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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (20)
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
- Brain : a Journal of Neurology
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Journal of Neurotrauma
- Experimental Neurology
- Journal of Neurotrauma
- Journal of Neurotrauma
- Annals of Neurology
- Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
- Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
- Physical Therapy
- Experimental Neurology
- Journal of Neurotrauma
- Experimental Neurology
- Physical Therapy
- Neurotherapeutics : the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
- Brain Research Bulletin
- Experimental Neurology
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Articles by D. Michele Basso in JoVE
אקוטי וכרוני בדיקה חושי טקטילי לאחר פגיעה בחוט השדרה של חולדות
Megan Ryan Detloff1,2, Lesley C. Fisher1, Rochelle J. Deibert1, D. Michele Basso1
1Center for Brain and Spinal Cord Repair, School of Allied Medical Professions, The Ohio State University, 2Spinal Cord Research Center, Drexel University College of Medicine
נתאר שתי שיטות בדיקה מישוש חושיות לתקופות חריפה או כרונית של פגיעה בחוט השדרה של חולדות. נהלים אלה תוקף יכול לזהות פיתוח ותחזוקה של allodynia כמו תחושות.
Other articles by D. Michele Basso on PubMed
Pathological CNS Autoimmune Disease Triggered by Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: Implications for Autoimmune Vaccine Therapy
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11923434
Lymphocytes respond to myelin proteins after spinal cord injury (SCI) and may contribute to post-traumatic secondary degeneration. However, there is increasing evidence that autoreactive T-lymphocytes may also convey neuroprotection and promote functional recovery after CNS injury. To clarify the role of myelin autoreactive lymphocytes after SCI, we performed contusion injuries in the thoracic spinal cord of transgenic (Tg) mice in which >95% of all CD4+ T-lymphocytes are reactive with myelin basic protein (MBP). We observed significantly impaired recovery of locomotor and reflex function in Tg mice compared with non-Tg (nTg) littermates. Measures of functional impairment in Tg mice correlated with significantly less white matter at the injury site, and morphometric comparisons of injured Tg and nTg spinal cords revealed increased rostrocaudal lesion expansion (i.e., secondary degeneration) in Tg mice. Rostrocaudal to the impact site in SCI-nTg mice, demyelination was restricted to the dorsal funiculus, i.e., axons undergoing Wallerian degeneration. The remaining white matter appeared normal. In contrast, lymphocytes were colocalized with regions of demyelination and axon loss throughout the white matter of SCI-Tg mice. Impaired neurological function and exacerbated neuropathology in SCI-Tg mice were associated with increased intraspinal production of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA; neurotrophin mRNA was not elevated. These data suggest that endogenous MBP-reactive lymphocytes, activated by traumatic SCI, can contribute to tissue injury and impair functional recovery. Any neuroprotection afforded by myelin-reactive T-cells is likely to be an indirect effect mediated by other non-CNS-reactive lymphocytes. Similar to the Tg mice in this study, a subset of humans that are genetically predisposed to autoimmune diseases of the CNS may be adversely affected by vaccine therapies designed to boost autoreactive lymphocyte responses after CNS trauma. Consequently, the safe implementation of such therapies requires that future studies define the mechanisms that control T-cell function within the injured CNS.
Descending Systems Contributing to Locomotor Recovery After Mild or Moderate Spinal Cord Injury in Rats: Experimental Evidence and a Review of Literature
Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience. 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12515895
Locomotor recovery after spinal cord contusion injury (SCI) may be mediated by descending axons spared at the lesion epicenter. Greater axonal sparing is associated with more extensive recovery. Therefore, we identified the source and relative proportion of spared axons associated with extensive or limited locomotor recovery after SCI.
Three Exercise Paradigms Differentially Improve Sensory Recovery After Spinal Cord Contusion in Rats
Brain : a Journal of Neurology. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15069022
Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces incapacitating neuropathic pain in the form of allodynia-a painful response to normally non-noxious stimuli. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms of these sensory changes are not well understood, and effective treatments for allodynia have proven elusive. We examined whether physical exercise can improve sensory function after experimental SCI by promoting neurotrophin expression in the spinal cord and periphery, which modulates synaptic transmission and function. Female rats with moderate spinal cord contusion participated in treadmill training, swim training, stand training or were untrained. Exercise training began 4 days post surgery, lasted 20-25 min per day, 5 days a week for 7 weeks. Allodynia, as measured using von Frey hairs of different bending forces to the plantar hind paw, developed in the untrained group 3 weeks after SCI. Treadmill training ameliorated allodynia and restored normal sensation by 5 weeks. Swim training had a transient beneficial effect, but allodynia returned by 7 weeks. Stand training had no effect. Resolution of allodynia after treadmill training was associated with normal mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in both the lumbar spinal cord and soleus muscle. No other exercise paradigm restored BDNF centrally and peripherally. Greater recovery from allodynia correlated significantly with the degree of normalization of central and peripheral BDNF levels. These findings suggest that rhythmic, weight-bearing exercise may be an effective intervention to counter SCI-induced allodynia.
