. These findings may be used by decision makers to evaluate the risk of not depopulating a flock infected with a H5 or H7 LPAIV strain and the benefit of using sentinel birds as an early warning system of a change to HPAIV.
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18448168
High pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza (AI) infection has been reported in domestic poultry, wildlife, and human populations since 1996. Risk of infection is associated with direct contact with infected birds. The mode of H5N1 spread from Asia to Europe, Africa and the Far East is unclear; risk factors such as legal and illegal domestic poultry and exotic bird trade, and migratory bird movements have been documented. Measures used to control disease such as culling, stamping out, cleaning and disinfection, and vaccination have not been successful in eradicating H5N1 in Asia, but have been effective in Europe.
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18485480
The disease syndromes caused by avian influenza viruses are highly variable depending on the host species infected, its susceptibility and response to infection and the virulence of the infecting viral strain. Although avian influenza viruses have a broad host range in general, it is rare for an individual strain or subtype to infect more than one species. The H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) lineages of viruses that descended from A/goose/Guandong/96 (H5N1 HPAIV) are unusual in the diversity of species they have infected worldwide. Although the species affected by H5N1 HPAI in the field and those that have been experimentally studied are diverse, their associated disease syndromes are remarkably similar across species. In some species, multi-organ failure and death are rapid and no signs of the disease are observed. Most prominently in this category are chickens and other avian species of the order Galliformes. In other species, neurologic signs develop resulting in the death of the host. This is what has been reported in domestic cats (Carnivora), geese (Anseriformes), ratites (Struthioniformes), pigeons inoculated with high doses (Columbiformes) and ducks infected with H5N1 HPAIV isolated since 2002 (Anseriformes). In some other species, the disease is more prolonged and although multi-organ failure and death are the eventual outcomes, the signs of disease are more extensive. Predominantly, these species include humans (Primates) and the laboratory models of human disease, the ferret (Carnivora), mouse (Rodentia) and cynamologous macaques (Primates). Finally, some species are more resistant to infection with H5N1 HPAIV and show few or no signs of disease. These species include pigeons in some studies (Columbiformes), ducks inoculated with pre-2002 isolates (Anseriformes), and pigs (Artiodactyla).
An Evaluation of Transmission Routes for Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus Among Chickens Sold in Live Bird Markets
Virology. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19747706
Many theories about the modes of avian influenza virus (AIV) transmission have been proposed, but few have been quantified, and none within a flock or live bird market (LBM) setting where birds are often kept in stacked cages. We describe a novel experimental design and the results collected for the purpose of estimating transmission rates specific to the potential modes of AIV transmission within an LBM. Chickens of the strains and ages found in California LBMs were inoculated with low pathogenicity AIV H6N2. Aerosol exposure was found to be the most important route of transmission for this H6N2 AIV. The handling of infectious chickens resulted in the transmission of H6N2 AIV, though the virus was not detectible by rRT-PCR. Chickens with fecal exposure to infected birds (median=8.0 DPI) had detectable virus earlier than in those with aerosol exposure only (median=10.0 DPI). Changes in the hemagglutinin sequence were not found to be associated with oropharyngeal or cloacal shedding in this study.
Emerging Infectious Diseases. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19891882
Identifying Errors in Avian Influenza Virus Gene Sequences and Implications for Data Usage of Public Databases
Genomics. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19766711
Public gene sequence databases have become important research tools to understand viruses and other organisms. Evidence suggests that the identifying information for some of the sequences in these databases might not belong to the sequences they are associated with. We developed two tests to conduct a comprehensive analysis of all published sequences of the hemaglutinin and neuramidase genes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) to identify sequences that may have been misclassified. One test identified sequence pairs with highly similar nucleotide sequences despite a difference of several years between their sampling dates. Another test, which was applied to samples sequenced and deposited more than once, detected sequences with more nucleotide differences to their own than to their closest relatives. All sequences identified as misclassified were further traced to relevant publications to assess the likelihood of contamination and determine if any conclusions were associated with the use of these sequences. Our results suggested that among 4040 published gene sequences examined, approximately 0.8% might be misclassified and that publications using these sequences may include inaccurate statements. Findings from this report suggest that using laboratory-adapted strains and handling multiple samples simultaneously increases the risk of contamination. The tests reported here may be useful for screening new submissions to public sequence databases.
