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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (7)

Articles by Chien-Yi Chang in JoVE

 JoVE Bioengineering

Polymer Microarrays for High Throughput Discovery of Biomaterials

1Laboratory of Biophysics and Surface Analysis, University of Nottingham, 2School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, 3David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


JoVE 3636

A description of the formation of a polymer microarray using an on-chip photopolymerization technique. The high throughput surface characterization using atomic force microscopy, water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and a cell attachment assay is also described.

Other articles by Chien-Yi Chang on PubMed

Quorum Sensing in Yersinia Enterocolitica Controls Swimming and Swarming Motility

The Yersinia enterocolitica LuxI homologue YenI directs the synthesis of N-3-(oxohexanoyl)homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (C6-HSL). In a Y. enterocolitica yenI mutant, swimming motility is temporally delayed while swarming motility is abolished. Since both swimming and swarming are flagellum dependent, we purified the flagellin protein from the parent and yenI mutant. Electrophoresis revealed that in contrast to the parent strain, the yenI mutant grown for 17 h at 26 degrees C lacked the 45-kDa flagellin protein FleB. Reverse transcription-PCR indicated that while mutation of yenI had no effect on yenR, flhDC (the motility master regulator) or fliA (the flagellar sigma factor) expression, fleB (the flagellin structural gene) was down-regulated. Since 3-oxo-C6-HSL and C6-HSL did not restore swimming or swarming in the yenI mutant, we reexamined the N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) profile of Y. enterocolitica. Using AHL biosensors and mass spectrometry, we identified three additional AHLs synthesized via YenI: N-(3-oxodecanoyl)homoserine lactone, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL), and N-(3-oxotetradecanoyl)homoserine lactone. However, none of the long-chain AHLs either alone or in combination with the short-chain AHLs restored swarming or swimming in the yenI mutant. By investigating the transport of radiolabeled 3-oxo-C12-HSL and by introducing an AHL biosensor into the yenI mutant we demonstrate that the inability of exogenous AHLs to restore motility to the yenI mutant is not related to a lack of AHL uptake. However, both AHL synthesis and motility were restored by complementation of the yenI mutant with a plasmid-borne copy of yenI.

Bdellovibrio: Growth and Development During the Predatory Cycle

Predatory Bdellovibrio enter the periplasm of other Gram-negative bacteria, growing within and consuming them. Unravelling molecular details of this intimate association between bacterial predator and prey is challenging yet fascinating, and might lead to novel antibacterials in the future. Pioneering physiological and biochemical studies described the predatory life of Bdellovibrio in the 1960s and 1970s, later followed by recombinant DNA work in the 1990s, which led to a revival in Bdellovibrio molecular research. This revival continues in the 21st century with the advent of a genome sequence. Now worldwide research is underway on the comparative genomics and transcriptomics of predatory bacteria, and will illuminate the evolutionary adaptations to become predatory, and will hopefully ultimately illuminate how the predatory processes of Bdellovibrio can be employed against pathogenic bacteria and for humankind.

Functional Interplay Between the Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis YpsRI and YtbRI Quorum Sensing Systems Modulates Swimming Motility by Controlling Expression of FlhDC and FliA

Quorum sensing (QS) in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis involves two pairs of LuxRI orthologues (YpsRI and YtbRI) and multiple N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). In a ypsI/ytbI mutant, AHL synthesis was abolished, unaffected in a ypsR/ytbR double mutant and substantially reduced in a ypsI/ytbR mutant, indicating that neither YpsR nor YtbR is essential for AHL synthesis. To determine the interrelationship between YpsRI and YtbRI we constructed chromosomal lux-promoter fusions to ypsR, ypsI, ytbR and ytbI and examined their expression in each of the QS mutant backgrounds. The YpsRI system negatively autoregulates itself but positively regulates the expression of the ytbRI system whereas the ytbRI system is positively autoregulated but only at the level of ytbI expression. YtbRI does not control expression of ypsR or ypsI. This hierarchical QS system controls swimming motility via regulation of flhDC and fliA. The AHLs synthesized via YtbI play a dual role, activating flhDC, in conjunction with YpsR but repressing fliA in conjunction with YtbR and YpsR. In liquid and plate assays, the early onset of motility observed in ypsR and ypsI mutants was abolished in ytbI, ytbR ypsI/ytbI, ypsR/ytbR mutants, indicating that QS regulates motility both positively (via YtbRI) and negatively (via YpsRI).

A Predatory Patchwork: Membrane and Surface Structures of Bdellovibrio Bacteriovorus

Predatory Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus bacteria are remarkable in that they attach to, penetrate and digest other Gram-negative bacteria, living and replicating within them until all resources are exhausted, when they escape the prey ghost to invade fresh prey. Remarkable remodeling of both predator and prey cell occurs during this process to allow the Bdellovibrio to exploit the intracellular niche they have worked so hard to enter, keeping the prey "bdelloplast" intact until the end of predatory growth. If one views motile non-predatory bacteria in a light microscope, one is immediately struck by how rare it is for bacteria to collide. This highlights how the cell surface of Bdellovibrio must be specialized and adapted to allow productive collisions and further to allow entry into the prey periplasm and subsequent secretion of hydrolytic enzymes to digest it. Bdellovibrio can, however, also be made to grow artificially without prey; thus, they have a large genome containing both predatory genes and genes for saprophytic heterotrophic growth. Thus, the membrane and outer surface layers are a patchwork of proteins encompassing not only those that have a sole purpose in heterotrophic growth but also many more that are specialized or employed to attach to, enter, remodel, kill and ultimately digest prey cells. There is much that is as yet not understood, but molecular genetic and post-genomic approaches to microbial physiology have enhanced the pioneering biochemical work of four decades ago in characterizing some of the key events and surface protein requirements for prey attack.

