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In JoVE (2)
- Стволовые стратегии клеточной трансплантации для восстановления когнитивной дисфункции, вызванной черепно Лучевая терапия
- Количественная Когнитивные Уменьшает причиненный Черепно Лучевая терапия
Other Publications (28)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Mutation Research
- Cancer Research
- Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
- Radiation Research
- Radiation Research
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Radiation Research
- Radiation Research
- International Journal of Radiation Biology
- Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
- Free Radical Biology & Medicine
- The Biochemical Journal
- Seminars in Radiation Oncology
- Radiation Research
- Free Radical Biology & Medicine
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Radiation Research
- Radiation Research
- Radiation Research
- Free Radical Biology & Medicine
- Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
- Radiation Research
- Cancer Research
- Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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Articles by Charles L. Limoli in JoVE
Стволовые стратегии клеточной трансплантации для восстановления когнитивной дисфункции, вызванной черепно Лучевая терапия
Munjal M. Acharya*, Dante E. Roa*, Omar Bosch, Mary L. Lan*, Charles L. Limoli
Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Irvine
Опухоль головного мозга пациенты регулярно проходят черепную лучевой терапии, и при всей ее полезности, это лечение часто приводит к изнурительной когнитивной дисфункции. Это серьезная нерешенная проблема имеет в настоящее время нет клинических прибегать, и загнал наших усилий по разработке стволовых клеток для терапии на основе восстановления радиационных уменьшает когнитивные.
Количественная Когнитивные Уменьшает причиненный Черепно Лучевая терапия
Lori- Ann Christie, Munjal M. Acharya, Charles L. Limoli
Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Irvine
Other articles by Charles L. Limoli on PubMed
UV-induced Replication Arrest in the Xeroderma Pigmentosum Variant Leads to DNA Double-strand Breaks, Gamma -H2AX Formation, and Mre11 Relocalization
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jan, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11756691
UV-induced replication arrest in the xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) but not in normal cells leads to an accumulation of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex and phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX) in large nuclear foci at sites of stalled replication forks. These complexes have been shown to signal the presence of DNA damage, in particular, double-strand breaks (DSBs). This finding suggests that UV damage leads to the formation of DSBs during the course of replication arrest. After UV irradiation, XPV cells showed a fluence-dependent increase in the yield of gamma-H2AX foci that paralleled the production of Mre11 foci. The percentage of foci-positive cells increased rapidly (10-15%) up to fluences of 10 J.(-2) before saturating at higher fluences. Frequencies of gamma-H2AX and Mre11 foci both reached maxima at 4 h after UV irradiation. This pattern contrasts sharply to the situation observed after x-irradiation, where peak levels of gamma-H2AX foci were found to precede the formation of Mre11 foci by several hours. The nuclear distributions of gamma-H2AX and Mre11 were found to colocalize spatially after UV- but not x-irradiation. UV-irradiated XPV cells showed a one-to-one correspondence between Mre11 and gamma-H2AX foci-positive cells. These results show that XPV cells develop DNA DSBs during the course of UV-induced replication arrest. These UV-induced foci occur in cells that are unable to carry out efficient bypass replication of UV damage and may contribute to further genetic variation.
Mutation Research. Jul, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12106650
Exposure of GM10115 hamster-human hybrid cells to X-rays can result in the induction of chromosomal instability in the progeny of surviving cells. This instability manifests as the dynamic production of novel sub-populations of cells with unique cytogenetic rearrangements involving the "marker" human chromosome. We have used the comet assay to investigate whether there was an elevated level of endogenous DNA breaks in chromosomally unstable clones that could provide a source for the chromosomal rearrangements and thus account for the persistent instability observed. Our results indicate no significant difference in comet tail measurement between non-irradiated and radiation-induced chromosomally unstable clones. Using two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization we also investigated whether recombinational events involving the interstitial telomere repeat-like sequences in GM10115 cells were involved at frequencies higher than random processes would otherwise predict. Nine of 11 clones demonstrated a significantly higher than expected involvement of these interstitial telomere repeat-like sequences at the recombination junction between the human and hamster chromosomes. Since elevated levels of endogenous breaks were not detected in unstable clones we propose that epigenetic or bystander effects (BSEs) lead to the activation of recombinational pathways that perpetuate the unstable phenotype. Specifically, we expand upon the hypothesis that radiation induces conditions and/or factors that stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These reactive intermediates then contribute to a chronic pro-oxidant environment that cycles over multiple generations, promoting chromosomal recombination and other phenotypes associated with genomic instability.