Virus Research. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19835919
A duck-origin avian influenza virus (AIV) was used to study viral adaptation and transmission patterns in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus). Inoculated birds were housed with naïve birds of the same species and all birds were monitored for infection. The inoculating duck virus was transmitted effectively by contact in both species. Viruses recovered from infected birds showed mutations as early as 1 or 3 days after inoculation in chickens and ducks, respectively. Amino acid substitutions in hemagglutinin (HA) or deletions in neuraminidase (NA) stalk regions were identified in chicken isolates, but only substitutions in HA were identified in duck isolates. HA substitution-containing viruses replicated more efficiently than those with NA stalk deletions. NA deletion mutants were not recovered from contact chickens, suggesting inefficient transmission. Amino acid substitutions in HA proteins appeared in pairs in chickens, but were independent in ducks, indicating adaptation in chickens. In addition, our findings showed that a duck-origin virus can rapidly adapt to chickens, suggesting that the emergence of new epidemic AIV can be rapid.
Roles of the ERK MAPK in the Regulation of Proinflammatory and Apoptotic Responses in Chicken Macrophages Infected with H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus
The Journal of General Virology. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19864500
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family is responsible for important signalling pathways which regulate cell activation, differentiation, apoptosis and immune responses. Studies have shown that influenza virus infection activates MAPK family members in mammals. While the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 is important for virus replication, activation of p38 controls the expression of RANTES, interleukin (IL)-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. In this study, we report that avian influenza virus (AIV) activates ERK, p38 and Jun-N-terminal kinases in avian species. In chicken macrophages, while ERK was required for H9N2 AIV replication, ERK regulated proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8, which is distinct from what has been previously reported in mammalian cells. Moreover, ERK alone suppressed TNF-alpha and FasL and inhibited TNF-family-mediated extrinsic apoptosis in H9N2-infected chicken macrophages. Taken together, these findings suggest that ERK signalling may uniquely play important roles in avian host responses to AIV infection.
Implementing Poultry Vaccination and Biosecurity at the Village Level in Tanzania: a Social Strategy to Promote Health in Free-range Poultry Populations
Tropical Animal Health and Production. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19688307
A social strategy was tested for implementing Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination and biosecurity improvements among free-ranging chicken at village level in Tanzania. In addition to training the local poultry vaccinators, data recorders and poultry-keepers, the strategy involved training and empowering leaders at the district, ward and village level. The trainings covered poultry health, management, and marketing of village chickens, with an emphasis on ND vaccination and improving biosecurity against avian influenza (AI), The study sites included villages in one ward in each of three each three districts (Iringa, Mtwara-Mikindani, and Mvomero) of mainland Tanzania. Ninety-six local leaders at district level and 101 leaders at ward levels were trained. In addition, 196 farmers (households) were trained, as well as 86 vaccinators and 26 data recorders. Data recorders were also trained as poultry first aid workers. ND vaccination was conducted by the vaccinators, supervised by their local leaders with technical assistance from veterinarians. A total of 158,343 village chickens were vaccinated in three rounds of vaccination three months apart. The training and empowerment of local leaders and local implementers was the key element for success as it fostered the feeling of local ownership of the program and prevented conflicts with other development activities within the villages. We conclude that most animal health programs will increase their odds of success by involving local leaders and by addressing the current challenges facing the farmers. Further assessment on the usefulness of this approach is needed.
Field Detection of Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds: Evaluation of a Portable RRT-PCR System and Freeze-dried Reagents
Journal of Virological Methods. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20206650
Wild birds have been implicated in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) of the H5N1 subtype, prompting surveillance along migratory flyways. Sampling of wild birds is often conducted in remote regions, but results are often delayed because of limited local analytical capabilities, difficulties with sample transportation and permitting, or problems keeping samples cold in the field. In response to these challenges, the performance of a portable real-time, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) unit (RAPID((R)), Idaho Technologies, Salt Lake City, UT) that employed lyophilized reagents (Influenza A Target 1 Taqman; ASAY-ASY-0109, Idaho Technologies) was compared to virus isolation combined with real-time RT-PCR conducted in a laboratory. This study included both field- and experimental-based sampling. Field samples were collected from migratory shorebirds captured in northern California, while experimental samples were prepared by spiking fecal material with an H6N2 AIV isolate. Results indicated that the portable rRT-PCR unit had equivalent specificity to virus isolation with no false positives, but sensitivity was compromised at low viral titers. Use of portable rRT-PCR with lyophilized reagents may expedite surveillance results, paving the way to a better understanding of wild bird involvement in HPAIV H5N1 transmission.
Waterfowl Ecology and Avian Influenza in California: Do Host Traits Inform Us About Viral Occurrence?
