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Articles by Dörte Faust in JoVE

 JoVE General

Culturing Primary Rat Inner Medullary Collecting Duct Cells

1Anchored Signalling, Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine, 2Leibniz Institute for Molecular Pharmacology (FMP), 3Charité University Medicine Berlin

JoVE 50366

Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) controls fine-tuning of body water homeostasis through facilitating water reabsorption by renal principal cells. Here, we present a protocol for the cultivation of primary rat inner medullary collecting duct cells suitable for the elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying AVP-mediated water reabsorption.

Other articles by Dörte Faust on PubMed

Primary Synovial Sarcoma of Kidney-a Report of 2 Cases and Review of Literature

Primary kidney sarcomas are rare neoplasms. Pre-operative signs and symptoms are non-specific, thus making early diagnosis of this condition difficult. The presenting features are similar to other common renal tumors.

[Echo Time Optimization at T2W MR Imaging of the Liver]

Clinical and Radiological Profile of Neurocysticercosis in South Indian Children

Prevalence of Orthostatic Hypotension in a Series of Elderly Mexican Institutionalized Patients

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common problem among the elderly. It is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality, but its prevalence in Mexico is unknown.

Derivatization Ion Chromatography for the Determination of Monoethanolamine in Presence of Hydrazine in PHWR Steam-Water Circuits

A simple, rapid and accurate method for the determination of monoethanolamine (MEA) in PHWR steam-water circuits has been developed. MEA is added in the feed water to provide protection against corrosion while hydrazine is added to scavenge dissolved oxygen. The quantitative determination of MEA in presence of hydrazine was accomplished using derivatization ion chromatography with conductometric detection in nonsuppressed mode. A Metrosep cation 1-2 analytical column and a Metrosep cartridge were used for cation separation. A mixture of 4 mM tartaric acid, 20% acetone and 0.05 mM HNO(3) was used as eluent. Acetone in the mobile phase leads to the formation of different derivatives with MEA and hydrazine. The interferences due Na(+) and NH(4) (+) were eliminated by adopting a simple pretreatment procedure employing OnGuard-H cartridge. The limit of detection limit of MEA was 0.1 μg mL(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 2% for the overall method. The recovery of MEA added was in the range 95%-102%. The method was applied to the determination of MEA in steam generator water samples.


Fencing is a sport, practised by both men and women, which uses three weapons: foil, épée, and sabre. In general, there are few scientific studies available in international literature; they are limited to the performance analysis of fencing bouts, yet there is nothing about sabre. There are two kinds of competitions in the World Cup for both men and women: the "FIE GP" and "A".The aim of this study is to carry out a sabre performance analysis in order to gain useful indicators for the definition of a performance model. In addition, it is expected to verify if it could be influenced by the type of competition, and if there are differences between men and women.Sixty bouts: 33 "FIE GP" and 27 "A" competitions (35 men's and 25 women's sabre bouts) were analysed.The results indicated that: most actions are offensive (55% for men and 49% for women); the central area of the piste is the most used (72% for men and 67% for women); the effective fighting time is 13.6% for men and 17.1% for women, and the ratio between the action and break times is 1:6.5 for men, and 1:5.1 for women. A lunge is carried out every 23,9 seconds by men and every 20 seconds by women; and a direction change is carried out every 65.3 seconds by men and every 59.7 seconds by women. The data confirms the differences between the sabre and the other two weapons. There is no significant difference between the data of the two different kinds of competitions.

High Risk HPV DNA Subtypes and E6/E7 MRNA Expression in a Cohort of Colposcopy Patients from Northern Italy with High-grade Histologically Verified Cervical Lesions

To evaluate the prevalence of HPV DNA genotypes in women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater (CIN 2+), together with the detection of mRNA transcripts from HPV 16/18/31/33/45. In 1113 women referred to our colposcopy unit for abnormal cytology, colposcopic assessment was followed by histologic examination for final diagnosis and by presence of HPV DNA and E6/E7 mRNA transcripts. A total of 134 CIN 2+ cases were identified. Out of the 134 women with CIN 2+ cervical lesions, 115 cases (85.8%) tested positive by PCR to HR HPV DNA types, and 19 (14.2%) were HR HPV DNA negative. 68 cases (50.7%) were positive for HPV DNA 16/18/31/33/45 and of them 50 cases were E6/E7 positive, and 18 were E6/E7 negative. 47 cases (35.1%) were positive for high risk types other than 16/18/31/33/45. HPV 16 is the most frequent genotype found in histologically confirmed high grade cervical lesions in our series; HPV 31 is the second most frequent type, contributing significantly to the proportion of women with CIN 2+ lesions in our population and shows a higher prevalence than HPV 18. Out of the 979 women with lesions less than CIN 2, 588 cases tested positive by PCR to high risk HPV DNA types (60.1%), and 98 cases were E6/E7 positive from HPV 16/18/31/33/45 (10.1%). Although HPV DNA and mRNA negative results should be evaluated with caution, since they could represent "false negatives", high risk HPV DNA positivity should be assessed carefully with colposcopy before performing excisional treatments, particularly in adolescents but also in patients who want child, since they may reflect transient situations.