Cancer Research. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12810636
Past work using the human-hamster hybrid line GM10115 has demonstrated that exposure to a variety of DNA damaging agents can lead to the persistent destabilization of chromosomes. To gain insight into the potential biochemical mechanisms involved in perpetuating the unstable phenotype, groups of clones characterized as stable or unstable were analyzed for indications of oxidative stress. All of the clones were derived from single progenitor cells surviving exposure to ionizing radiation or chemicals. Compared with their stable counterparts, unstable clones possessed elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as measured by their enhanced ability to oxidize fluorogenic dyes. Fluorescence automated cell sorting analysis indicated that unstable clones had significantly higher mean fluorescence signals of approximately 2-fold and approximately 1.25-fold, respectively, as derived from the dyes 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and dihydrorhodamine 123, respectively. To determine whether mitochondria might constitute a potential source of ROS, stable and unstable clones of cells were analyzed for mitochondrial content using nonyl acridine orange and function using rhodamine 123. Fluorescence automated cell sorting data indicated that compared with stable clones, unstable clones possessed an elevated number (15% increase in mean nonyl acridine orange fluorescence) of dysfunctional mitochondria (27% decrease in mean rhodamine 123 fluorescence). Interestingly, the consequences of elevated ROS did not translate to an increase in oxidative base damage in nuclear DNA. Analysis of nine different base damage adducts by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry did not reveal significant differences between stable and unstable clones. The data suggest that the perpetuation of many of the abnormal phenotypes associated with genomic instability may be linked to a state of chronic oxidative stress derived in part from dysfunctional mitochondria.
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.). Jul-Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14511405
Earlier studies using GM10115 cells analyzed the capability of different DNA-damaging agents to induce genomic instability and found that acute oxidative stress was relatively inefficient at eliciting a persistent destabilization of chromosomes. To determine whether this situation would change under chronic exposure conditions, the human-hamster hybrid line GM10115 was cultured under conditions of oxidative stress. Chronic treatments consisted of 1-hour incubations using a range of hydrogen peroxide (25-200 microM) or glucose oxidase (GO; 5-50 mU/ml) concentrations that were administered once daily over 10 to 30 consecutive days. The toxicity of chronic treatments was modest (- one log kill) and consistent with the low yield of first division aberrations (<5%). However, analysis of over 180 clones and 36,000 metaphases indicated that chronic oxidative stress led to a high incidence of chromosomal instability. Treatment of cells with 100 and 200 microM hydrogen peroxide or 50 mU/ml GO was found to elicit chromosomal instability in 11%, 22%, and 19% of the clones analyzed, respectively. In contrast, control clones isolated after mock treatment did not show signs of chromosomal destabilization. These data suggest that chronic oxidative stress constitutes a biochemical mechanism capable of disrupting the genomic integrity of cells.
Radiation Response of Neural Precursor Cells: Linking Cellular Sensitivity to Cell Cycle Checkpoints, Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress
Radiation Research. Jan, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14680400
Therapeutic irradiation of the brain can cause a progressive cognitive dysfunction that may involve defects in neurogenesis. In an effort to understand the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced stem cell dysfunction, neural precursor cells isolated from the adult rat hippocampus were analyzed for acute (0-24 h) and chronic (3-33 days) changes in apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) after exposure to X rays. Irradiated neural precursor cells exhibited an acute dose-dependent apoptosis accompanied by an increase in ROS that persisted over a 3-4-week period. The radiation effects included the activation of cell cycle checkpoints that were associated with increased Trp53 phosphorylation and Trp53 and p21 (Cdkn1a) protein levels. In vivo, neural precursor cells within the hippocampal dentate subgranular zone exhibited significant sensitivity to radiation. Proliferating precursor cells and their progeny (i.e. immature neurons) exhibited dose-dependent reductions in cell number. These reductions were less severe in Trp53-null mice, possibly due to the disruption of apoptosis. These data suggest that the apoptotic and ROS responses may be tied to Trp53-dependent regulation of cell cycle control and stress-activated pathways. The temporal coincidence between in vitro and in vivo measurements of apoptosis suggests that oxidative stress may provide a mechanistic explanation for radiation-induced inhibition of neurogenesis in the development of cognitive impairment.