Avian Diseases. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20521673
We examined whether host traits influenced the occurrence of avian influenza virus (AIV) in Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans) at wintering sites in California's Central Valley. In total, 3487 individuals were sampled at Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge and Conaway Ranch Duck Club during the hunting season of 2007-08. Of the 19 Anatidae species sampled, prevalence was highest in the northern shoveler (5.09%), followed by the ring-necked duck (2.63%), American wigeon (2.57%), bufflehead (2.50%), greater white-fronted goose (2.44%), and cinnamon teal (1.72%). Among host traits, density of lamellae (filtering plates) of dabbling ducks was significantly associated with AIV prevalence and the number of subtypes shed by the host, suggesting that feeding methods may influence exposure to viral particles.
Avian Diseases. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20521699
Mutations in a wild duck isolate of avian influenza virus were detected in isolates shed by chickens within 1 day after inoculation. The newly adapted virus was transmitted to naïve chickens in direct contact and sharing food and water. Two consistent amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin have been identified, A198V and S274F, and may be important in transmissibility. Mutants with a 30-amino acid deletion in the neuraminidase stalk region 43-72 (N9 numbering) were recovered from inoculated chickens, but not from naïve chickens in contact. The NA stalk mutant virus did not replicate well in Pekin ducks. In vivo viral replication was at low titers and a change in tropism from the respiratory to the digestive tract was observed. Our results indicated that there is a rapid genetic adaptation of wild bird isolates in poultry species, but that resultant viruses may have phenotypes that are intermediate and not fully adapted to the new host.
Detection and Prevention of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Communities with High Poultry Disease Burdens
Avian Diseases. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20521727
The implementation of strategies to detect, prevent, and control highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in developing countries presents several challenges, one of which is the presence of other diseases in poultry populations. Training workshops in developing countries using the Avian Flu School have revealed that in areas with heavy Newcastle disease burdens, smallholder poultry keepers do not recognize HPAI as an immediate threat. We have developed a strategy to address the more proximal needs and priorities of communities with free-ranging poultry flocks as a means to create value in poultry, and thus to improve disease detection and prevention overall. To this end, we have created the Poultry Health and Well-Being for Development project, which trains graduate veterinarians and paraprofessionals in poultry disease diagnosis, control, and treatment. These trainees then serve their local communities to improve poultry health and to implement disease detection and management programs.
Preparation for the Prevention and Control of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Rural Tanzanian Village Settings
Avian Diseases. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20521730
Free-ranging local chicken flocks are important for the livelihood of resource-poor rural farmers in Tanzania, as they provide a critical source of animal protein and a ready source of income through the sale of chickens and eggs. An occurrence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the village setting of Tanzania would result in a disastrous loss of livelihood. This paper attempts to offer an alternative method for preventing and controlling HPAI in village settings of Tanzania through community-based approaches.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21373190
When avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are transmitted from their reservoir hosts (wild waterfowl and shorebirds) to domestic bird species, they undergo genetic changes that have been linked to higher virulence and broader host range. Common genetic AIV modifications in viral proteins of poultry isolates are deletions in the stalk region of the neuraminidase (NA) and additions of glycosylation sites on the hemagglutinin (HA). Even though these NA deletion mutations occur in several AIV subtypes, they have not been analyzed comprehensively. In this study, 4,920 NA nucleotide sequences, 5,596 HA nucleotide and 4,702 HA amino acid sequences were analyzed to elucidate the widespread emergence of NA stalk deletions in gallinaceous hosts, the genetic polymorphism of the deletion patterns and association between the stalk deletions in NA and amino acid variants in HA. Forty-seven different NA stalk deletion patterns were identified in six NA subtypes, N1-N3 and N5-N7. An analysis that controlled for phylogenetic dependence due to shared ancestry showed that NA stalk deletions are statistically correlated with gallinaceous hosts and certain amino acid features on the HA protein. Those HA features included five glycosylation sites, one insertion and one deletion. The correlations between NA stalk deletions and HA features are HA-NA-subtype-specific. Our results demonstrate that stalk deletions in the NA proteins of AIV are relatively common. Understanding the NA stalk deletion and related HA features may be important for vaccine and drug development and could be useful in establishing effective early detection and warning systems for the poultry industry.
