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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (3)

Articles by Celia Keim in JoVE

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Recombinant Retroviral Production and Infection of B Cells

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 2Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University


JoVE 2371

An efficient system of structure and function analysis of a gene in an ex vivo culture of splenic B-lymphocytes is described. This method takes advantage of recombinant retroviral production in a helper free, ecotrophic packaging cell line. Stable, heritable expression of a gene of interest within primary lymphocytes is achieved leading to generation of surface antibodies on B cells undergoing class switch recombination.

Other articles by Celia Keim on PubMed

Inhibition of Interleukin-6 Expression by the V Protein of Parainfluenza Virus 5

The V protein of parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) plays an important role in the evasion of host immune responses. The V protein blocks interferon (IFN) signaling in human cells by causing degradation of the STAT1 protein, a key component of IFN signaling, and blocks IFN-beta production by preventing nuclear translocation of IRF3, a key transcription factor for activating IFN-beta promoter. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), along with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-1beta, is a major proinflammatory cytokine that plays important roles in clearing virus infection through inflammatory responses. Many viruses have developed strategies to block IL-6 expression. Wild-type PIV5 infection induces little, if any, expression of cytokines such as IL-6 or TNF-alpha, whereas infection by a mutant PIV5 lacking the conserved C-terminal cysteine rich domain (rPIV5VDeltaC) induced high levels of IL-6 expression. Examination of mRNA levels of IL-6 indicated that the transcription activation of IL-6 played an important role in the increased IL-6 expression. Co-infection with wild-type PIV5 prevented the activation of IL-6 transcription by rPIV5VDeltaC, and a plasmid encoding the full-length PIV5 V protein prevented the activation of IL-6 promoter-driven reporter gene expression by rPIV5VDeltaC, indicating that the V protein played a role in inhibiting IL-6 transcription. The activation of IL-6 was independent of IFN-beta even though rPIV5VDeltaC-infected cells produced IFN-beta. Using reporter gene assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), it was found that NF-kappaB played an important role in activating expression of IL-6. We have proposed a model of activating and inhibiting IL-6 transcription by PIV5.

A Single Amino Acid Residue Change in the P Protein of Parainfluenza Virus 5 Elevates Viral Gene Expression

Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) is a prototypical paramyxovirus. The V/P gene of PIV5 encodes two mRNA species through a process of pseudotemplated insertion of two G residues at a specific site during transcription, resulting in two viral proteins, V and P, whose N termini of 164 amino acid residues are identical. Previously it was reported that mutating six amino acid residues within this identical region results in a recombinant PIV5 (rPIV5-CPI-) that exhibits elevated viral protein expression and induces production of cytokines, such as beta interferon and interleukin 6. Because the six mutations correspond to the shared region of the V protein and the P protein, it is not clear whether the phenotypes associated with rPIV5-CPI- are due to mutations in the P protein and/or mutations in the V protein. To address this question, we used a minigenome system and recombinant viruses to study the effects of mutations on the functions of the P and V proteins. We found that the P protein with six amino acid residue changes (Pcpi-) was more efficient than wild-type P in facilitating replication of viral RNA, while the V protein with six amino acid residue changes (Vcpi-) still inhibits minigenome replication as does the wild-type V protein. These results indicate that elevated viral gene expression in rPIV5-CPI- virus-infected cells can be attributed to a P protein with an increased ability to facilitate viral RNA synthesis. Furthermore, we found that a single amino acid residue change at position 157 of the P protein from Ser (the residue in the wild-type P protein) to Phe (the residue in Pcpi-) is sufficient for elevated viral gene expression. Using mass spectrometry and (33)P labeling, we found that residue S157 of the P protein is phosphorylated. Based on these results, we propose that phosphorylation of the P protein at residue 157 plays an important role in regulating viral RNA replication.

The RNA Exosome Targets the AID Cytidine Deaminase to Both Strands of Transcribed Duplex DNA Substrates

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) and Ig variable region somatic hypermutation (SHM) in B lymphocytes by deaminating cytidines on template and nontemplate strands of transcribed DNA substrates. However, the mechanism of AID access to the template DNA strand, particularly when hybridized to a nascent RNA transcript, has been an enigma. We now implicate the RNA exosome, a cellular RNA-processing/degradation complex, in targeting AID to both DNA strands. In B lineage cells activated for CSR, the RNA exosome associates with AID, accumulates on IgH switch regions in an AID-dependent fashion, and is required for optimal CSR. Moreover, both the cellular RNA exosome complex and a recombinant RNA exosome core complex impart robust AID- and transcription-dependent DNA deamination of both strands of transcribed SHM substrates in vitro. Our findings reveal a role for noncoding RNA surveillance machinery in generating antibody diversity.

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