Indicators of Hippocampal Neurogenesis Are Altered by 56Fe-particle Irradiation in a Dose-dependent Manner
Radiation Research. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15447038
The health risks to astronauts exposed to high-LET radiation include possible cognitive deficits. The pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive injury is unknown but may involve loss of neural precursor cells from the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. To address this hypothesis, adult female C57BL/6 mice received whole-body irradiation with a 1 GeV/nucleon iron-particle beam in a single fraction of 0, 1, 2 and 3 Gy. Two months later mice were given BrdU injections to label proliferating cells. Subsequently, hippocampal tissue was assessed using immunohistochemistry for detection of proliferating cells and immature neurons. Routine histopathological methods were used to qualitatively assess tissue/cell morphology in the hippocampal formation and adjacent areas. When compared to controls, irradiated mice showed progressively fewer BrdU-positive cells as a function of dose. This observation was confirmed by Ki-67 immunostaining in the SGZ showing reductions in a dose-dependent fashion. The progeny of the proliferating SGZ cells, i.e. immature neurons, were visualized by doublecortin staining and were significantly reduced by irradiation, with the decreases ranging from 34% after 1 Gy to 71% after 3 Gy. Histopathology showed that in addition to cell changes in the SGZ, (56)Fe particles induced a chronic and diffuse astrocytosis and changes in pyramidal neurons in and around the hippocampal formation. The present data provide the first evidence that high-LET radiation has deleterious effects on cells associated with hippocampal neurogenesis.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nov, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15522966
Stress-induced reductions of neural precursor cells from the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus have been linked to impaired neurogenesis and cognitive dysfunction. Given the importance of redox state in regulating multiple damage-responsive pathways in the CNS, we hypothesize that oxidative stress plays a major role in affecting neurogenesis and subsequent cognitive function after cell injury/depletion. Using an in vitro system, we showed that the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which depend critically on changes in cell density, were significantly higher in neural precursor cells when compared with other primary and transformed cell lines. ROS were significantly elevated ( approximately 4-fold) under low- (<1 x 10(4) cells per cm(2)) versus high-density (>1 x 10(5) cells per cm(2)) conditions. Higher ROS levels found at lower cell densities were associated with elevated proliferation and increased metabolic activity. These ROS were likely a result of altered mitochondrial function that ultimately compromised the growth rate of cells. At high cell densities, intracellular ROS and oxidative damage were reduced in concert with an increased expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2. Our finding that DNA-damage-induced depletion of neural precursor cells in the subgranular zone of mice also led to increased ROS and altered proliferation validated our in vitro system. Increased ROS and proliferation associated with the reduction of precursor cell numbers both in vitro and in vivo could be reversed with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid. These data showed that neural precursor cells were predisposed to microenvironmental cues that regulate redox-sensitive pathways to control cellular proliferation after CNS damage.
Oncogene. May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15750628
XP variant (XP-V) cells lack the damage-specific polymerase eta and exhibit prolonged replication arrest after UV irradiation due to impaired bypass of UV photoproducts. To analyse the outcome of the arrested replication forks, homologous recombination (HR, Rad51 events) and fork breakage (Rad50 events) were assayed by immunofluorescent detection of foci-positive cells. Within 1 h of irradiation, XP-V cells showed more Rad51-positive cells than normal cells, while neither cell type showed an increase in Rad50 foci. Beyond 1 h, the frequency of Rad51-positive cells reached similar levels in both cell types, then declined at higher UV doses. At these later times, Rad50-positive cells increased with dose and to a greater extent in XP-V cells. Few cells were simultaneously positive for both sets of foci, suggesting a mutually exclusive recruitment of recombination proteins, or that these pathways operate at different stages during S phase. Analysis of cells containing a vector of tandemly arranged enhanced green fluorescent protein genes also showed that UV-induced HR was higher in XP-V cells. These results suggest that cells make an early commitment to HR, and that at later times a subset of arrested forks degrade into double-strand breaks, two alternative pathways that are greater in XP-V cells.
Efficient Production of Reactive Oxygen Species in Neural Precursor Cells After Exposure to 250 MeV Protons
Radiation Research. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16187784
The space radiation environment is composed of highly energetic ions, dominated by protons, that pose a range of potential health risks to astronauts. Traversals of these particles through certain tissues may compromise the viability and/or function of sensitive cells, including neural precursors found within the dentate subgranular zone of the hippocampus. Irradiation has been shown to deplete these cells in vivo, and reductions of these critical cells are believed to impair neurogenesis and cognition. To more fully understand the mechanisms underlying the behavior of these precursor cells after irradiation, we have developed an in vitro neural precursor cell system and used it to assess acute (0-48 h) changes in ROS and mitochondrial end points after exposure to Bragg-peak protons of 250 MeV. Relative ROS levels were increased at nearly all doses (1-10 Gy) and postirradiation times (6-24 h) compared to unirradiated controls. The increase in ROS after proton irradiation was more rapid than that observed with X rays and showed a well-defined dose response at 6 and 24 h, increasing approximately 10% and 3% per gray, respectively. However, by 48 h postirradiation, ROS levels fell below controls and coincided with minor reductions in mitochondrial content. Use of the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (before or after irradiation) was shown to eliminate the radiation-induced rise in ROS levels. Our results corroborate earlier studies using X rays and provide further evidence that elevated ROS are integral to the radioresponse of neural precursor cells.