Pekin and Muscovy Ducks Respond Differently to Vaccination with a H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) Commercial Inactivated Vaccine
Vaccine. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21771626
Domestic ducks are key intermediates in the transmission of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, and therefore are included in vaccination programs to control H5N1 HPAI. Although vaccination has proven effective in protecting ducks against disease, different species of domestic ducks appear to respond differently to vaccination, and shedding of the virus may still occur in clinically healthy vaccinated populations. In this study we compared the response to vaccination between two common domestic duck species, Pekin (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) and Muscovy (Cairina moschata), which were vaccinated with a commercial inactivated vaccine using one of three different schedules in order to elicit protection to H5N1 HPAI before one month of age. Clear differences in responses to vaccination were observed; the Muscovy ducks developed lower viral antibody titers induced by the same vaccination as Pekin ducks and presented with higher morbidity and mortality after challenge with an H5N1 HPAI virus. When comparing the response to infection in non-vaccinated ducks, differences were also observed, with infected Muscovy ducks presenting a lower mean death time and more severe neurological signs than Pekin ducks. However Pekin ducks had significantly higher body temperatures and higher levels of nitric oxide in the blood at 2 days post challenge than Muscovy ducks, indicating possible differences in innate immune responses. Comparison of the expression of innate immune related genes in spleens of the non-vaccinated infected ducks showed differences including significantly higher levels of expression of RIG-I in Pekin ducks and of IL-6 in Muscovy ducks. Both duck species showed an up-regulation of IFNα and MHC-I expression, and a down-regulation of MHC-II. In conclusion, differences in response to infection and vaccination were observed between the two domestic duck species. This information should be taken into account when developing effective vaccination programs for controlling H5N1 HPAI in different species of ducks.
Prevalence of Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus During 2005 in Two U.S. Live Bird Market Systems
Avian Diseases. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21793439
Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from poultry sold in two live bird market (LBM) systems to estimate the prevalence of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) shedding during the summer and fall of 2005. Random sampling was conducted in three LBMs in Minnesota where 50 birds were sampled twice weekly for 4 wk, and in three LBMs in a California marketing system. A stratified systematic sampling method was used to collect samples from Southern California LBMs, where LPAIV was detected during routine surveillance. No LPAIV was detected in the LBM system in Minnesota where realtime reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was conducted on oropharyngeal samples. RT-PCR was performed on swabs taken from 290 of 14,000, 65 of 252, and 60 of 211 birds at the three Southern California LBMs. The number of samples collected was based on the number of birds, age of the birds, and number of species present in the LBM. Virus isolation, subtyping, and sequencing of the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and other internal protein genes was performed on AIV-positive samples. The estimated prevalence of LPAIV in California was 0.345% in an LBM/supply farm with multiple ages of Japanese quail, 3% in an LBM with multiple ages and strains of chickens present, and 49.8% in an LBM with multiple species, multiple strains, and multiple ages. The positive virus samples were all LPAIV H6N2 and closely related to viruses isolated from Southern California in 2001 and 2004. Little or no comingling of poultry may contribute to little or no LPAIV detection in the LBMs.
Host Immune and Apoptotic Responses to Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 in Human Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cells
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20118223
The avian influenza virus H9N2 subtype has circulated in wild birds, is prevalent in domestic poultry, and has successfully crossed the species boundary to infect humans. Phylogenetic analyses showed that viruses of this subtype appear to have contributed to the generation of highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses. Little is known about the host responses to H9N2 viruses in human airway respiratory epithelium, the primary portal for viral infection. Using an apically differentiated primary human tracheobronchial epithelial (TBE) culture, we examined host immune responses to infection by an avian H9N2 virus, in comparison with a human H9N2 isolate. We found that IFN-β was the prominent antiviral component, whereas interferon gamma-induced protein 10 kDa (IP-10), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)-5 and TNF-α may be critical in proinflammatory responses to H9N2 viruses. In contrast, proinflammatory IL-1β, IL-8, and even IL-6 may only play a minor role in pathogenicity. Apparently Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, TLR-7, and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA-5) contributed to the innate immunity against the H9N2 viruses, and MDA-5 was important in the induction of IFN-β. We showed that the avian H9N2 virus induced apoptosis through the mitochondria/cytochrome c-mediated intrinsic pathway, in addition to the caspase 8-mediated extrinsic pathway, as evidenced by the cytosolic presence of active caspase 9 and cytochrome c, independent of truncated BH3 interacting domain death agonist (Bid) activation. Further, we demonstrated that FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP), an apoptotic dual regulator, and the p53-dependent Bcl-2 family members, Bax and Bcl-x(s), appeared to be involved in the regulation of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, respectively. The findings in this study will further our understanding of host defense mechanisms and the pathogenesis of H9N2 influenza viruses in human respiratory epithelium.
