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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (4)
Articles by Cindy Banh in JoVE
A Protocol for the Production of KLRG1 Tetramer
Stephanie C. Terrizzi, Cindy Banh, Laurent Brossay
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Brown University
This protocol describes the production of KLRG1 tetramer, which is a powerful tool for the analysis of KLRG1 ligands.
Other articles by Cindy Banh on PubMed
Journal of Neurochemistry. Nov, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15485495
Amyloid beta peptide (A beta) is believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the form of A beta that induces neurodegeneration in AD, defined here as bioactive A beta, is not clear. Preventing the formation of bioactive A beta or inactivating previously formed bioactive A beta should be a promising approach to treat AD. We have previously developed a cell-based assay for the detection of bioactive A beta species. The assay is based upon the correlation between the ability of an A beta sample to induce a unique form of cellular MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] formazan exocytosis, and its ability to activate glia and induce neurotoxicity. Here, we show that this cell-based assay is not only useful for a cellular model of A beta amyloidogenesis but is also able to detect bioactive A beta species in a transgenic mouse model of AD, as well as in post-mortem cortex samples from AD patients. There is a good correlation between the extent of glia activation and the level of bioactive A beta species in the mouse brain. A promising deuteroporphyrin that can inactivate bioactive A beta species was also identified using this assay. These novel insights and findings should have important implications for the treatment of AD.
HLA-A*0201, HLA-A*1101, and HLA-B*0702 Transgenic Mice Recognize Numerous Poxvirus Determinants from a Wide Variety of Viral Gene Products
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16210659
In virus models explored in detail in mice, CTL typically focus on a few immunodominant determinants. In this study we use a multipronged approach to understand the diversity of CTL responses to vaccinia virus, a prototypic poxvirus with a genome approximately 20-fold larger than that of the model RNA viruses typically studied in mice. Based on predictive computational algorithms for peptide binding to HLA supertypes, we synthesized a panel of 2889 peptides to begin to create an immunomic map of human CTL responses to poxviruses. Using this panel in conjunction with CTLs from vaccinia virus-infected HLA transgenic mice, we identified 14 HLA-A*0201-, 4 HLA-A*1101-, and 3 HLA-B*0702-restricted CD8(+) T cell determinants distributed over 20 distinct proteins. These peptides were capable of binding one or multiple A2, A3, and B7 supertype molecules with affinities typical of viral determinants. Surprisingly, many of the viral proteins recognized are predicted to be late gene products, in addition to the early intermediate gene products expected. Nearly all of the determinants identified have identical counterparts encoded by modified vaccinia virus Ankara as well as variola virus, the agent of smallpox. These findings have implications for the design of new smallpox vaccines and the understanding of immune responses to large DNA viruses in general.
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17947660
Mast cells play a central role in type I hypersensitivity reactions and allergic disorders such as anaphylaxis and asthma. Activation of mast cells, through a cascade of phosphorylation events, leads to the release of mediators of the early phase allergic response. Understanding the molecular architecture underlying mast cell signaling may provide possibilities for therapeutic intervention in asthma and other allergic diseases. Although many details of mast cell signaling have been described previously, a systematic, quantitative analysis of the global tyrosine phosphorylation events that are triggered by activation of the mast cell receptor is lacking. In many cases, the involvement of particular proteins in mast cell signaling has been established generally, but the precise molecular mechanism of the interaction between known signaling proteins often mediated through phosphorylation is still obscure. Using recently advanced methodologies in mass spectrometry, including automation of phosphopeptide enrichments and detection, we have now substantially characterized, with temporal resolution as short as 10 s, the sites and levels of tyrosine phosphorylation across 10 min of FcepsilonRI-induced mast cell activation. These results reveal a far more extensive array of tyrosine phosphorylation events than previously known, including novel phosphorylation sites on canonical mast cell signaling molecules, as well as unexpected pathway components downstream of FcepsilonRI activation. Furthermore, our results, for the first time in mast cells, reveal the sequence of phosphorylation events for 171 modification sites across 121 proteins in the MCP5 mouse mast cell line and 179 modification sites on 117 proteins in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells.
Immunoregulatory Functions of KLRG1 Cadherin Interactions Are Dependent on Forward and Reverse Signaling
Blood. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19855082
KLRG1 is an inhibitory receptor expressed on a subset of mature T and NK cells. Recently, E-, N-, and R-cadherin have been identified as ligands for KLRG1. Cadherins are a large family of transmembrane or membrane-associated glycoproteins that were thought to only bind specifically to other cadherins to mediate specific cell-to-cell adhesion in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. The consequences of cadherin KLRG1 molecular interactions are not well characterized. Here, we report that the first 2 extracellular domains of cadherin are sufficient to initiate a KLRG1-dependent signaling. We also demonstrate that KLRG1 engagement inhibits cadherin-dependent cellular adhesion and influences dendritic cell secretion of inflammatory cytokines, thereby exerting immunosuppressive effects. Consistent with this, engagement of cadherin by KLRG1 molecule induces cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation. Therefore, KLRG1/cadherin interaction leads to the generation of a bidirectional signal in which both KLRG1 and cadherin activate downstream signaling cascades simultaneously. Taken together, our results provide novel insights on how KLRG1 and E-cadherin interactions are integrated to differentially regulate not only KLRG1(+) cells, but also E-cadherin-expressing cells, such as dendritic cells.