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In JoVE (1)
- Хирургическое трансплантации Мышь нейронных стволовых клеток в спинной мозг мышей, инфицированных Нейротропные вируса гепатита мышь
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Articles by Chris S. Schaumburg in JoVE
Хирургическое трансплантации Мышь нейронных стволовых клеток в спинной мозг мышей, инфицированных Нейротропные вируса гепатита мышь
Kevin S. Carbajal1,2, Jason G. Weinger1,2, Lucia M. Whitman1,2, Chris S. Schaumburg1,2, Thomas E. Lane1,2,3
1Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, 2Sue and Bill Gross Stem Cell Center, University of California, Irvine, 3Institute for Immunology, University of California, Irvine
Трансплантация мыши нервные стволовые клетки (NSCs) в спинной мозг мышей с установленными демиелинизации подробно. Подготовка NSCs, ламинэктомия грудного позвонка 9 (T9), а также трансплантация NSCs изложена наряду с пред-и послеоперационного ухода за мышами.
Other articles by Chris S. Schaumburg on PubMed
Mutational Analysis of the Chlamydia Trachomatis DnaK Promoter Defines the Optimal -35 Promoter Element
Nucleic Acids Research. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12527761
A long-standing question in the biology of the intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia, has been the structure of the promoter recognized by its RNA polymerase. The 'RNA polymerase sigma subunit paradox' refers to the difficulty reconciling the conservation between the RNA polymerases of Chlamydia and Escherichia coli, especially at the level of the promoter-recognition sigma subunit, with the general lack of homology between chlamydial promoters and the E.coli sigma(70) consensus promoter. While the -10 promoter element appears to be conserved between Chlamydia and E.coli, the structure of the chlamydial -35 promoter element has not been defined. We have investigated the structure of the -35 element of the Chlamydia trachomatis dnaK promoter by measuring the effects of single base pair substitutions on in vitro promoter activity. Most substitutions produced large decreases in promoter activity, which allowed us to define the optimal -35 sequence in the context of the dnaK promoter. We found that the optimal chlamydial -35 promoter sequence is identical to the E.coli sigma(70) consensus -35 promoter element (TTGACA). These results indicate that the optimal promoter specificities of the major form of chlamydial RNA polymerase and E.coli sigma(70) RNA polymerase are in fact highly conserved. A further implication of our results is that many chlamydial promoters have a suboptimal promoter structure. We hypothesize that these chlamydial promoters are intrinsically weak promoters that can be regulated during the chlamydial developmental cycle by additional transcription factors.
Journal of Bacteriology. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16428395
Some, but not all, Chlamydia spp. are predicted to encode a homolog of ArgR, a master regulatory molecule that modulates arginine biosynthesis and catabolism in bacteria in response to intracellular arginine levels. While genes for arginine biosynthesis are apparently missing in Chlamydia, a putative arginine transport system encoded by glnP, glnQ, and artJ is present. We found that recombinant Chlamydia pneumoniae ArgR functions as an arginine-dependent aporepressor that bound specifically to operator sequences upstream of the glnPQ operon. ArgR was able to repress transcription in a promoter-specific manner that was dependent on the concentration of the corepressor l-arginine. We were able to locate ArgR operators upstream of glnPQ in C. pneumoniae and Chlamydophila caviae but not Chlamydia trachomatis, which corresponded to the predicted presence or absence of ArgR in these chlamydial species. Our findings indicate that only some members of the family Chlamydiaceae have an arginine-responsive mechanism of gene regulation that is predicted to control arginine uptake from the host cell. This is the first study to directly demonstrate a species-specific mechanism of transcriptional regulation in Chlamydia.
T Cell Antiviral Effector Function is Not Dependent on CXCL10 Following Murine Coronavirus Infection
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17142734
The chemokine CXCL10 is expressed within the CNS in response to intracerebral infection with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). Blocking CXCL10 signaling results in increased mortality accompanied by reduced T cell infiltration and increased viral titers within the brain suggesting that CXCL10 functions in host defense by attracting T cells into the CNS. The present study was undertaken to extend our understanding of the functional role of CXCL10 in response to MHV infection given that CXCL10 signaling has been implicated in coordinating both effector T cell generation and trafficking. We show that MHV infection of CXCL10(+/+) or CXCL10(-/-) mice results in comparable levels of T cell activation and similar numbers of virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Subsequent analysis revealed no differences in T cell proliferation, IFN-gamma secretion by virus-specific T cells, or CD8+ T cell cytolytic activity. Analysis of chemokine receptor expression on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells obtained from MHV-immunized CXCL10(+/+) and CXCL10(-/-) mice revealed comparable levels of CXCR3 and CCR5, which are capable of responding to ligands CXCL10 and CCL5, respectively. Adoptive transfer of splenocytes acquired from MHV-immunized CXCL10(-/-) mice into MHV-infected RAG1(-/-) mice resulted in T cell infiltration into the CNS, reduced viral burden, and demyelination comparable to RAG1(-/-) recipients of immune CXCL10(+/+) splenocytes. Collectively, these data imply that CXCL10 functions primarily as a T cell chemoattractant and does not significantly influence T cell effector response following MHV infection.
