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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (10)
- Genesis (New York, N.Y. : 2000)
- Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- The EMBO Journal
- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy : CII
- The FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
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Articles by Christopher K. Rodesch in JoVE
Time-lapse Imaging van mitose Na siRNA transfectie
Douglas R. Mackay1, Katharine S. Ullman1, Christopher K. Rodesch2
1Department of Oncological Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, 2Fluorescence Microscopy Core Facility, University of Utah
Hier beschrijven we een basic protocol om beeld en kwantificeren van de mitotische timing van levende zoogdieren weefselkweek cellen na siRNA transfectie.
Other articles by Christopher K. Rodesch on PubMed
Genesis (New York, N.Y. : 2000). Sep-Oct, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12324970
FISHing for Chick Genes: Triple-label Whole-mount Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Detects Simultaneous and Overlapping Gene Expression in Avian Embryos
Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14991720
Multi-color whole-mount in situ hybridization is a powerful technique for comparing the spatial expression patterns of two or more genes in developing embryos. We have developed an amplified triple-label whole-mount fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol that permits detection of three different mRNAs in a single embryo. Our protocol uses simultaneous in situ hybridization to haptenylated riboprobes, followed by sequential antibody detection using anti-hapten antibodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase, and the tyramide signal amplification (TSA) fluorescence detection system. Conventional fluorescence microscopy identifies areas of overlapping gene expression at the tissue level, whereas confocal fluorescence microscopy permits single-cell resolution and differentiates specialized cell types within a given tissue. This protocol will provide researchers engaged in the use of FISH with a solid starting point for adapting their own in situ hybridization protocols, either alone or in combination with immunohistochemistry or green fluorescence protein colocalization.
An Essential Drosophila Glutamate Receptor Subunit That Functions in Both Central Neuropil and Neuromuscular Junction
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15788777
A Drosophila forward genetic screen for mutants with defective synaptic development identified bad reception (brec). Homozygous brec mutants are embryonic lethal, paralyzed, and show no detectable synaptic transmission at the glutamatergic neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Genetic mapping, complementation tests, and genomic sequencing show that brec mutations disrupt a previously uncharacterized ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit, named here "GluRIID." GluRIID is expressed in the postsynaptic domain of the NMJ, as well as widely throughout the synaptic neuropil of the CNS. In the NMJ of null brec mutants, all known glutamate receptor subunits are undetectable by immunocytochemistry, and all functional glutamate receptors are eliminated. Thus, we conclude that GluRIID is essential for the assembly and/or stabilization of glutamate receptors in the NMJ. In null brec mutant embryos, the frequency of periodic excitatory currents in motor neurons is significantly reduced, demonstrating that CNS motor pattern activity is regulated by GluRIID. Although synaptic development and molecular differentiation appear otherwise unperturbed in null mutants, viable hypomorphic brec mutants display dramatically undergrown NMJs by the end of larval development, suggesting that GluRIID-dependent central pattern activity regulates peripheral synaptic growth. These studies reveal GluRIID as a newly identified glutamate receptor subunit that is essential for glutamate receptor assembly/stabilization in the peripheral NMJ and required for properly patterned motor output in the CNS.
The EMBO Journal. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17853893
TSG101 and ALIX both function in HIV budding and in vesicle formation at the multivesicular body (MVB), where they interact with other Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) pathway factors required for release of viruses and vesicles. Proteomic analyses revealed that ALIX and TSG101/ESCRT-I also bind a series of proteins involved in cytokinesis, including CEP55, CD2AP, ROCK1, and IQGAP1. ALIX and TSG101 concentrate at centrosomes and are then recruited to the midbodies of dividing cells through direct interactions between the central CEP55 'hinge' region and GPP-based motifs within TSG101 and ALIX. ESCRT-III and VPS4 proteins are also recruited, indicating that much of the ESCRT pathway localizes to the midbody. Depletion of ALIX and TSG101/ESCRT-I inhibits the abscission step of HeLa cell cytokinesis, as does VPS4 overexpression, confirming a requirement for these proteins in cell division. Furthermore, ALIX point mutants that block CEP55 and CHMP4/ESCRT-III binding also inhibit abscission, indicating that both interactions are essential. These experiments suggest that the ESCRT pathway may be recruited to facilitate analogous membrane fission events during HIV budding, MVB vesicle formation, and the abscission stage of cytokinesis.
