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In JoVE (1)
- Patterned Photostimulation with Digital Micromirror Devices to Investigate Dendritic Integration Across Branch Points
Other Publications (10)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Journal of Biomedical Optics
- Current Protocols in Neuroscience / Editorial Board, Jacqueline N. Crawley ... [et Al.]
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
- Journal of Biomedical Optics
- Journal of Neuroscience Methods
- Journal of Neural Engineering
- Optics Express
Articles by Cha-Min Tang in JoVE
Patterned Photostimulation with Digital Micromirror Devices to Investigate Dendritic Integration Across Branch Points
Conrad W. Liang*, Michael Mohammadi*, M. Daniel Santos, Cha-Min Tang
Department of Neurology, Baltimore VA Medical Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine
Digital micromirror devices (DMD) can generate complex patterns in time and space with which to control neuronal excitability. Issues relevant to the design, construction, and operation of DMD systems are discussed. Such a system enabled the demonstration of non-linear integration across distal dendritic branch points.
Other articles by Cha-Min Tang on PubMed
Neuron. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15473972
Focal activation of glutamate receptors in distal dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal cells triggers voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel-mediated plateau potentials that are confined to the stimulated dendrite. We examined the role of dendritic K(+) conductances in determining the amplitude, duration, and spatial compartmentalization of plateau potentials. Manipulations that blocked SK-type Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, including apamin and BAPTA dialysis, increased the duration of plateau potentials without affecting their amplitude or compartmentalization. Manipulations that blocked Kv4.2 A-type K(+) channels, including a dominant-negative Kv4.2 construct and 4-aminopyridine, increased the amplitude of plateau potentials by allowing them to recruit neighboring dendrites. Prolongation of plateau potentials or block of Kv4.2 channels at branch points facilitated the ability of dendritic excitation to trigger fast action potentials. SK channels thus underlie repolarization of dendritic plateau potentials, whereas Kv4.2 channels confine these potentials to single dendritic branches, and both act in concert to regulate synaptic integration.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16186507
Long-term increases in the strength of excitatory transmission at Schaffer collateral-CA1 cell synapses of the hippocampus require the insertion of new alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptors (AMPARs) into the synapse, but the kinetics of this process are not well established. Using microphotolysis of caged glutamate to activate receptors at single dendritic spines in hippocampal CA1 cells, we report the long-lasting potentiation of AMPAR-mediated currents with only a single pairing of photoreleased glutamate and brief postsynaptic depolarization. This potentiation was N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent and was reversed with low-frequency photostimulation in an NMDAR-dependent manner, suggesting that it is mediated by the same mechanism(s) as conventional synaptic long-term potentiation. Potentiation of photolytic responses developed rapidly in a stepwise manner after a brief and variable delay (<60 s) at spines, but could not be induced at extrasynaptic sites on the dendritic shaft. Potentiation was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in postsynaptic, polyamine-dependent paired-pulse facilitation of the photolytic currents, indicating that a change in the subunit composition of the AMPARs underlying the response contributed to the potentiation. These changes are consistent with an increase in the proportion of GluR2-containing AMPARs in the spine head. These results demonstrate that activation of postsynaptic glutamate receptors by glutamate is not only necessary, but sufficient, for the induction of NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation and reveal additional aspects of its expression.
Journal of Biomedical Optics. Sep-Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16292951
Optical contrast is often the limiting factor in the imaging of live biological tissue. Studies were conducted in postmortem human brain to identify clinical applications where the structures of interest possess high intrinsic optical contrast and where the real-time, high-resolution imaging capabilities of optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be critical. Myelinated fiber tracts and blood vessels are two structures with high optical contrast. The ability to image these two structures in real time may improve the efficacy and safety of a neurosurgical procedure to treat Parkinson's disease called deep brain stimulation (DBS). OCT was evaluated as a potential optical guidance system for DBS in 25 human brains. The results suggest that catheter-based OCT has the resolution and contrast necessary for DBS targeting. The results also demonstrate the ability of OCT to detect blood vessels with high sensitivity, suggesting a possible means to avoid their laceration during DBS. Other microscopic structures in the human brain with high optical contrast are pathological vacuoles associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). TSE include diseases such as Mad Cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. OCT performed on the brain from a woman who died of CJD was able to detect clearly the pathological vacuoles.
Current Protocols in Neuroscience / Editorial Board, Jacqueline N. Crawley ... [et Al.]. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 18428643
Photolysis of "caged" compounds is a technique for releasing biologically active compounds in which the timing, rate, and spatial profile of release are controlled by light. Issues relating to the delivery of light for single-photon photolysis are presented. Specific discussions include the theories relating to how light interacts with biological tissue to produce scattering and phototoxicity, as well as the issues involved in choosing the appropriate light source. Several approaches and optical designs are presented for delivering the output of a laser to a microscopic specimen. The criteria for choosing an approach are presented. The commercial sources for the parts needed to build a photolysis system are also provided. This unit will be particularly useful for investigators interested in single-photon photolysis of caged neurotransmitters in brain slices.
