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In JoVE (1)
- Creating Rigidly Stabilized Fractures for Assessing Intramembranous Ossification, Distraction Osteogenesis, or Healing of Critical Sized Defects
Other Publications (4)
Articles by Chelsea Bahney in JoVE
Creating Rigidly Stabilized Fractures for Assessing Intramembranous Ossification, Distraction Osteogenesis, or Healing of Critical Sized Defects
Yan-yiu Yu, Chelsea Bahney, Diane Hu, Ralph S. Marcucio, Theodore Miclau, III
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, San Francisco
This article describes a method for stabilizing long bone fractures that is based on the application of modified Ilizarov external fixators 1-3. After application of the fixators and creation of the bone injury, healing can be assessed, distraction osteogenesis can be performed, or non-union or critical sized defect can be created and used to study therapeutic interventions.
Other articles by Chelsea Bahney on PubMed
Temporal Exposure to Chondrogenic Factors Modulates Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Chondrogenesis in Hydrogels
Tissue Engineering. Part A. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20799905
Tissue engineering utilizes scaffolds containing chondrogenic cells to promote cartilage development at a clinically relevant scale, yet there remains a limited understanding of the optimal conditions for inducing differentiation and matrix production. We investigated how cell density and temporal exposure to chondrogenic factors impacted chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels. We found maximal proteoglycan and collagen production in constructs seeded between 10 and 25 × 10(6) cells/mL. Matrix deposition was significantly less per cell in constructs seeded at either higher or lower densities, indicating that paracrine communications may remain important despite loss of direct cell-cell contact. In vitro chondrogenesis of hMSCs was first accomplished using pellet cultures and a defined medium containing transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and dexamethasone. The differentiation of hMSCs in hydrogels also required initial exposure to TGF-β1, with no chondrogenic matrix produced in its absence. If TGF-β1 was initially included for at least 7 days, its removal impacted collagen production per cell but also lead to an increase in cell number, such that total collagen deposition was equivalent to controls when TGF-β1 was included for at least 3 weeks. Further, proteoglycan content per construct was higher at 6 weeks after removal of TGF-β1 at any time. In contrast to TGF-β1, dexamethasone was not required for chondrogenesis of hMSCs in hydrogels: there was no difference in matrix deposition between hydrogels cultured with or without dexamethasone. Further, without dexamethasone, SOX9 gene expression was higher during early chondrogenesis and there was a significant reduction in collagen I deposition, suggesting that a more hyaline cartilage phenotype is achieved without dexamethasone. Collagen content at 6 weeks was lower if dexamethasone was excluded after the first 7 days, but was equivalent to control if dexamethasone was included for 2 weeks or longer. Proteoglycan deposition was unaffected by dexamethasone exclusion. These results indicate that modulating exposure to TGF-β1 is beneficial for cell survival/proliferation and matrix production from hMSCs in hydrogels, and that not only is dexamethasone dispensable but also its exclusion may be advantageous for forming hyaline cartilage.
A Novel Bioreactor for the Dynamic Stimulation and Mechanical Evaluation of Multiple Tissue-engineered Constructs
Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20950252
Systematic advancements in the field of musculoskeletal tissue engineering require clear communication about the mechanical environments that promote functional tissue growth. To support the rapid discovery of effective mechanostimulation protocols, this study developed and validated a mechanoactive transduction and evaluation bioreactor (MATE). The MATE provides independent and consistent mechanical loading of six specimens with minimal hardware. The six individual chambers accurately applied static and dynamic loads (1 and 10 Hz) in unconfined compression from 0.1 to 10 N. The material properties of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels and bovine cartilage were measured by the bioreactor, and these values were within 10% of the values obtained from a standard single-chamber material testing system. The bioreactor was able to detect a 1-day 12% reduction (2 kPa) in equilibrium modulus after collagenase was added to six collagenase sensitive poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels (p = 0.03). By integrating dynamic stimulation and mechanical evaluation into a single batch-testing research platform, the MATE can efficiently map the biomechanical development of tissue-engineered constructs during long-term culture.
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21282205
Cartilage tissue engineering aims to replace damaged or diseased tissue with a functional regenerate that restores joint function. Scaffolds are used to deliver cells and facilitate tissue development, but they can also interfere with the structural assembly of the cartilage matrix. Biodegradable scaffolds have been proposed as a means to improve matrix deposition and the biomechanical properties of neocartilage. The challenge is designing scaffolds with appropriate degradation rates, ideally such that scaffold degradation is proportional to matrix deposition. In this study, we developed a bioresponsive hydrogel with cell-mediated degradation aligned to the chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We identified matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) as an enzyme with a temporal expression pattern that corresponded with cartilage development. By embedding MMP7 peptide substrates within a poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate backbone, we built MMP7-sensitive hydrogels with distinct degradation rates. When MMP7-sensitive scaffolds were compared with nondegradable scaffolds in vitro, photoencapsulated hMSCs produced neocartilage constructs with more extensive collagenous matrices, as demonstrated through immunohistochemistry and biochemical quantification of matrix molecules. Furthermore, these changes translated into an increased dynamic compressive modulus. This work presents a practical strategy for designing biomaterials uniquely tuned to individual biological processes.
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22345800