Passive or Active Immunization with Myelin Basic Protein Impairs Neurological Function and Exacerbates Neuropathology After Spinal Cord Injury in Rats
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15084655
Myelin-reactive T-cells are activated by traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in rodents and humans. Despite the historical association of these cells with experimental and clinical neuropathology, recent data suggest a neuroprotective role for myelin-reactive T-cells. Because of the biological and therapeutic implications of these findings, we attempted to reproduce the original neuroprotective vaccine protocols in a model of rat SCI. Specifically, MBP-reactive T-cell function was enhanced in SCI rats via passive or active immunization. Locomotor function was assessed using a standardized locomotor rating scale (Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale) and was correlated with myelin and axon sparing. The functional and anatomical integrity of the rubrospinal pathway also was analyzed using the inclined plane test and anatomical tract tracing. MBP-immunized rats exhibited varying degrees of functional impairment, exacerbated lesion pathology, greater rubrospinal neuron loss, increased intraspinal T-cell accumulation, and enhanced macrophage activation relative to SCI control groups. These data are consistent with the conventional view of myelin-reactive T-cells as pathological effector cells.
Journal of Neurotrauma. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15115589
Selection and implementation of behavioral tests in spinal cord injury research is an important process, and yet few papers have focused on these issues. The critical component of any behavioral experiment is the ability to produce reliable, reproducible, and worthwhile data. Unfortunately, the difference between worthwhile and worthless data is often subtle. This paper describes factors that must be considered in order to select the most sensitive behavioral tests to match the hypothesis of the experiment and apply any test in a standardized, consistent manner. Classifications of behavioral tests, their strengths and limitations, as well as methods to overcome these limitations are discussed. Recent work in translating behavioral tests from rats to mice is also provided. The purpose of this article is to provide a framework by which behavioral testing can be standardized within and across spinal cord injury labs.
Stepwise Motor and All-or-none Sensory Recovery is Associated with Nonlinear Sparing After Incremental Spinal Cord Injury in Rats
Experimental Neurology. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15649480
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes motor and sensory deficits that impair functional performance. While more functional recovery occurs with greater white matter sparing (WMS), it is unclear which locomotor features are more vulnerable to SCI than others, if recovery of certain features depends on specific amounts of WMS, and whether motor recovery patterns differ from sensory recovery. Locomotor and sensory recovery after graded contusive SCI with cord displacements of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.1, 1.25, and 1.3 mm was examined for 6 weeks in 80 female Sprague-Dawley rats. Seven SCI gradations resulted in three locomotor performance levels measured with BBB (P < 0.01): High: laminectomy (LAM) controls and 0.3 (19.87 +/- 0.35 SEM); Intermediate: 0.5-0.9 (13.71 +/- 0.32); and Low: 1.1-1.3 (9.23 +/- 0.36). Normal paw position was most susceptible to SCI requiring 90% WMS, while consistent plantar stepping was least susceptible depending on 10% WMS. A threshold at the 0.9 severity for coordination, toe clearance, and nearly normal trunk stability and tail usage required 25% WMS. Analysis of interlimb coordination using new phase dispersion (PD) techniques delineated three recovery patterns: synchronous (0.3), modified concordance (0.5, 0.7), and disengaged (0.9, 1.1). Lesion severity correlated to WMS (r(2) = 0.96) and to BBB (r(2) = 0.87) by nonlinear polynomial regressions. Mechanical allodynia developed only after injuries resulting in < or =10% WMS. Nonlinear motor and sensory recovery patterns suggest that small reparative changes may substantially improve function in individuals with SCI. A hierarchical locomotor recovery based on simple segmental versus complex supraspinal motor control is proposed.