High-LET Radiation Induces Inflammation and Persistent Changes in Markers of Hippocampal Neurogenesis
Radiation Research. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16187787
Exposure to heavy-ion radiation is considered a potential health risk in long-term space travel. It may result in the loss of critical cellular components in complex systems like the central nervous system (CNS), which could lead to performance decrements that ultimately could compromise mission goals and long-term quality of life. Specific hippocampal-dependent cognitive impairment occurs after whole-body 56Fe-particle irradiation, and while the pathogenesis of this effect is not yet clear, it may involve damage to neural precursor cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. We irradiated mice with 1-3 Gy of 12C or 56Fe ions and 9 months later quantified proliferating cells and immature neurons in the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ). Our results showed that reductions in these cells were dependent on the dose and LET. When compared with data for mice that were studied 3 months after 56Fe-particle irradiation, our current data suggest that these changes are not only persistent but may worsen with time. Loss of precursor cells was also associated with altered neurogenesis and a robust inflammatory response. These results indicate that high-LET radiation has a significant and long-lasting effect on the neurogenic population in the hippocampus that involves cell loss and changes in the microenvironment.
International Journal of Radiation Biology. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17050476
To determine whether changes in oxidative stress could enhance the sensitivity of neural precursor cells to ionizing radiation.
Neurosurgery Clinics of North America. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17244559
Considerable data are now available regarding the radiation responsiveness of neural precursor cells that exist in the neurogenic regions of the mammalian forebrain. These cells and their progeny are extremely sensitive to irradiation, undergoing apoptosis after clinically relevant doses that do not result in overt tissue injury. In addition, there is compelling evidence that radiation significantly affects the whole process of neurogenesis and that the sensitivity depends, at least in part, on alterations in the microenvironment within which the precursor cells exist. Although provocative data exist suggesting that inflammation, oxidative stress, or morphologic relations influence neurogenesis, the precise mechanisms involved remain obscure and need to be investigated. Additionally, it is important to try to understand what these findings may mean in the context of radiation paradigms associated with the treatment of intracranial disease. Understanding how neural precursor cells respond to noxious stimuli is likely to lead to new therapeutic approaches that should restore neurogenesis and perhaps improve cognitive performance.
Lack of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase (EC-SOD) in the Microenvironment Impacts Radiation-induced Changes in Neurogenesis
Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17382195
Ionizing irradiation results in significant alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis that are associated with cognitive impairments. Such effects are influenced, in part, by alterations in the microenvironment within which the neurogenic cells exist. One important factor that may affect neurogenesis is oxidative stress, and this study was done to determine if and how the extracellular isoform of superoxide dismutase (SOD3, EC-SOD) mediated radiation-induced alterations in neurogenic cells. Wild-type (WT) and EC-SOD knockout (KO) mice were irradiated with 5 Gy and acute (8-48 h) cellular changes and long-term changes in neurogenesis were quantified. Acute radiation responses were not different between genotypes, suggesting that the absence of EC-SOD did not influence mechanisms responsible for acute cell death after irradiation. On the other hand, the extent of neurogenesis was decreased by 39% in nonirradiated KO mice relative to WT controls. In contrast, while neurogenesis was decreased by nearly 85% in WT mice after irradiation, virtually no reduction in neurogenesis was observed in KO mice. These findings show that after irradiation, an environment lacking EC-SOD is much more permissive in the context of hippocampal neurogenesis. This finding may have a major impact in developing strategies to reduce cognitive impairment after cranial irradiation.
The Biochemical Journal. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18352860
Chronic oxidative stress has been associated with genomic instability following exposure to ionizing radiation. However, results showing direct causal linkages between specific ROS (reactive oxygen species) and the ionizing radiation-induced mutator phenotype are lacking. The present study demonstrates that ionizing radiation-induced genomically unstable cells (characterized by chromosomal instability and an increase in mutation and gene amplification frequencies) show a 3-fold increase in steady-state levels of hydrogen peroxide, but not superoxide. Furthermore, stable clones isolated from parallel studies showed significant increases in catalase and GPx (glutathione peroxidase) activity. Treatment of unstable cells with PEG-CAT (polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase) reduced the mutation frequency and mutation rate in a dose-dependent fashion. In addition, inhibiting catalase activity in the stable clones using AT (3-aminotriazole) increased mutation frequency and rate. These results clearly demonstrate the causal relationship between chronic oxidative stress mediated by hydrogen peroxide and the mutator phenotype that persists for many generations following exposure of mammalian cells to ionizing radiation.
