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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (5)
Articles by Carolyn G. Conant in JoVE
Platelet Adhesion and Aggregation Under Flow using Microfluidic Flow Cells
Carolyn G. Conant, Michael A. Schwartz, Tanner Nevill, Cristian Ionescu-Zanetti
Fluxion Biosciences, Inc.
The platelet adhesion cascade takes place in the presence of shear flow, a factor not accounted for in conventional (static) well-plate assays. This article reports on a platelet-aggregation assay utilizing a microfluidic well-plate format to emulate physiological shear flow conditions.
Other articles by Carolyn G. Conant on PubMed
Cellular Microbiology. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 16925789
For Chlamydia, an intracellular pathogen of humans, host cell invasion is obligatory for survival, growth and pathogenesis. At the molecular level, little is known about the binding and entry of Chlamydia into the mammalian host cell. Chlamydia are genetically intractable therefore experimental approaches targeting the host are often necessary. CHO6 is a mutagenized cell line resistant to attachment and infection by Chlamydia. In this study, CHO6 was shown using proteomic methods to have a defect in processing of the leader sequence for protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Complementation by expression of full-length PDI restored C. trachomatis binding and infectivity in the CHO6 mutant cell line. The cell line was also resistant to diphtheria toxin and required complemented cell-surface PDI for toxin entry. These data demonstrate that native PDI at the cell surface is required for effective chlamydial attachment and infectivity.
Well Plate-coupled Microfluidic Devices Designed for Facile Image-based Cell Adhesion and Transmigration Assays
Journal of Biomolecular Screening. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19965806
Microfluidic devices have become invaluable tools in recent years to model biological phenomena. Here, the authors present a well plate microfluidic (WPM) device for conducting cell biology assays under shear flow. Physiological shear flow conditions of cell-cell and cell-ligand adhesion within this device produce results with higher biological significance than conventional well plates. The WPM format also produced significant work flow advantages such as faster liquid handling compared to static well plate assays. The authors used the VLA-4-VCAM-1 cell adhesion model as the basis for a rapid, higher throughput adhesion inhibition screen of monoclonal antibodies against VLA-4. Using the WPM device, they generated IC(50) dose-response curves 96 times faster than conventional flow cells. The WPM device was also used to study transmigration of mononuclear cells through endothelial cell monolayers. Twenty-four channels of transmigration data were generated in a single experiment.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20435763
Control of biofilms requires rapid methods to identify compounds effective against them and to isolate resistance-compromised mutants for identifying genes involved in enhanced biofilm resistance. While rapid screening methods for microtiter plate well ("static") biofilms are available, there are no methods for such screening of continuous flow biofilms ("flow biofilms"). Since the latter biofilms more closely approximate natural biofilms, development of a high-throughput (HTP) method for screening them is desirable. We describe here a new method using a device comprised of microfluidic channels and a distributed pneumatic pump (BioFlux) that provides fluid flow to 96 individual biofilms. This device allows fine control of continuous or intermittent fluid flow over a broad range of flow rates, and the use of a standard well plate format provides compatibility with plate readers. We show that use of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing bacteria, staining with propidium iodide, and measurement of fluorescence with a plate reader permit rapid and accurate determination of biofilm viability. The biofilm viability measured with the plate reader agreed with that determined using plate counts, as well as with the results of fluorescence microscope image analysis. Using BioFlux and the plate reader, we were able to rapidly screen the effects of several antimicrobials on the viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 flow biofilms.
Journal of Laboratory Automation. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21609696
Shear stress plays a critical role in regulating platelet adhesion and thrombus formation at the site of vascular injury. As such, platelets are often examined in vitro under controlled shear flow conditions for their hemostatic and thrombotic functions. Common shear-based platelet analyses include the evaluation of genetic mutants, inhibitory or experimental compounds, matrix substrates, and the effects of different physiological and pathological shear forces. There are several laboratory instruments widely used for studying shear flow, including cone and plate viscometers and parallel plate perfusion chambers. These technologies vary widely in the types of samples, substrates, blood volumes, and throughput that are involved. Here, we describe a microfluidic system for platelet analysis under shear flow. We used the devices to study thrombus formation on collagen I and von Willebrand factor. The system was also used to investigate dose response to the antiplatelet compound, Abciximab, under shear flow conditions with an emphasis on maximizing the number of data points per single patient sample. The presented method confers multiple advantages over conventional approaches. These include the ability to assess up to 24 conditions simultaneously in real time, maintain identical physical conditions across experiments, and use extremely low donor volumes.
Well Plate Microfluidic System for Investigation of Dynamic Platelet Behavior Under Variable Shear Loads
Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21702026
The study of platelet behavior in real-time under controlled shear stress offers insights into the underlying mechanisms of many vascular diseases and enables evaluation of platelet-focused therapeutics. The two most common methods used to study platelet behavior at the vessel wall under uniform shear flow are parallel plate flow chambers and cone-plate viscometers. Typically, these methods are difficult to use, lack experimental flexibility, provide low data content, are low in throughput, and require large reagent volumes. Here, we report a well plate microfluidic (WPM)-based system that offers high throughput, low reagent consumption, and high experimental flexibility in an easy to use well plate format. The system consists of well plates with an integrated array of microfluidic channels, a pneumatic interface, an automated microscope, and software. This WPM system was used to investigate dynamic platelet behavior under shear stress. Multiple channel designs are presented and tested for shear loads with whole blood to determine their applicability to study thrombus formation. Normal physiological shear (0.1-20 dyn/cm(2) ) and pathological shear (20-200 dyn/cm(2) ) devices were used to study platelet behavior in vitro under various shear, matrix coating, and monolayer conditions. The high physiological relevance, low blood consumption, and increased throughput create a valuable technique available to vascular biology researchers. The approach also has extensibility to other research areas including inflammation, cancer biology, and developmental/stem cell research.