Impaired Neutrophil Extracellular Trap (NET) Formation: a Novel Innate Immune Deficiency of Human Neonates
Blood. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19221037
Neutrophils are highly specialized innate effector cells that have evolved for killing of pathogens. Human neonates have a common multifactorial syndrome of neutrophil dysfunction that is incompletely characterized and contributes to sepsis and other severe infectious complications. We identified a novel defect in the antibacterial defenses of neonates: inability to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are lattices of extracellular DNA, chromatin, and antibacterial proteins that mediate extracellular killing of microorganisms and are thought to form via a unique death pathway signaled by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that neutrophils from term and preterm infants fail to form NETs when activated by inflammatory agonists-in contrast to leukocytes from healthy adults. The deficiency in NET formation is paralleled by a previously unrecognized deficit in extracellular bacterial killing. Generation of ROSs did not complement the defect in NET formation by neonatal neutrophils, as it did in adult cells with inactivated NADPH oxidase, demonstrating that ROSs are necessary but not sufficient signaling intermediaries and identifying a deficiency in linked or downstream pathways in neonatal leukocytes. Impaired NET formation may be a critical facet of a common developmental immunodeficiency that predisposes newborn infants to infection.
Direct Toxic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Cigarette Smoke on Cardiac Myocytes at Clinically Relevant Concentrations
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19371621
Our goal was to determine if clinically relevant concentrations of aqueous extract of cigarette smoke (CSE) have direct deleterious effects on ventricular myocytes during simulated ischemia, and to investigate the mechanisms involved.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20616062
The ESCRT pathway helps mediate the final abscission step of cytokinesis in mammals and archaea. In mammals, two early acting proteins of the ESCRT pathway, ALIX and TSG101, are recruited to the midbody through direct interactions with the phosphoprotein CEP55. CEP55 resides at the centrosome through most of the cell cycle but then migrates to the midbody at the start of cytokinesis, suggesting that the ESCRT pathway may also have centrosomal links. Here, we have systematically analyzed the requirements for late-acting mammalian ESCRT-III and VPS4 proteins at different stages of mitosis and cell division. We found that depletion of VPS4A, VPS4B, or any of the 11 different human ESCRT-III (CHMP) proteins inhibited abscission. Remarkably, depletion of individual ESCRT-III and VPS4 proteins also altered centrosome and spindle pole numbers, producing multipolar spindles (most ESCRT-III/VPS4 proteins) or monopolar spindles (CHMP2A or CHMP5) and causing defects in chromosome segregation and nuclear morphology. VPS4 proteins concentrated at spindle poles during mitosis and then at midbodies during cytokinesis, implying that these proteins function directly at both sites. We conclude that ESCRT-III/VPS4 proteins function at centrosomes to help regulate their maintenance or proliferation and then at midbodies during abscission, thereby helping ensure the ordered progression through the different stages of cell division.