Estimation of Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Peroxidase in Oral Submucous Fibrosis, Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Cancer--a Comparative Study

Present study was undertaken to estimate and compare erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (E-SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels in oral submucous fibrosis, oral leukoplakia and oral cancer patients and age/sex matched healthy subjects, 25 in each group. Statistically significant (P<0.001) decrease in E-SOD and GPx levels were observed in OSF, oral leukoplakia and oral cancer groups as compared to the control group. Oral leukoplakia group showed lower levels in comparison with OSF (P>0.05). Oral cancer group had the lowest levels amongst the study groups. Imbalance in antioxidant enzyme status may be considered as one of the factors responsible for the pathogenesis of cancer and may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target to reduce the malignant transformation in oral premalignant lesions/conditions.

Cysticercus of the Breast Which Mimicked a Fibroadenoma: A Rare Presentation

Human cysticercosis is an infection which is caused by the larvae of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. They can affect any part of the body, the most common sites being the muscle, the CNS and the subcutaneous tissues. In this report , we are presenting the case of a 32-year old woman who came with a history of a painless, freely mobile lump in the left breast. A clinical diagnosis of a fibroadenoma was made and an excision biopsy was done, which revealed the presence of cysticercus lavae, along with a foreign body giant cell reaction. A diagnosis of cysticercus at the atypical sites is rare and it depends mainly on the histopathological examination. Although it is rare, cysticercus should be considered as a differential diagnosis for a mass in the breast and in the areas of a greater prevalence.

Combined Orthodontic and Surgical Correction of an Adolescent Patient with Thin Palatal Cortex and Vertical Maxillary Excess

This paper describes the treatment of a male patient aged 14 years who presented with a skeletal class I, vertical maxillary excess, marked increase in overjet, thin palatal cortex and a gummy smile. Considering the severity of his malocclusion and its impact severity on his psychosocial well being, he was managed with a combined approach of Fixed Orthodontic therapy and Orthognathic surgery, even though his growth was not complete. Records of Pre treatment, Post treatment and three years in retention were analyzed and the functional and esthetic results were found to be fairly stable.

Intrinsic Connectivity Between the Hippocampus, Nucleus Accumbens, and Ventral Tegmental Area in Humans

Recent studies suggest that memory formation in the hippocampus is modulated by the motivational significance of events, allowing past experience to adaptively guide behavior. The effects of motivation on memory are thought to depend on interactions between the hippocampus, the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Indeed, animal studies reveal anatomical pathways for circuit-level interaction between these regions. However, a homologue circuit connectivity in humans remains to be shown. We characterized this circuitry in humans by exploiting spontaneous low-frequency modulations in the fMRI signal (termed resting-state functional connectivity), which are thought to reflect functionally related regions and their organization into functional networks in the brain. We examined connectivity in this network across two datasets (hi-resolution, n = 100; standard resolution, n = 894). Results reveal convergent connectivity between the hippocampus, and both the NAcc and the VTA centered on ventral regions in the body of the hippocampus. Additionally, we found individual differences in the strength of connectivity within this network. Together, these results provide a novel task-independent characterization of circuitry underlying interactions between the hippocampus, NAcc, and VTA and provide a framework with which to understand how connectivity might reflect and constrain the effects of motivation on memory.