Journal of Neurotrauma. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15665610
Recently, locomotor training has been shown to improve overground locomotion in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). This has triggered renewed interest in the role of exercise in rehabilitation after SCI. However, there are no mouse models for voluntary exercise and recovery of function following SCI. Here, we report voluntary wheel running improves recovery from a SCI in mice. C57Bl/10 female mice received a 60-kdyne T9 contusion injury with an IH impactor after 3 weeks of voluntary wheel running or 3 weeks of standard single housing conditions. Following a 7-day recovery period, running mice were returned to their running wheels. Weekly open-field behavior measured locomotor recovery using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale and the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) locomotor rating scale, a scale recently developed specifically for mice. Initial experiments using standard rung wheels show that wheel running impaired recovery, but subsequent experiments using a modified flat-surface wheel show improved recovery with exercise. By 14 days post SCI, the modified flat-surface running group had significantly higher BBB and BMS scores than the sedentary group. A repeated measures ANOVA shows locomotor recovery of modified flat-surface running mice was significantly improved compared to sedentary animals (p < 0.05). Locomotor assessment using a ladder beam task also shows a significant improvement in the modified flat-surface runners (p < 0.05). Finally, fibronectin staining shows no significant difference in lesion size between the two groups. These data represent the first mouse model showing voluntary exercise improves recovery after SCI.
Basso Mouse Scale for Locomotion Detects Differences in Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury in Five Common Mouse Strains
Journal of Neurotrauma. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16689667
Genetically engineered mice are used extensively to examine molecular responses to spinal cord injury (SCI). Inherent strain differences may confound behavioral outcomes; therefore, behavioral characterization of several strains after SCI is warranted. The Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan Locomotor Rating Scale (BBB) for rats has been widely used for SCI mice, but may not accurately reflect their unique recovery pattern. This study's purpose was to develop a valid locomotor rating scale for mice and to identify strain differences in locomotor recovery after SCI. We examined C57BL/6, C57BL/10, B10.PL, BALB/c, and C57BL/6x129S6 F1 strains for 42 days after mild, moderate, and severe contusive SCI or transection of the mid thoracic spinal cord. Contusions were created using the Ohio State University electromagnetic SCI device which is a displacement-driven model, and the Infinite Horizon device, which is a force-driven model. Attributes and rankings for the Basso Mouse Scale for Locomotion (BMS) were determined from frequency analyses of seven locomotor categories. Mouse recovery differed from rats for coordination, paw position and trunk instability. Disagreement occurred across six expert raters using BBB (p < 0.05) but not BMS to assess the same mice. BMS detected significant differences in locomotor outcomes between severe contusion and transection (p < 0.05) and SCI severity gradations resulting from displacement variations of only 0.1 mm (p < 0.05). BMS demonstrated significant face, predictive and concurrent validity. Novice BMS raters with training scored within 0.5 points of experts and demonstrated high reliability (0.92-0.99). The BMS is a sensitive, valid and reliable locomotor measure in SCI mice. BMS revealed significantly higher recovery in C57BL/10, B10.PL and F1 than the C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains after moderate SCI (p < 0.05). The differing behavioral response to SCI suggests inherent genetic factors significantly impact locomotor recovery and must be considered in studies with inbred or genetically engineered mouse strains.
Annals of Neurology. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16958113
Myelin-associated inhibitors play a role in limiting axonal growth in the adult central nervous system. Blocking these inhibitors may promote neurological recovery from spinal cord contusion.
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17084122
To develop and establish the reliability and validity of a new quantitative functional measure of haptic perception in the hand, the Hand Active Sensation Test (HASTe).
Validity of the Walking Scale for Spinal Cord Injury and Other Domains of Function in a Multicenter Clinical Trial
Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. Nov-Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17507642
To demonstrate criterion (concurrent and predictive) and construct validity of the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI) scale and other walking measures in the Spinal Cord Injury Locomotor Trial (SCILT).
Influence of Feedback Schedule in Motor Performance and Learning of a Lumbar Multifidus Muscle Task Using Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging: a Randomized Clinical Trial
Physical Therapy. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18042655
Low back pain (LBP) may be associated with inadequate multifidus muscle function. Varying the frequency and timing of feedback may enhance acquisition and retention of multifidus muscle recruitment during exercise.
Remote Activation of Microglia and Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Predict the Onset and Severity of Below-level Neuropathic Pain After Spinal Cord Injury in Rats
Experimental Neurology. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18511041
Spinal cord injury (SCI) impairs sensory systems causing chronic allodynia. Mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain have been more extensively studied following peripheral nerve injury (PNI) than after central trauma. Microglial activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine production and activation of p38 MAP kinase pathways may induce at-level allodynia following PNI. We investigated whether midthoracic SCI elicits similar behavioral and cellular responses below the level of injury (lumbar spinal cord; L5). Importantly, we show that anatomical connections between L5 and supraspinal centers remain intact after moderate SCI allowing direct comparison to a well-established model of peripheral nerve injury. We found that SCI elicits below-level allodynia of similar magnitude to at-level pain caused by a peripheral nerve injury. Moreover, the presence of robust microglial activation in L5 cord predicted allodynia in 86% of rats. Also increased phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase occurred in the L5 dorsal horn of allodynic rats. For below-level allodynia after SCI, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta increased in the L5 dorsal horn by 7 dpo and returned to baseline by 35 dpo. Interestingly, IL-6 remains at normal levels early after SCI and increases at chronic time points. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines also occurred in the thalamus after SCI-induced allodynia. These data suggest that remote microglial activation is pivotal in the development and maintenance of below-level allodynia after SCI. Fractalkine, a known activator of microglia, and astrocytes were not primary modulators of below-level pain. Although the mechanisms of remote microglial activation are unknown, this response may be a viable target for limiting or preventing neuropathic pain after SCI in humans.