Autoimmunity. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17966037
The contribution of DRAK2 [death-associated protein kinase (DAPK)-related apoptosis-inducing kinase 2] to anti-viral memory T cell responses following infection with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) was examined. DRAK2 is a lymphoid-enriched serine/threonine kinase that is an important regulatory molecule involved in modulating T cell responses. Memory T cells derived from MHV-immunized Drak2(-/-) mice exhibited amplified proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion following stimulation with viral epitopes. Transfer of Drak2(-/-) memory T cells into Rag1(-/-) mice infected intracerebrally with MHV resulted in accelerated clearance of virus from the brain. Thus, DRAK2 may be a novel target for stimulating protective immunity to viral pathogens.
Frontiers in Bioscience : a Journal and Virtual Library. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18508518
Viral infection of the central nervous system (CNS) results in varied outcomes ranging from encephalitis, paralytic poliomyelitis or other serious consequences. One of the principal factors that directs the outcome of infection is the localized innate immune response, which is proceeded by the adaptive immune response against the invading viral pathogen. The role of the immune system is to contain and control the spread of virus within the CNS, and paradoxically, this response may also be pathological. Studies with a neurotropic murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) have provided important insights into how the immune system combats neuroinvasive viruses, and have identified molecular and cellular mechanisms contributing to chronic disease in persistently infected mice.
Journal of Neuroimmunology. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19477025
Human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs) were transplanted into mice persistently infected with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus with established demyelination. Engrafted cells did not survive past 2 weeks following transplantation despite treatment with high dose cyclosporine A. While T cell infiltration into the CNS was dampened, elevated numbers of macrophage/microglia and endogenous OPCs were evident surrounding the implantation site and this was associated with increased remyelination. These data suggest that remyelination was initiated by the local response to xenograft transplantation. These findings illustrate the complexities of OPC transplantation into areas of robust immune-mediated pathology.
Journal of Neuroimmunology. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20627412
Persistent infection of the central nervous system (CNS) of mice with the neuroadapted JHM strain of mouse hepatitis (MHV) is characterized by ongoing demyelination mediated by inflammatory T cells and macrophages that is similar both clinically and histologically with the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Although extensive demyelination occurs in mice persistently infected with MHV there is only limited remyelination. Therefore, the MHV model of demyelination is a relevant model for studying disease and evaluating therapeutic approaches to protect cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage and promote remyelination. This concept is further highlighted as the etiology of MS remains enigmatic, but viruses have long been considered as potential triggering agents in initiating and/or maintaining MS symptoms. As such, understanding mechanisms associated with promoting repair within the CNS in the context of a persistent viral infection is critical given the possible viral etiology of MS. This review focuses on recent studies using either mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) or human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cell (hESC) to promote remyelination in mice persistently infected with MHV. In addition, the potential role for chemokines in positional migration of transplanted cells is addressed.
Ocular Surface APCs Are Necessary for Autoreactive T Cell-mediated Experimental Autoimmune Lacrimal Keratoconjunctivitis
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21880984
As specialized sentinels between the innate and adaptive immune response, APCs are essential for activation of Ag-specific lymphocytes, pathogen clearance, and generation of immunological memory. The process is tightly regulated; however, excessive or atypical stimuli may ignite activation of APCs in a way that allows self-Ag presentation to autoreactive T cells in the context of the necessary costimulatory signals, ultimately resulting in autoimmunity. Studies in both animal models and patients suggest that dry eye is a chronic CD4(+) T cell-mediated ocular surface autoimmune-based inflammatory disease. Using a desiccating stress-induced mouse model of dry eye, we establish the fundamental role of APCs for both the generation and maintenance of ocular-specific autoreactive CD4(+) T cells. Subconjunctival administration of liposome-encapsulated clodronate efficiently diminished resident ocular surface APCs, inhibited the generation of autoreactive CD4(+) T cells, and blocked their ability to cause disease. APC-dependent CD4(+) T cell activation required intact draining cervical lymph nodes, as cervical lymphadenectomy also inhibited CD4(+) T cell-mediated dry eye disease. In addition, local depletion of peripheral conjunctival APCs blocked the ability of dry eye-specific CD4(+) T cells to accumulate within the ocular surface tissues, suggesting that fully primed and targeted dry eye-specific CD4(+) T cells require secondary activation by resident ocular surface APCs for maintenance and effector function. These data demonstrate that APCs are necessary for the initiation and development of experimental dry eye and support the standing hypothesis that dry eye is a self-Ag-driven autoimmune disease.