Fed Batch Fermentation and Purification Strategy for High Yield Production of Brucella Melitensis Recombinant Omp 28 KDa Protein and Its Application in Disease Diagnosis

Brucellosis is a disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Brucella. It affects cattle, goat, sheep, dog and humans. The serodiagnosis of brucellosis involves detection of antibodies generated against the LPS or whole cell bacterial extracts, however these tests lack sensitivity and specificity. The present study was performed to optimize the culture condition for the production of recombinant Brucella melitensis outer membrane protein 28 kDa protein in E.coli via fed batch fermentation. Expression was induced with 1.5mM isopropyl β thiogalactoside and the expressed recombinant protein was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. After fed-batch fermentation the dry cell weight of 17.81 g/L and a purified protein yield of 210.10 mg/L was obtained. The purified Brucella melitensis recombinant Omp 28 kDa protein was analyzed through SDS- poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. The obtained recombinant protein was evaluated for its diagnostic application through Indirect ELISA using brucellosis suspected human sera samples. Our results clearly indicate that recombinant Omp28 produced via fed batch fermentation has immense potential as a diagnostic reagent that could be employed in sero monitoring of brucellosis.

Late Presentation of HIV Despite Earlier Opportunities for Detection, Experience from an Irish Tertiary Referral Institution

OBJECTIVES: Late presentation of HIV continues to undermine advances in the management of HIV. Opportunities to detect HIV at an earlier stage are often missed. Current estimates suggest that undiagnosed individuals comprise approximately one quarter of all people in the western world living with HIV. 'Testing-and-treating' this group has been proposed as a means to curb the HIV epidemic. In this study we assessed the characteristics of individuals newly diagnosed with HIV, and their utilisation of healthcare services in Ireland prior to their diagnosis. METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of all patients newly diagnosed with HIV over a 27-month period. Patient demographics were recorded, as were details of healthcare contacts in the year preceding diagnosis. Individuals detected via screening of recent immigrants/asylum seekers were excluded. RESULTS: In the period studied 114 patients received a new diagnosis of HIV, 59 met inclusion criteria. The majority (54 %) fulfilled the European consensus definition for late presenters (CD4 < 350 cells/µl). 'Late presenters' were significantly more likely to be symptomatic at diagnosis (OR = 4.62; 95 % CI 1.45-14.67; p = 0.015), diagnosed by acute tertiary hospital services (p = 0.015), and 56 % reported heterosexual mode of acquisition (OR = 2.12; 95 % CI 0.73-6.16; p = 0.19). Patients detected via screening had significantly higher CD4 counts at diagnosis compared with those diagnosed due to symptoms (Median CD4 422 cells/µl; IQR 285-594 vs. 142 cells/µl; IQR 62-333; p = 0.0007). 'Symptomatic' patients were significantly more likely to report prior healthcare contacts (OR 4.71; 95 % CI 1.32-16.79; p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: Current screening activities are inadequate. Unfortunately newly diagnosed HIV patients continue to be symptomatic, at advanced stages of disease, to acute hospital services. Heterosexual groups in particular are at risk for late detection.

Discovery of Novel InhA Reductase Inhibitors: Application of Pharmacophore- and Shape-based Screening Approach

InhA is a promising and attractive target in antimycobacterial drug development. InhA is involved in the reduction of long-chain trans-2-enoyl-ACP in the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that InhA is one of the targets for the second line antitubercular drug ethionamide.

In Vivo Maps of Extracellular PH in Murine Melanoma by CEST-MRI

PURPOSE: A novel method based on the use of Yb-HPDO3A as MRI Para-CEST agent for in vivo pH mapping of the tumor region in a melanoma murine model is reported. This method does not require the knowledge of the concentration of the imaging agent. METHODS: C57BL/6-mice were inoculated with B16-F10 cells. CEST-MR images of tumor and bladder were acquired upon the i.v. administration of Yb-HPDO3A (1.2 mmol/Kg). pH was assessed by the use of a ratiometric method. RESULTS: Yb-HPDO3A distributes well in the extracellular space of the tumor allowing the detection of good levels of saturation transfer (ST). It is excreted throughout kidneys and accumulated in the bladder thus yielding a strong CEST signal from urine. By comparing the ST% obtained upon selective irradiation of the two OH resonances belonging to the two isomeric forms of Yb-HPDO3A, it has been possible to measure the extracellular pH for each voxel (0.22 mm(3) ). The obtained pH-maps of tumors show a great heterogeneity. Marked differences are associated to tumor staging. CONCLUSION: The application of Yb-HPDO3A to measure extracellular tumor pH provides a good spatio-temporal resolution and it does not require the prior knowledge of the contrast agent concentration. The herein reported data support the potential clinical translation of Yb-HPDO3A. Magn Reson Med, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The Significance of the Site of Origin in Primary Peritoneal Carcinosarcoma: Case Report and Literature Review

Primary peritoneal carcinomas are rare, highly aggressive malignant neoplasms containing both sarcomatous and carcinomatous elements. Surgical debulking is the mainstay of treatment for primary peritoneal carcinomas. Systemic chemotherapy is advised in all cases because of the early spreading of these tumours. We report on a case of primary peritoneal carcinosarcoma occurring in a 22-year-old woman.