Aberrant Sensory Responses Are Dependent on Lesion Severity After Spinal Cord Contusion Injury in Mice
Pain. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20022699
Following spinal cord injury (SCI), individuals lose normal sensation and often develop debilitating neuropathic pain. Basic research has helped to elucidate many of the underlying mechanisms, but unanswered questions remain concerning how sensation changes after SCI and potential negative consequences of regenerative therapies. Mouse models provide an opportunity to explore these questions using genetic markers and manipulations. However, despite the increasing use of mice in pain and sensory research, the responses to sensory stimuli after SCI are poorly characterized in this species. This study evaluated behavioral responses to mechanical and nociceptive stimuli applied to the hindlimbs and the dorsal trunk in C57BL/6 mice after mid-thoracic SCI. Adult mice were subjected to laminectomy, contusion injuries of different severities, or complete transections to test the hypothesis that the patterns of sensory pathology depend on the extent of tissue damage at the injury site. In the hind paws, hyper-responsiveness to a heat stimulus developed independent of injury severity, while mechanical sensitivity decreased, except after the most severe contusion injuries sparing less than 2% of the white matter at the injury site, when enhanced sensitivity was observed. On the trunk, mechanical and pin prick testing revealed diminished sensitivity at and below the injury level, while responses above the level of the injury were unchanged. The contrast in injury severity threshold for thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in the hind paws suggests that these responses have different underlying mechanisms. These results establish essential baseline information for murine studies of pain and changes in sensation after SCI.
Journal of Neurotrauma. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20121420
Chronic pain and dysesthesias are debilitating conditions that can arise following spinal cord injury (SCI). Research studies frequently employ rodent models of SCI to better understand the underlying mechanisms and develop better treatments for these phenomena. While evoked withdrawal tests can assess hypersensitivity in these SCI models, there is little consensus over how to evaluate spontaneous sensory abnormalities that are seen in clinical SCI subjects. Overgrooming (OG) and biting after peripheral nerve injury or spinal cord excitotoxic lesions are thought to be one behavioral demonstration of spontaneous neuropathic pain or dysesthesia. However, reports of OG after contusion SCI are largely anecdotal and conditions causing this response are poorly understood. The present study investigated whether repeated application of sensory stimuli to the trunk prior to mid-thoracic contusion SCI would induce OG after SCI in mice. One week prior to SCI or laminectomy, mice were subjected either to nociceptive and mechanical stimulation, mechanical stimulation only, the testing situation without stimulation, or no treatment. They were then examined for 14 days after surgery and the sizes and locations of OG sites were recorded on anatomical maps. Mice subjected to either stimulus paradigm showed increased OG compared with unstimulated or uninjured mice. Histological analysis showed no difference in spinal cord lesion size due to sensory stimulation, or between mice that overgroomed or did not overgroom. The relationship between prior stimulation and contusion injury in mice that display OG indicates a critical interaction that may underlie one facet of spontaneous neuropathic symptoms after SCI.
Experimental Neurology. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20643128
Spinal cord injury (SCI) impairs sensory systems causing allodynia. Measuring the development of allodynia in rodent models of SCI is challenging due to spinal shock and marked motor impairments. Assessment of SCI-induced allodynia is not standardized across labs, making interpretation of results difficult. Therefore, we validated sensory threshold assessment after SCI and developed a novel assessment of allodynia prior to motor recovery in a rat SCI model. One hundred fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats received T8 laminectomy or mild to moderate SCI using the OSU SCI device (0.3 mm to 1.3 mm cord displacement). To determine tactile thresholds, von Frey hairs (VFH) were applied in Up-Down or ascending order to the dorsal or plantar hindpaw. The most efficient and valid procedures that maintain high sensitivity and specificity were identified. Ten Up-Down VFH applications yielded stable thresholds; reducing the risk of threshold decay and unnecessary exposure to painful stimuli. Importantly, distraction of SCI-rats with food revealed differential decay of thresholds than when distraction is not provided. The new test uses dorsal VFH stimulation and is independent of trunk or hindlimb control. Acute dorsal VFH thresholds collected before recovery of hindlimb weight support accurately predicted plantar VFH thresholds measured at late timepoints (chi(2)=8.479; p<0.05). Thus, standardized testing early after SCI using the dorsal VFH test or later using 10 stimuli in the Up-Down test produces valid measures of tactile sensation across many SCI severities. Early detection of allodynia in experimental SCI will allow identification of mechanisms responsible for pain development and determine targets for therapeutic interventions.
Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Therapeutic Benefits of Their Inhibition in Spinal Cord Injury
Neurotherapeutics : the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21455784
This review will focus on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors in the context of spinal cord injury (SCI). MMPs have a specific cellular and temporal pattern of expression in the injured spinal cord. Here we consider their diverse functions in the acutely injured cord and during wound healing. Excessive activity of MMPs, and in particular gelatinase B (MMP-9), in the acutely injured cord contributes to disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier, and the influx of leukocytes into the injured cord, as well as apoptosis. MMP-9 and MMP-2 regulate inflammation and neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury and may contribute to SCI-induced pain. Early pharmacologic inhibition of MMPs or the gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) results in an improvement in long-term neurological recovery and is associated with reduced glial scarring and neuropathic pain. During wound healing, gelatinase A (MMP-2) plays a critical role in limiting the formation of an inhibitory glial scar, and mice that are genetically deficient in this protease showed impaired recovery. Together, these findings illustrate complex, temporally distinct roles of MMPs in SCIs. As early gelatinase activity is detrimental, there is an emerging interest in developing gelatinase-targeted therapeutics that would be specifically tailored to the acute injured spinal cord. Thus, we focus this review on the development of selective gelatinase inhibitors.
Injured Mice at the Gym: Review, Results and Considerations for Combining Chondroitinase and Locomotor Exercise to Enhance Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury
Brain Research Bulletin. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20558254
Exercise provides a number of important benefits after spinal cord injury in clinical studies and animal models. However, the amount of functional improvement in overground locomotion obtained with exercise alone has been limited thus far, for reasons that are still poorly understood. One hypothesis is that the complex network of endogenous extracellular matrix components, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), can inhibit exercise-induced remodeling and limit plasticity of spared circuitry in the adult central nervous system. Recent animal studies have shown that chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) can enhance plasticity in the adult nervous system by cleaving glycosaminoglycan sidechains from CSPGs. In this article we review the current literature on plasticity observed with locomotor training and following degradation of CSPGs with ChABC and then present a rationale for the use of exercise combined with ChABC to promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury. We also present results of a preliminary study that tested the simplest approach for combining these treatments; use of a single intraparenchymal injection of ChABC administered to the lumbar enlargement of mice with voluntary wheel running exercise after a mid-thoracic spinal contusion injury. The results are negative, yet serve to highlight limitations in our understanding of the most effective protocols for combining these approaches. Further work is directed to identify the timing, type, and quantity of exercise and pharmacological interventions that can be used to maximize functional improvements by strengthening appropriate synaptic connections.
A Reassessment of a Classic Neuroprotective Combination Therapy for Spinal Cord Injured Rats: LPS/pregnenolone/indomethacin
Experimental Neurology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22177997
These experiments were completed as part of an NIH-NINDS contract entitled "Facilities of Research Excellence-Spinal Cord Injury (FORE-SCI)-Replication". Our goal was to replicate data from a paper published by Dr. Lloyd Guth and colleagues in which combined injections of lipopolysaccharide, indomethacin and pregnenolone (referred to herein as LIP therapy) conferred marked neuroprotection in a pre-clinical model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Specifically, post-injury injection of the combination LIP therapy was found to significantly reduce tissue damage at/nearby the site of injury and significantly improve recovery of locomotor function. In this report, we confirm the primary observations made by Guth et al., however, the effects of LIP treatment were modest. Specifically, LIP treatment improved myelin and axon sparing, axonal sprouting while reducing lesion cavitation. However, spontaneous recovery of locomotion, as assessed using historical (Tarlov scoring) and more current rating scales (i.e., BBB scoring), was not affected by LIP treatment. Instead, more refined parameters of functional recovery (paw placement accuracy during grid walk) revealed a significant effect of treatment. Possible explanations for the neuroprotective effects of LIP therapy are described along with reasons why the magnitude of neuroprotection may have differed between this study and that of Guth and colleagues.