Histone H2AX Phosphorylation in Response to Changes in Chromatin Structure Induced by Altered Osmolarity
Mutagenesis. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19064695
DNA strand breaks trigger marked phosphorylation of histone H2AX (i.e. gamma-H2AX). While DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) provide a strong stimulus for this event, the accompanying structural alterations in chromatin may represent the actual signal that elicits gamma-H2AX. Our data show that changes in chromatin structure are sufficient to elicit extensive gamma-H2AX formation in the relative absence of DNA strand breaks. Cells subjected to hypotonic (0.05 M) treatment exhibit gamma-H2AX levels that are equivalent to those found after the induction of 80-200 DNA DSBs (i.e. 2-5 Gy). Despite this significant increase in phosphorylation, cell survival remains relatively unaffected (<10% cytotoxicity), and there is no significant increase in apoptosis. Nuclear staining profiles indicate that gamma-H2AX-positive cells induced under altered tonicity exhibit variable levels of staining, ranging from uniform pan staining to discrete punctate foci more characteristic of DNA strand breakage. The capability to induce significant gamma-H2AX formation under altered tonicity in the relative absence of DNA strand breaks suggests that this histone modification evolved in response to changes in chromatin structure.
Overexpression of Glutamate-cysteine Ligase Protects Human COV434 Granulosa Tumour Cells Against Oxidative and Gamma-radiation-induced Cell Death
Mutagenesis. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19153097
Ionizing radiation is toxic to ovarian follicles and can cause infertility. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the toxicity of ionizing radiation in several cell types. We have shown that depletion of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) sensitizes follicles and granulosa cells to toxicant-induced apoptosis and that supplementation of GSH is protective. The rate-limiting reaction in GSH biosynthesis is catalysed by glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), which consists of a catalytic subunit (GCLC) and a regulatory subunit (GCLM). We hypothesized that overexpression of Gclc or Gclm to increase GSH synthesis would protect granulosa cells against oxidant- and radiation-induced cell death. The COV434 line of human granulosa tumour cells was stably transfected with vectors designed for the constitutive expression of Gclc, Gclm, both Gclc and Gclm or empty vector. GCL protein and enzymatic activity and total GSH levels were significantly increased in the GCL subunit-transfected cells. GCL-transfected cells were resistant to cell killing by treatment with hydrogen peroxide compared to control cells. Cell viability declined less in all the GCL subunit-transfected cell lines 1-8 h after 0.5 mM hydrogen peroxide treatment than in control cells. We next examined the effects of GCL overexpression on responses to ionizing radiation. ROS were measured using a redox-sensitive fluorogenic dye in cells irradiated with 0, 1 or 5 Gy of gamma-rays. There was a dose-dependent increase in ROS within 30 min in all cell lines, an effect that was significantly attenuated in Gcl-transfected cells. Apoptosis, assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling and activated caspase-3 immunoblotting, was significantly decreased in irradiated Gclc-transfected cells compared to irradiated control cells. Suppression of GSH synthesis in Gclc-transfected cells reversed resistance to radiation. These findings show that overexpression of GCL in granulosa cells can augment GSH synthesis and ameliorate various sequelae associated with exposure to oxidative stress and irradiation.
Seminars in Radiation Oncology. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19249650
The tolerance of normal brain tissues limits the radiation dose that can be delivered safely during cranial radiotherapy, and one of the potential complications that can arise involves cognitive impairment. Extensive laboratory data have appeared recently showing that hippocampal neurogenesis is significantly impacted by irradiation and that such changes are associated with altered cognitive function and involve, in part, changes in the microenvironment (oxidative stress and inflammation). Although there is considerable uncertainty about exactly how these changes evolve, new in vitro and in vivo approaches have provided a means by which new mechanistic insights can be gained relevant to the topic. Together, the data from cell culture and animal-based studies provide complementary information relevant to a potentially serious complication of cranial radiotherapy and should enhance our understanding of the tolerance of normal brain after cranial irradiation.
Total-body Irradiation of Postpubertal Mice with (137)Cs Acutely Compromises the Microarchitecture of Cancellous Bone and Increases Osteoclasts
Radiation Research. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19267555
Ionizing radiation can cause substantial tissue degeneration, which may threaten the long-term health of astronauts and radiotherapy patients. To determine whether a single dose of radiation acutely compromises structural integrity in the postpubertal skeleton, 18-week-old male mice were exposed to (137)Cs gamma radiation (1 or 2 Gy). The structure of high-turnover, cancellous bone was analyzed by microcomputed tomography (microCT) 3 or 10 days after irradiation and in basal controls (tissues harvested at the time of irradiation) and age-matched controls. Irradiation (2 Gy) caused a 20% decline in tibial cancellous bone volume fraction (BV/TV) within 3 days and a 43% decline within 10 days, while 1 Gy caused a 28% reduction 10 days later. The BV/TV decrement was due to increased spacing and decreased thickness of trabeculae. Radiation also increased ( approximately 150%) cancellous surfaces lined with tartrate-resistant, acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts, an index of increased bone resorption. Radiation decreased lumbar vertebral BV/TV 1 month after irradiation, showing the persistence of cancellous bone loss, although mechanical properties in compression were unaffected. In sum, a single dose of gamma radiation rapidly increased osteoclast surface in cancellous tissue and compromised cancellous microarchitecture in the remodeling appendicular and axial skeleton of postpubertal mice.
Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19703553
Ionizing irradiation significantly affects hippocampal neurogenesis and is associated with cognitive impairments; these effects may be influenced by an altered microenvironment. Oxidative stress is a factor that has been shown to affect neurogenesis, and one of the protective pathways that deal with such stress involves the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). This study addressed what impact a deficiency in cytoplasmic (SOD1) or mitochondrial (SOD2) SOD has on radiation effects on hippocampal neurogenesis. Wild-type (WT) and SOD1 and SOD2 knockout (KO) mice received a single X-ray dose of 5 Gy, and quantification of the survival and phenotypic fate of newly generated cells in the dentate subgranular zone was performed 2 months later. Radiation exposure reduced neurogenesis in WT mice but had no apparent effect in KO mice, although baseline levels of neurogenesis were reduced in both SOD KO strains before irradiation. Additionally, there were marked and significant differences between WT and both KO strains in how irradiation affected newly generated astrocytes and activated microglia. The mechanism(s) responsible for these effects is not yet known, but a pilot in vitro study suggests a "protective" effect of elevated levels of superoxide. Overall, these data suggest that under conditions of SOD deficiency, there is a common pathway dictating how neurogenesis is affected by ionizing irradiation.
Rescue of Radiation-induced Cognitive Impairment Through Cranial Transplantation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19901336
Cranial irradiation remains a frontline treatment for the control of tumor growth, and individuals surviving such treatments often manifest various degrees of cognitive dysfunction. Radiation-induced depletion of stem/precursor cell pools in the brain, particularly those residing in the neurogenic region of the hippocampus, is believed, in part, to be responsible for these often-unavoidable cognitive deficits. To explore the possibility of ameliorating radiation-induced cognitive impairment, athymic nude rats subjected to head only irradiation (10 Gy) were transplanted 2 days afterward with human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into the hippocampal formation and analyzed for stem cell survival, differentiation, and cognitive function. Animals receiving hESC transplantation exhibited superior performance on a hippocampal-dependent cognitive task 4 months postirradiation, compared to their irradiated surgical counterparts that did not receive hESCs. Significant stem cell survival was found at 1 and 4 months postirradiation, and transplanted cells showed robust migration to the subgranular zone throughout the dentate gyrus, exhibiting signs of neuron morphology within this neurogenic niche. These results demonstrate the capability to ameliorate radiation-induced normal tissue injury using hESCs, and suggest that such strategies may provide useful interventions for reducing the adverse effects of irradiation on cognition.
Mitochondrial Complex II Dysfunction Can Contribute Significantly to Genomic Instability After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation
Radiation Research. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19929420
Ionizing radiation induces chronic metabolic oxidative stress and a mutator phenotype in hamster fibroblasts that is mediated by H(2)O(2), but the intracellular source of H(2)O(2) is not well defined. To determine the role of mitochondria in the radiation-induced mutator phenotype, end points of mitochondrial function were determined in unstable (CS-9 and LS-12) and stable (114) hamster fibroblast cell lines derived from GM10115 cells exposed to 10 Gy X rays. Cell lines isolated after irradiation demonstrated a 20-40% loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in mitochondrial content compared to the parental cell line GM10115. Surprisingly, no differences were observed in steady-state levels of ATP (P > 0.05). Unstable clones demonstrated increased oxygen consumption (two- to threefold; CS-9) and/or increased mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complex II activity (twofold; LS-12). Using Western blot analysis and Blue Native gel electrophoresis, a significant increase in complex II subunit B protein levels was observed in LS-12 cells. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation assays revealed evidence of abnormal complex II assembly in LS-12 cells. Treatment of LS-12 cells with an inhibitor of ETC complex II (thenoyltrifluoroacetone) resulted in significant decreases in the steady-state levels of H(2)O(2) and a 50% reduction in mutation frequency as well as a 16% reduction in CAD gene amplification frequency. These data show that radiation-induced genomic instability was accompanied by evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction leading to increased steady-state levels of H(2)O(2) that contributed to increased mutation frequency and gene amplification. These results support the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction originating from complex II can contribute to radiation-induced genomic instability by increasing steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species.