Left Bundle Branch Block Under General Anaesthesia in an Athlete's Heart

Left bundle branch block (LBBB) during anaesthesia is uncommon. During general anaesthesia, LBBB may be related to hypertension or tachycardia and its acute onset makes the diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia or infarction difficult. We would like to present a case report of a healthy patient who developed LBBB intra operatively. Acute LBBB should lead to suspicion of acute coronary syndrome until proven otherwise. Inability to exclude an acute cardiac event resulted in postponement of surgery twice after general anaesthesia was administered. Cardiological investigation of our patient showed physiological left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), "athlete's heart" which was the most likely cause of the LBBB under anaesthesia.

The Prevalence of Group a Streptococci Carriers Among Asymptomatic School Children

Aim: The Group A Streptococci (GAS) cause several suppurative and nonsuppurative infections. GAS frequently gets colonized in the throat of asymptomatic school children. A preliminary study was conducted to identify the GAS carrier state in apparently healthy children who belonged to various schools which were located in and around the rural village, B.G.Nagara, Mandya Dist, Karnataka state, India. Material and Methods: Throat swabs were collected from 2000 asymptomatic school children who were aged 5-15 years. The beta haemolytic streptococci isolates were sero-grouped by agglutination tests by using specific antisera (HiStrep Latex Test, Hi-Media, Mumbai, India). Results: Out of the 44 (2.2%) beta haemolytic which were isolated, 38 (86.36%) were GAS, 5 (11.36%) were Group C Streptococci and one (2.27%) was Group G Streptococcus. Among the 38 GAS positive children, 24 (63.16%) were transient carriers, 10(26.32%) were recurrent carriers and 4 (10.52%) were chronic carriers. The GAS chronic carriers were of the age group of 9-12 years. Conclusion: The present study showed the prevalence of GAS among the asymptomatic school children in this location. The chronic carriers were treated with azithromycin for 3 days. A bacteriological cure was confirmed by doing throat swab cultures at intervals of one month and four months after the treatment. Identification of the GAS carriers and treating them, not only prevents them from developing non -suppurative complications, but they also prevent the spread of GAS to their family members and other children.

External Ophthalmomyiasis Which Was Caused by Sheep Botfly (Oestrus Ovis) Larva: A Report of 10 Cases

Myiasis is the infestation of the tissues and organs of animals or man by fly larvae. Ophthalmic myiasis has been reported from various world regions. In this study, we are presenting the clinical manifestations of external ophthalmomyiasis which was caused by the larvae of the sheep nasal botfly, Oestrus ovis, in 10 patients in the Tirunelveli and the Tuticorin districts of Tamil Nadu state India. All the patients were farmers, who worked in close contact with sheep and goats. All the patients presented with severe conjunctivitis. The larvae were observed in the bulbar conjunctiva and following their removal, the symptom of eye inflammation improved in a few hours.

Mycological and Histological Associations of Candida in Oral Mucosal Lesions

The present study aimed to assess the presence and level of colonization of Candida in patients with oral mucosal lesions, to determine the presence or absence of candidal hyphae in biopsy specimens and to correlate the degree of epithelial dysplasia with the number of colony-forming units of Candida. We performed a prospective study including 50 patients diagnosed as having oral potentially malignant and malignant disorders. These patients had lesions such as leukoplakia, lichen planus, lichenoid reaction, verrucous carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma. An oral swish with 10 mL of normal saline was performed, and this was collected in a sterile plastic container. Candidal colony-forming units were assessed in the specimen. This was followed by a biopsy of the lesion, which was sent for histopathologic examination for dysplasia and severity, and to assess the presence or absence of candidal hyphae. The results of the present study revealed a correlation between higher Candida colonization and increasing severity of dysplasia. An effort was made to correlate Candida by histologic and mycologic means with epithelial dysplasia. If such a correlation is strongly established, then the importance of antimycotic therapy can be emphasized to avoid deterioration. (J Oral Sci 55, 157-160, 2013).

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