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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (4)
Articles by Cuong Q. Diep in JoVE
Transplantation of Cells Directly into the Kidney of Adult Zebrafish
Cuong Q. Diep1, Alan J. Davidson1
1Center for Regenerative Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital
Other articles by Cuong Q. Diep on PubMed
Intragenic Suppression of Gal3C Interaction with Gal80 in the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae GAL Gene Switch
Genetics. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16219783
Gal4-mediated activation of GAL gene transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the interaction of Gal3 with Gal80, the Gal4 inhibitor protein. While it is known that galactose and ATP activates Gal3 interaction with Gal80, neither the mechanism of activation nor the surface that binds to Gal80 is known. We addressed this through intragenic suppression of GAL3C alleles that cause galactose-independent Gal3-Gal80 interaction. We created a new allele, GAL3SOC, and showed that it suppressed a new GAL3C allele. We tested the effect of GAL3SOC on several newly isolated and existing GAL3C alleles that map throughout the gene. All except one GAL3C allele, D368V, were suppressible by GAL3SOC. GAL3SOC and all GAL3C alleles were localized on a Gal3 homology model that is based on the structure of the highly related Gal1 protein. These results provide evidence for allosterism in the galactose- and ATP-activation of Gal3 binding to Gal80. In addition, because D368V and residues corresponding to Gal80-nonbinder mutations colocalized to a domain that is absent in homologous proteins that do not bind to Gal80, we suggest that D368 is a part of the Gal80-binding surface.
Genetic Evidence for Sites of Interaction Between the Gal3 and Gal80 Proteins of the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae GAL Gene Switch
Genetics. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18245852
Galactose-activated transcription of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAL genes occurs when Gal3 binds the Gal4 inhibitor, Gal80. Noninteracting variants of Gal3 or Gal80 render the GAL genes noninducible. To identify the binding determinants for Gal3's interaction with Gal80 we carried out GAL3-GAL80 intergenic suppression analyses and selected for new GAL3 mutations that impair the Gal3-Gal80 interaction. We show that a GAL3(C)-D368V mutation can suppress the noninducibility due to a GAL80(S-1)-G323R mutation, and a GAL80-M350C mutation can suppress the noninducibility due to a gal3-D111C mutation. A reverse two-hybrid selection for GAL3 mutations that impair the Gal3-Gal80 interaction yielded 12 single-amino-acid substitutions at residues that are predicted to be surface exposed on Gal3. The majority of the affected Gal3 residues localized to a composite surface that includes D111 and a sequence motif containing D368, which has been implicated in interaction with Gal80. The striking colocalization of intergenic suppressor residues and Gal80 nonbinder residues identifies a Gal3 surface that likely interacts with Gal80.
Nature. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21270795
Loss of kidney function underlies many renal diseases. Mammals can partly repair their nephrons (the functional units of the kidney), but cannot form new ones. By contrast, fish add nephrons throughout their lifespan and regenerate nephrons de novo after injury, providing a model for understanding how mammalian renal regeneration may be therapeutically activated. Here we trace the source of new nephrons in the adult zebrafish to small cellular aggregates containing nephron progenitors. Transplantation of single aggregates comprising 10-30 cells is sufficient to engraft adults and generate multiple nephrons. Serial transplantation experiments to test self-renewal revealed that nephron progenitors are long-lived and possess significant replicative potential, consistent with stem-cell activity. Transplantation of mixed nephron progenitors tagged with either green or red fluorescent proteins yielded some mosaic nephrons, indicating that multiple nephron progenitors contribute to a single nephron. Consistent with this, live imaging of nephron formation in transparent larvae showed that nephrogenic aggregates form by the coalescence of multiple cells and then differentiate into nephrons. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the zebrafish kidney probably contains self-renewing nephron stem/progenitor cells. The identification of these cells paves the way to isolating or engineering the equivalent cells in mammals and developing novel renal regenerative therapies.
Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today : Reviews. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21671354
The zebrafish has become a significant model system for studying renal organogenesis and disease, as well as for the quest for new therapeutics, because of the structural and functional simplicity of the embryonic kidney. Inroads to the nature and disease states of kidney-related ciliopathies and acute kidney injury (AKI) have been advanced by zebrafish studies. This model organism has been instrumental in the analysis of mutant gene function for human disease with respect to ciliopathies. Additionally, in the AKI field, recent work in the zebrafish has identified a bona fide adult zebrafish renal progenitor (stem) cell that is required for neo-nephrogenesis, both during the normal lifespan and in response to renal injury. Taken together, these studies solidify the zebrafish as a successful model system for studying the broad spectrum of ciliopathies and AKI that affect millions of humans worldwide, and point to a very promising future of zebrafish drug discovery. The emphasis of this review will be on the role of the zebrafish as a model for human kidney-related ciliopathies and AKI, and how our understanding of these complex pathologies is being furthered by this tiny teleost.