Short-term Effects of Whole-body Exposure to (56)fe Ions in Combination with Musculoskeletal Disuse on Bone Cells
Radiation Research. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20334522
Space travel and prolonged bed rest cause bone loss due to musculoskeletal disuse. In space, radiation fields may also have detrimental consequences because charged particles traversing the tissues of the body can elicit a wide range of cytotoxic and genotoxic lesions. The effects of heavy-ion radiation exposure in combination with musculoskeletal disuse on bone cells and tissue are not known. To explore this, normally loaded 16-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to (56)Fe ions (1 GeV/nucleon) at doses of 0 cGy (sham), 10 cGy, 50 cGy or 2 Gy 3 days before tissue harvest. Additional mice were hindlimb unloaded by tail traction continuously for 1 week to simulate weightlessness and exposed to (56)Fe-ion radiation (0 cGy, 50 cGy, 2 Gy) 3 days before tissue harvest. Despite the short duration of this study, low-dose (10, 50 cGy) irradiation of normally loaded mice reduced trabecular volume fraction (BV/TV) in the proximal tibiae by 18% relative to sham-irradiated controls. Hindlimb unloading together with 50 cGy radiation caused a 126% increase in the number of TRAP(+) osteoclasts on cancellous bone surfaces relative to normally loaded, sham-irradiated controls. Together, radiation and hindlimb unloading had a greater effect on suppressing osteoblastogenesis ex vivo than either treatment alone. In sum, low-dose exposure to heavy ions (50 cGy) caused rapid cancellous bone loss in normally loaded mice and increased osteoclast numbers in hindlimb unloaded mice. In vitro irradiation also was more detrimental to osteoblastogenesis in bone marrow cells that were recovered from hindlimb unloaded mice compared to cells from normally loaded mice. Furthermore, irradiation in vitro stimulated osteoclast formation in a macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) in the presence of RANKL (25 ng/ml), showing that heavy-ion radiation can stimulate osteoclast differentiation even in the absence of osteoblasts. Thus heavy-ion radiation can acutely increase osteoclast numbers in cancellous tissue and, under conditions of musculoskeletal disuse, can enhance the sensitivity of bone cells, in particular osteoprogenitors, to the effects of radiation.
Radiation Research. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20726709
Skeletal muscles are the organ of movement, and their growth, regeneration and maintenance are dependent in large part on a population of myogenic stem cells known as satellite cells. Skeletal muscles and these resident myogenic stem cells (i.e., satellite cells) are commonly exposed to significant doses of radiation during diagnostic procedures and/or during the radiotherapeutic management of cancer. The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of clinically relevant doses of γ radiation on satellite cell survival and proliferation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, DNA double-strand break repair, oxidative stress and NO production. Overall, our findings demonstrate that doses of γ radiation ≥5 Gy reduced satellite cell numbers by at least 70% due in part to elevated apoptosis and the inhibition of cell cycle progression. Radiation was also found to cause a significant and persistent increase in the level of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Interestingly, and within this backdrop of elevated oxidative stress, similar doses were found to produce substantial reductions in the levels of nitric oxide (NO). Proliferation of satellite cells has been shown to depend in part on the production of NO, and our findings give rise to the possibility that radiation-induced reductions in NO levels may provide a mechanism for the inhibition of satellite cell proliferation in vitro and possibly the regrowth of skeletal muscle exposed during clinical irradiation procedures.
Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20826207
Cranial irradiation remains a frontline treatment for brain cancer, but also leads to normal tissue damage. Although low-dose irradiation (≤10 Gy) causes minimal histopathologic change, it can elicit variable degrees of cognitive dysfunction that are associated with the depletion of neural stem cells. To decipher the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced stem cell dysfunction, human neural stem cells (hNSCs) subjected to clinically relevant irradiation (0-5 Gy) were analyzed for survival parameters, cell-cycle alterations, DNA damage and repair, and oxidative stress. hNSCs showed a marked sensitivity to low-dose irradiation that was in part due to elevated apoptosis and the inhibition of cell-cycle progression that manifested as a G2/M checkpoint delay. Efficient removal of DNA double-strand breaks was indicated by the disappearance of γ-H2AX nuclear foci. A dose-responsive and persistent increase in oxidative and nitrosative stress was found in irradiated hNSCs, possibly the result of a higher metabolic activity in the fraction of surviving cells. These data highlight the marked sensitivity of hNSCs to low-dose irradiation and suggest that long-lasting perturbations in the CNS microenvironment due to radiation-induced oxidative stress can compromise the functionality of neural stem cells.
Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19875718
Exposure of astronauts in space to radiation during weightlessness may contribute to subsequent bone loss. Gamma irradiation of postpubertal mice rapidly increases the number of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and causes bone loss in cancellous tissue; similar changes occur in skeletal diseases associated with oxidative stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that increased oxidative stress mediates radiation-induced bone loss and that musculoskeletal disuse changes the sensitivity of cancellous tissue to radiation exposure. Musculoskeletal disuse by hindlimb unloading (1 or 2 wk) or total body gamma irradiation (1 or 2 Gy of (137)Cs) of 4-mo-old, male C57BL/6 mice each decreased cancellous bone volume fraction in the proximal tibiae and lumbar vertebrae. The extent of radiation-induced acute cancellous bone loss in tibiae and lumbar vertebrae was similar in normally loaded and hindlimb-unloaded mice. Similarly, osteoclast surface in the tibiae increased 46% as a result of irradiation, 47% as a result of hindlimb unloading, and 64% as a result of irradiation + hindlimb unloading compared with normally loaded mice. Irradiation, but not hindlimb unloading, reduced viability and increased apoptosis of marrow cells and caused oxidative damage to lipids within mineralized tissue. Irradiation also stimulated generation of reactive oxygen species in marrow cells. Furthermore, injection of alpha-lipoic acid, an antioxidant, mitigated the acute bone loss caused by irradiation. Together, these results showed that disuse and gamma irradiation, alone or in combination, caused a similar degree of acute cancellous bone loss and shared a common cellular mechanism of increased bone resorption. Furthermore, irradiation, but not disuse, may increase the number of osteoclasts and the extent of acute bone loss via increased reactive oxygen species production and ensuing oxidative damage, implying different molecular mechanisms. The finding that alpha-lipoic acid protected cancellous tissue from the detrimental effects of irradiation has potential relevance to astronauts and radiotherapy patients.
Radiation Research. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21319985
Skeletal muscles are commonly exposed to radiation for diagnostic procedures and the treatment of cancers and heterotopic bone formation. Few studies have considered the impact of clinical doses of radiation on the ability of satellite cells (myogenic stem cells) to proliferate, differentiate and contribute to recovering/maintaining muscle mass. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the proliferation of irradiated satellite cells could be rescued by manipulating NO levels via pharmacological approaches and mechanical stretch (which is known to increase NO levels). We used both SNP (NO donor) and PTIO (NO scavenger) to manipulate NO levels in satellite cells. We observed that SNP was highly effective in rescuing the proliferation of irradiated satellite cells, especially at doses less than 5 Gy. The potential importance of NO was further illustrated by the effects of PTIO, which completely inhibited the rescue effect of SNP. Mechanical cyclic stretch was found to produce significant increases in NO levels of irradiated satellite cells, and this was associated with a robust increase in satellite cell proliferation. The effects of both radiation and NO on two key myogenic regulatory factors (MyoD and myogenin) were also explored. Irradiation of satellite cells produced a significant increase in both MyoD and myogenin, effects that were mitigated by manipulating NO levels via SNP. Given the central role of myogenic regulatory factors in the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells, the findings of the current study underscore the need to more fully understand the relationship between radiation, NO and the functionality of satellite cells.
Cancer Research. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21757460
Cranial radiotherapy induces progressive and debilitating declines in cognition that may, in part, be caused by the depletion of neural stem cells. The potential of using stem cell replacement as a strategy to combat radiation-induced cognitive decline was addressed by irradiating athymic nude rats followed 2 days later by intrahippocampal transplantation with human neural stem cells (hNSC). Measures of cognitive performance, hNSC survival, and phenotypic fate were assessed at 1 and 4 months after irradiation. Irradiated animals engrafted with hNSCs showed significantly less decline in cognitive function than irradiated, sham-engrafted animals and acted indistinguishably from unirradiated controls. Unbiased stereology revealed that 23% and 12% of the engrafted cells survived 1 and 4 months after transplantation, respectively. Engrafted cells migrated extensively, differentiated along glial and neuronal lineages, and expressed the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), suggesting their capability to functionally integrate into the hippocampus. These data show that hNSCs afford a promising strategy for functionally restoring cognition in irradiated animals.
Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22338017
PURPOSE: A substantial proportion of breast cancer survivors report significant, long-lasting impairments in cognitive function, often referred to as "chemobrain." Advances in detection and treatment mean that many more patients are surviving long-term following diagnosis of invasive breast cancer. Thus, it is important to define the types, extent and persistence of cognitive impairments following treatment with cytotoxic cancer drugs. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined the effects of chronic treatment with two agents commonly used in breast cancer patients, cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin (Adriamycin). Athymic nude rats were given 50mg/kg cyclophosphamide, 2mg/kg doxorubicin or saline injections once per week for 4 weeks. A novel place recognition task and contextual and cued fear conditioning were employed to characterize learning and memory ability. Immunofluorescence staining for immature and mature neurons and activated microglia was used to assess changes in neurogenesis and neuroinflammation.RESULTS: Cyclophosphamide- and doxorubicin-treated rats showed significantly impaired performance on the novel place recognition task and the contextual fear conditioning task compared to untreated controls, suggesting disrupted hippocampal-based memory function. Chemotherapy-treated animals showed a significant decline in neurogenesis (80 to 90% drop in BrdU labeled cells expressing NeuN). Activated microglia (ED1 positive) were found after cyclophosphamide, but not doxorubicin treatment.CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that chronic treatment with either of two commonly-used chemotherapeutic agents impairs cognitive ability, and suggest that strategies to prevent or repair disrupted hippocampal neurogenesis may be effective in ameliorating this serious side effect in cancer survivors.