Cross-Seasonal Patterns of Avian Influenza Virus in Breeding and Wintering Migratory Birds: A Flyway Perspective
Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.). Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21995264
Abstract The spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in nature is intrinsically linked with the movements of wild birds. Wild birds are the reservoirs for the virus and their migration may facilitate the circulation of AIV between breeding and wintering areas. This cycle of dispersal has become widely accepted; however, there are few AIV studies that present cross-seasonal information. A flyway perspective is critical for understanding how wild birds contribute to the persistence of AIV over large spatial and temporal scales, with implications for how to focus surveillance efforts and identify risks to public health. This study characterized spatio-temporal infection patterns in 10,389 waterfowl at two important locations within the Pacific Flyway-breeding sites in Interior Alaska and wintering sites in California's Central Valley during 2007-2009. Among the dabbling ducks sampled, the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) had the highest prevalence of AIV at both breeding (32.2%) and wintering (5.2%) locations. This is in contrast to surveillance studies conducted in other flyways that have identified the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintail (Anas acuta) as hosts with the highest prevalence. A higher diversity of AIV subtypes was apparent at wintering (n=42) compared with breeding sites (n=17), with evidence of mixed infections at both locations. Our study suggests that wintering sites may act as an important mixing bowl for transmission among waterfowl in a flyway, creating opportunities for the reassortment of the virus. Our findings shed light on how the dynamics of AIV infection of wild bird populations can vary between the two ends of a migratory flyway.
Distinct Regulation of Host Responses by ERK and JNK MAP Kinases in Swine Macrophages Infected with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus
PloS One. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22279582
Swine influenza is an acute respiratory disease in pigs caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Highly virulent SIV strains cause mortality of up to 10%. Importantly, pigs have long been considered "mixing vessels" that generate novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential, a constant threat to public health. Since its emergence in 2009 and subsequent pandemic spread, the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (H1N1pdm) has been detected in pig farms, creating the risk of generating new reassortants and their possible infection of humans. Pathogenesis in SIV or H1N1pdm-infected pigs remains poorly characterized. Proinflammatory and antiviral cytokine responses are considered correlated with the intensity of clinical signs, and swine macrophages are found to be indispensible in effective clearance of SIV from pig lungs. In this study, we report a unique pattern of cytokine responses in swine macrophages infected with H1N1pdm. The roles of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in the regulation of the host responses were examined. We found that proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α were significantly induced and their induction was ERK1/2-dependent. IFN-β and IFN-inducible antiviral Mx and 2'5'-OAS were sharply induced, but the inductions were effectively abolished when ERK1/2 was inhibited. Induction of CCL5 (RANTES) was completely inhibited by inhibitors of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2, which appeared also to regulate FasL and TNF-α, critical for apoptosis in pig macrophages. We found that NFκB was activated in H1N1pdm-infected cells, but the activation was suppressed when ERK1/2 was inhibited, indicating there is cross-talk between MAP kinase and NFκB responses in pig macrophages. Our data suggest that MAP kinase may activate NFκB through the induction of RIG-1, which leads to the induction of IFN-β in swine macrophages. Understanding host responses and their underlying mechanisms may help identify venues for effective control of SIV and assist in prevention of future influenza pandemics.
Virus Research. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 21986059
Avian influenza viruses (AIV) replicate efficiently in guts of birds, and virus shedding is critical to viral transmission among birds and from birds to other species. In this study, we showed that an H9N2 viral strain, isolated from a human patient, caused typical influenza-like signs and illness including loss of body weight in Balb/c mice, and that viral RNA could be detected in intestinal tissues. We demonstrated that human intestinal epithelial cell line HT-29 was susceptible to the virus, and the infected cells went apoptotic at the early stage post infection. Compared to a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza isolate, we found that the human H9N2 virus induced more severe apoptotic and stronger innate immune responses. Both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways were activated in human intestinal epithelial cells, and the levels of FasL and TNF-α were induced up to hundreds-fold in response to the H9N2 infection. Interestingly, Bcl-2 family member Bid was cleaved during the course of infection, and the truncated Bid (tBid) appeared to play a role in the initiation of the intrinsic apoptosis with increased release of cytochrome c in cytosol. As for pro-inflammatory responses in H9N2-infected intestinal epithelial cells, RANTES and IP10 were induced significantly and may have played a major role in intestinal pathogenicity. Moreover, TLR-8, MyD88, and MDA-5 were all up-regulated in the infection, critical in the induction of IFN-β and host innate immunity against the H9N2 virus. Our findings have demonstrated a unique pattern of host responses in human gut in response to H9N2 subtype influenza viruses, which will broaden our understanding of the pathogenesis of AIV infection in both humans and animals.