The First Bite--profiling the Predatosome in the Bacterial Pathogen Bdellovibrio

Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a Gram-negative bacterium that is a pathogen of other Gram-negative bacteria, including many bacteria which are pathogens of humans, animals and plants. As such Bdellovibrio has potential as a biocontrol agent, or living antibiotic. B. bacteriovorus HD100 has a large genome and it is not yet known which of it encodes the molecular machinery and genetic control of predatory processes. We have tried to fill this knowledge-gap using mixtures of predator and prey mRNAs to monitor changes in Bdellovibrio gene expression at a timepoint of early-stage prey infection and prey killing in comparison to control cultures of predator and prey alone and also in comparison to Bdellovibrio growing axenically (in a prey-or host independent "HI" manner) on artificial media containing peptone and tryptone. From this we have highlighted genes of the early predatosome with predicted roles in prey killing and digestion and have gained insights into possible regulatory mechanisms as Bdellovibrio enter and establish within the prey bdelloplast. Approximately seven percent of all Bdellovibrio genes were significantly up-regulated at 30 minutes of infection--but not in HI growth--implicating the role of these genes in prey digestion. Five percent were down-regulated significantly, implicating their role in free-swimming, attack-phase physiology. This study gives the first post-genomic insight into the predatory process and reveals some of the important genes that Bdellovibrio expresses inside the prey bacterium during the initial attack.

Biofilm Development on Caenorhabditis Elegans by Yersinia is Facilitated by Quorum Sensing-dependent Repression of Type III Secretion

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis forms biofilms on Caenorhabditis elegans which block nematode feeding. This genetically amenable host-pathogen model has important implications for biofilm development on living, motile surfaces. Here we show that Y. pseudotuberculosis biofilm development on C. elegans is governed by N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing (QS) since (i) AHLs are produced in nematode associated biofilms and (ii) Y. pseudotuberculosis strains expressing an AHL-degrading enzyme or in which the AHL synthase (ypsI and ytbI) or response regulator (ypsR and ytbR) genes have been mutated, are attenuated. Although biofilm formation is also attenuated in Y. pseudotuberculosis strains carrying mutations in the QS-controlled motility regulator genes, flhDC and fliA, and the flagellin export gene, flhA, flagella are not required since fliC mutants form normal biofilms. However, in contrast to the parent and fliC mutant, Yop virulon proteins are up-regulated in flhDC, fliA and flhA mutants in a temperature and calcium independent manner. Similar observations were found for the Y. pseudotuberculosis QS mutants, indicating that the Yop virulon is repressed by QS via the master motility regulator, flhDC. By curing the pYV virulence plasmid from the ypsI/ytbI mutant, by growing YpIII under conditions permissive for type III needle formation but not Yop secretion and by mutating the type III secretion apparatus gene, yscJ, we show that biofilm formation can be restored in flhDC and ypsI/ytbI mutants. These data demonstrate that type III secretion blocks biofilm formation and is reciprocally regulated with motility via QS.

The Bdellovibrio Bacteriovorus Twin-arginine Transport System Has Roles in Predatory and Prey-independent Growth

Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus grows in one of two ways: either (i) predatorily [in a host-dependent (HD) manner], when it invades the periplasm of another Gram-negative bacterium, exporting into the prey co-ordinated waves of soluble enzymes using the prey cell contents for growth; or (ii) in a host-independent (HI) manner, when it grows (slowly) axenically in rich media. Periplasmic invasion potentially exposes B. bacteriovorus to extremes of pH and exposes the need to scavenge electron donors from prey electron transport components by synthesis of metalloenzymes. The twin-arginine transport system (Tat) in other bacteria transports folded metalloenzymes and the B. bacteriovorus genome encodes 21 potential Tat-transported substrates and Tat transporter proteins TatA1, TatA2 and TatBC. GFP tagging of the Tat signal peptide from Bd1802, a high-potential iron-sulfur protein (HiPIP), revealed it to be exported into the prey bacterium during predatory growth. Mutagenesis showed that the B. bacteriovorus tatA2 and tatC gene products are essential for both HI and HD growth, despite the fact that they partially complement (in SDS resistance assays) the corresponding mutations in Escherichia coli where neither TatA nor TatC are essential for life. The essentiality of B. bacteriovorus TatA2 was surprising given that the B. bacteriovorus genome encodes a second tatA homologue, tatA1. Transcription of tatA1 was found to be induced upon entry to the bdelloplast, and insertional inactivation of tatA1 showed that it significantly slowed the rates of both HI and HD growth. B. bacteriovorus is one of a few bacterial species that are reliant on a functional Tat system and where deletion of a single tatA1 gene causes a significant growth defect(s), despite the presence of its tatA2 homologue.

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