Hyperexcitability of Distal Dendrites in Hippocampal Pyramidal Cells After Chronic Partial Deafferentation
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17202472
Traumatic injury to the CNS results in chronic partial deafferentation of subsets of surviving neurons. Such injuries are often followed by a delayed but long-lasting period of aberrant hyperexcitability. The cellular mechanisms underlying this delayed hyperexcitability are poorly understood. We developed an in vitro model of deafferentation and reactive hyperexcitability using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures to study the underlying cellular mechanisms. One week after transection of the Schaffer collateral and temporoammonic afferents to CA1 neurons, brief tetanic stimulation of the residual excitatory synapses produced abnormally prolonged depolarizations, compared with responses in normally innervated neurons. Responses to weak stimulation, in contrast, were unaffected after deafferentation. Direct stimulation of distal apical dendrites using focal photolysis of caged glutamate triggered abnormally prolonged plateau potentials in the deafferented neurons when strong stimulation was given, but responses to weak stimulation were not different from controls. An identical phenotype was produced by chronic "chemical deafferentation" with glutamate receptor antagonists. Responses to strong synaptic and photolytic stimulation were selectively prolonged by small-conductance (SK-type) calcium-activated potassium channel blockers in normally innervated cells but not after deafferentation. No significant changes in SK2 mRNA or protein levels, GABAergic inhibition, glutamate receptor function, input resistance, or action potential parameters were observed after chronic deafferentation. We suggest that a posttranslational downregulation of SK channel function in thin distal dendrites is a significant contributor to deafferentation-induced reactive hyperexcitability.
Catheter-based Infrared Light Scanner As a Tool to Assess Conduit Quality in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17258576
Endothelial disruption within saphenous vein and radial artery grafts increases thrombosis risk. However, no clinically applicable method for imaging the intima currently exists. We used a novel infrared imaging technology, optical coherence tomography (OCT; LightLab Imaging, Inc, Westford, Mass), to visualize the intima within harvested conduits.
Thinking Inside the Graft: Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
Journal of Biomedical Optics. Sep-Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17994877
Recent advances in catheter-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) have provided the necessary resolution and acquisition speed for high-quality intravascular imaging. Complications associated with clearing blood from the vessel of a living patient have prevented its wider acceptance. We identify a surgical application that takes advantage of the vascular imaging powers of OCT but that circumvents the difficulties. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the most commonly performed major surgery in America. A critical determinant of its outcome has been postulated to be injury to the conduit vessel incurred during the harvesting procedure or pathology preexistent in the harvested vessel. As a test of feasibility, intravascular OCT imaging is obtained from the radial arteries (RAs) and/or saphenous veins (SVs) of 35 patients scheduled for CABG. Pathologies detected by OCT are compared to registered histological sections obtained from discarded segments of each graft. OCT reliably detects atherosclerotic lesions in the RAs and discerns plaque morphology as fibrous, fibrocalcific, or fibroatheromatous. OCT is also used to assess intimal trauma and residual thrombi related to endoscopic harvest and the quality of the distal anastomosis. We demonstrate the feasibility of OCT imaging as an intraoperative tool to select conduit vessels for CABG.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18838087
The delivery of therapeutic agents directly to targets deep within the brain is becoming an important tool in the treatment of a variety of neurological disorders. Currently, the standard method to accomplish this is by using stereotactic procedures. While this existing method is adequate for many experimental situations, it is essentially a blind procedure that cannot provide real-time feedback on whether the actual location deviated from the intended location or whether the therapeutic agent was actually delivered. Here we describe an optical guidance technique that is designed to work in conjunction with existing stereotactic procedures to provide the needed real-time feedback for therapeutic delivery in live animals. This real-time feedback is enabled by a technology called catheter-based optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this study we show that OCT can provide real-time position feedback based on microanatomic landmarks from the live rodent brain. We show that OCT can provide the necessary guidance to perform microsurgery such as the selective transection of the Schaffer collateral inputs to the CA1 region of the hippocampus with minimal perturbation of overlying structures. We also show that OCT allows visual monitoring of the successful delivery of viral vectors to specific subregions of the hippocampus.
Journal of Neural Engineering. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21623008
Digital holography is an emerging technology that can generate complex light patterns for controlling the excitability of neurons and neural circuits. The strengths of this technique include a high efficiency with which available light can be effectively utilized and the ability to deliver highly focused light to multiple locations simultaneously. Here we demonstrate another strength of digital holography: the ability to generate instantaneous three-dimensional light patterns. This capability is demonstrated with the photolysis of caged glutamate on the dendritic arbor of hippocampal neurons, to study the nature of the integration of inputs arriving on multiple dendritic branches.
Optics Express. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22274213
A forward-imaging needle-type optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe with Doppler OCT (DOCT) capability has the potential to solve critical challenges in interventional procedures. A case in point is stereotactic neurosurgery where probes are advanced into the brain based on predetermined coordinates. Laceration of blood vessels in front of the advancing probe is an unavoidable complication with current methods. Moreover, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage during surgery can shift the brain rendering the predetermined coordinates unreliable. In order to address these challenges, we developed a forward-imaging OCT probe (740 μm O.D.) using a gradient-index (GRIN) rod lens that can provide real-time imaging feedback for avoiding at-risk vessels (8 frames/s with 1024 A-scans per frame for OCT/DOCT dual imaging) and guiding the instrument to specific targets with 12 μm axial resolution (100 frames/s with 160 A-scans per frame for OCT imaging only). The high signal-to-background characteristic of DOCT provides exceptional sensitivity in detecting and quantifying the blood flow within the sheep brain parenchyma in real time. The OCT/DOCT dual imaging also demonstrated its capability to differentiate the vessel type (artery/vein) on rat's femoral vessels. We also demonstrated in ex vivo human brain that the location of the tip of the OCT probe can be inferred from micro-anatomical landmarks in OCT images. These findings demonstrate the suitability of OCT guidance during stereotactic procedures in the brain and its potential for reducing the risk of cerebral hemorrhage.