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy : CII. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22198309
Cancer survivors often relapse due to evolving drug-resistant clones and repopulating tumor stem cells. Our preclinical study demonstrated that terminal cancer patient's lymphocytes can be converted from tolerant bystanders in vivo into effective cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in vitro killing patient's own tumor cells containing drug-resistant clones and tumor stem cells. We designed a clinical trial combining peginterferon α-2b with imatinib for treatment of stage III/IV gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) with the rational that peginterferon α-2b serves as danger signals to promote antitumor immunity while imatinib's effective tumor killing undermines tumor-induced tolerance and supply tumor-specific antigens in vivo without leukopenia, thus allowing for proper dendritic cell and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte differentiation toward Th1 response. Interim analysis of eight patients demonstrated significant induction of IFN-γ-producing-CD8(+), -CD4(+), -NK cell, and IFN-γ-producing-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes, signifying significant Th1 response and NK cell activation. After a median follow-up of 3.6 years, complete response (CR) + partial response (PR) = 100%, overall survival = 100%, one patient died of unrelated illness while in remission, six of seven evaluable patients are either in continuing PR/CR (5 patients) or have progression-free survival (PFS, 1 patient) exceeding the upper limit of the 95% confidence level of the genotype-specific-PFS of the phase III imatinib-monotherapy (CALGB150105/SWOGS0033), demonstrating highly promising clinical outcomes. The current trial is closed in preparation for a larger future trial. We conclude that combination of targeted therapy and immunotherapy is safe and induced significant Th1 response and NK cell activation and demonstrated highly promising clinical efficacy in GIST, thus warranting development in other tumor types.
The FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22202674
To investigate the effects of the predominant nonprotein thiol, glutathione (GSH), on redox homeostasis, we employed complementary pharmacological and genetic strategies to determine the consequences of both loss- and gain-of-function GSH content in vitro. We monitored the redox events in the cytosol and mitochondria using reduction-oxidation sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP) probes and the level of reduced/oxidized thioredoxins (Trxs). Either H(2)O(2) or the Trx reductase inhibitor 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB), in embryonic rat heart (H9c2) cells, evoked 8 or 50 mV more oxidizing glutathione redox potential, E(hc) (GSSG/2GSH), respectively. In contrast, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment in H9c2 cells, or overexpression of either the glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic subunit (GCLC) or GCL modifier subunit (GCLM) in human embryonic kidney 293 T (HEK293T) cells, led to 3- to 4-fold increase of GSH and caused 7 or 12 mV more reducing E(hc), respectively. This condition paradoxically increased the level of mitochondrial oxidation, as demonstrated by redox shifts in mitochondrial roGFP and Trx2. Lastly, either NAC treatment (EC(50) 4 mM) or either GCLC or GCLM overexpression exhibited increased cytotoxicity and the susceptibility to the more reducing milieu was achieved at decreased levels of ROS. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which GSH-dependent reductive stress triggers mitochondrial oxidation and cytotoxicity.-Zhang, H., Limphong, P., Pieper, J., Liu, Q., Rodesch, C. K., Christians, E., Benjamin, I. J. Glutathione-dependent reductive stress triggers mitochondrial oxidation and cytotoxicity.
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22243335
Aims: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is usually associated with absent or nearly absent dystrophin expression at the sarcolemmal membrane. Quantification of very low levels of dystrophin signal in immunofluorescent studies of muscle biopsy sections presents a technical challenge. This is particularly true in the setting of proof-of-principle drug trials, in which the detection and quantification of what may be significant changes in levels of expression is important, even if absolute dystrophin levels remain low. Methods: We have developed a method of image analysis that allows reliable and semi-automated immunofluorescent quantification of low-level dystrophin expression in sections co-stained for spectrin. Using a custom Metamorph script to create a contiguous region spectrin mask, we quantify dystrophin signal intensity only at pixels within the spectrin mask that presumably represent the sarcolemmal membrane. Using this method, we analyzed muscle biopsy tissue from a series of patients with DMD, Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), intermediate muscular dystrophy (IMD), and normal control tissue. Results: Analysis of serial sections on multiple days confirms reproducibility, and normalized dystrophin:spectrin intensity ratios (expressed as a percentage of normal control tissue) correlate well with the dystrophin expression levels as determined by Western blot analysis. Conclusions: This method offers a robust and reliable method of biomarker detection for trials of DMD therapies. © 2012 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2012 British Neuropathological Society.