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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (5)
Articles by David K. Ryugo in JoVE
Preparation of an Awake Mouse for Recording Neural Responses and Injecting Tracers
Michael A. Muniak1,2, Zachary M. Mayko3, David K. Ryugo2,4, Christine V. Portfors3
1Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, 2Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 3School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, 4Department of Otolaryngology-HNS, Johns Hopkins University
Electrophysiological characterization of neuronal responses is important for understanding brain function and for guiding the placement of dyes for pathway tracing. However, many studies are performed in anesthetized animals. To understand brain function without anesthetics, we developed a method to record neuronal response properties and inject dyes in awake mouse.
Other articles by David K. Ryugo on PubMed
Commissural Glycinergic Inhibition of Bushy and Stellate Cells in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus
Neuroreport. Mar, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11930179
Synaptic inputs from one cochlear nucleus (CN) to the other can play an important role in modulating the activity of CN neurons. Using the isolated whole brain preparation of the guinea pig, we tested the effects of electrical stimulation of the contralateral auditory nerve (AN) on intracellularly recorded and stained neurons of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus. Stimulation of the contralateral AN evoked only inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in 63% of recorded neurons, including bushy and stellate cells. The latency of most IPSPs (88%) was in the range 3.3-7.6 ms, consistent with mono- and disynaptic transmission from the contralateral CN. The IPSPs had an average amplitude of 2.6 +/- 1.9 mV and were blocked by strychnine suggesting their glycinergic nature. These data, together with our similar findings in other CN subdivisions, indicate that principal cells of the CN contribute to binaural interactions at earliest stages of acoustic processing.
Discharge Properties of Identified Cochlear Nucleus Neurons and Auditory Nerve Fibers in Response to Repetitive Electrical Stimulation of the Auditory Nerve
Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12955378
Using the in vitro isolated whole brain preparation of the guinea pig maintained at 29 degrees C, we intracellularly recorded and stained cochlear nucleus (CN) neurons and auditory nerve (AN) fibers. Discharge properties of CN cells and AN axons were tested in response to 50-ms trains of electrical pulses delivered to the AN at rates ranging from 100 to 1000 pulses per second (pps). At low stimulation rates (200-300 pps), the discharges of AN fibers and a large proportion of principal cells (bushy, octopus, stellate) in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) followed with high probability each pulse in the train, resulting in synchronization of discharges within large populations of AN fibers and CN cells. In contrast, at high stimulation rates (500 pps and higher), AN fibers and many VCN cells exhibited "primary-like", "onset" and some other discharge patterns resembling those produced by natural sound stimuli. Unlike cells in the VCN, principal cells (pyramidal, giant) of the dorsal CN did not follow the stimulating pulses even at low rates. Instead, they often showed "pauser" and "build-up" patterns of activity, characteristic for these cells in conditions of normal hearing. We hypothesize that, at low stimulation rates, the response behavior of AN fibers and VCN cells is different from the patterns of neuronal activity related to normal auditory processing, whereas high stimulation rates produce more physiologically meaningful discharge patterns. The observed differences in discharge properties of AN fibers and CN cells at different stimulation rates can contribute to significant advantages of high- versus low-rate electrical stimulation of the AN used for coding sounds in modern cochlear implants.
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15456885
Previously, we identified PHR1 as an abundantly expressed gene in photoreceptors and showed that it encodes four isoforms, each with N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) and C-terminal transmembrane domains. To better understand PHR1 function and expression, we made a Phr1 null mouse by inserting a beta-galactosidase/neor cassette into exon 3. In addition to photoreceptors, we found abundant expression of specific Phr1 splice forms in olfactory receptor neurons and vestibular and cochlear hair cells. We also found Phr1 expression in cells with a possible sensory function, including peripheral retinal ganglion cells, cochlear interdental cells, and neurons of the circumventricular organ. Despite this discrete expression in known and putative sensory neurons, mice lacking PHR1 do not have overt sensory deficits.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16115689
The afferent synapse between the auditory nerve fiber and the inner hair cell (IHC) represents a critical junction for hearing. Elucidation of the structure at this site will help establish the substrate for normal sound encoding as well as pathologic processes associated with hearing dysfunction. Previous applications of unbiased (design-based) stereological principles have expanded our knowledge of neuro-morphological changes evident with the light microscope. Applying these principles at the level of the synapse is a promising morphometric approach for the efficient sampling of large reference spaces with electron microscopy. This study tests the accuracy of using ultra-thin sections at a fixed interval, known as disector pairs, to quantify afferent innervation density. We analyzed the total numbers of afferent terminals, synaptic thickenings, and synaptic bodies associated with each IHC in the C57BL/6J mouse cochlea, and confirmed the accuracy of the stereological approach in comparison to three-dimensional reconstructions of serial alternate sections. The higher sampling efficiency of the disector pair method rapidly increases precision while also reducing the largest source of variability, inter-animal differences. We conclude that ultrastructural quantification of afferent innervation can be accomplished in the cochlea using efficient design-based stereology.
Long-term, Stable Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Neural Precursors Grafted into the Adult Mammalian Neostriatum
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19609935
Stem cell grafts have been advocated as experimental treatments for neurological diseases by virtue of their ability to offer trophic support for injured neurons and, theoretically, to replace dead neurons. Human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) are a rich source of neural precursors (NPs) for grafting, but have been questioned for their tendency to form tumors. Here we studied the ability of HESC-derived NP grafts optimized for cell number and differentiation stage prior to transplantation, to survive and stably differentiate and integrate in the basal forebrain (neostriatum) of young adult nude rats over long periods of time (6 months). NPs were derived from adherent monolayer cultures of HESCs exposed to noggin. After transplantation, NPs showed a drastic reduction in mitotic activity and an avid differentiation into neurons that projected via major white matter tracts to a variety of forebrain targets. A third of NP-derived neurons expressed the basal forebrain-neostriatal marker dopamine-regulated and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein. Graft-derived neurons formed mature synapses with host postsynaptic structures, including dendrite shafts and spines. NPs inoculated in white matter tracts showed a tendency toward glial (primarily astrocytic) differentiation, whereas NPs inoculated in the ventricular epithelium persisted as nestin(+) precursors. Our findings demonstrate the long-term ability of noggin-derived human NPs to structurally integrate tumor-free into the mature mammalian forebrain, while maintaining some cell fate plasticity that is strongly influenced by particular central nervous system (CNS) niches.