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In JoVE (1)
- Tomat Analyzer: Ett användbart verktyg för att samla in tillförlitlig och detaljerad morfologisk och kolorimetriska data från två-dimensionella objekt
Other Publications (28)
- Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation : Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
- The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
- American Journal of Botany
- Molecular Plant Pathology
- Clinical Nuclear Medicine
- Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI
- Pediatric Nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
- ANZ Journal of Surgery
- The British Journal of Nutrition
- The Medical Journal of Australia
- Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
- Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
- BMC Genomics
- ANZ Journal of Surgery
- Journal of Experimental Botany
- TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische Und Angewandte Genetik
- TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische Und Angewandte Genetik
- Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
- Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
- Cancer Metastasis Reviews
- Plant, Cell & Environment
- Journal of Experimental Botany
- TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische Und Angewandte Genetik
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Articles by David M. Francis in JoVE
Tomat Analyzer: Ett användbart verktyg för att samla in tillförlitlig och detaljerad morfologisk och kolorimetriska data från två-dimensionella objekt
Gustavo R. Rodríguez, Jennifer B. Moyseenko, Matthew D. Robbins, Nancy Huarachi Morejón, David M. Francis, Esther van der Knaap
Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, The Ohio State University
Tomat Analyzer (TA) kvantifieras attribut tvådimensionella former och färger på ett reproducerbart och korrekt sätt. En steg-för-steg förfarande för att få hög kvalitet digitaliserade bilder av tomat frukt, morfologiska och färg analyser av dessa bilder och flera program med hjälp av de data som genereras via programvaran beskrivs.
Other articles by David M. Francis on PubMed
Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation : Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12032219
Classification of Anti-FcepsilonRI and Anti-IgE Autoantibodies in Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria and Correlation with Disease Severity
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12209101
Circulating autoantibodies against FcepsilonRI, IgE, or both occur in approximately one third of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU), but not all autoantibodies initiate histamine release.
A QTL Controlling Stem Morphology and Vascular Development in Lycopersicon EsculentumxLycopersicon Hirsutum (Solanaceae) Crosses is Located on Chromosome 2
American Journal of Botany. Dec, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 21665615
The vascular tissue of higher plants is organized into a continuous and unified system that undergoes a transition between two highly differentiated structures, the root and the shoot. This transition was studied in tomato by investigating the genetic basis of morphological variation between Lycopersicon esculentum and L. hirsutum LA407. Our analysis concentrated on morphology in stem cross sections, and we detected heritable genetic differences in an inbred backcross population having L. esculentum as the recurrent parent and LA407 as the donor parent. Inbred backcross line (IBL) 2353 contained a donor segment from chromosome 2 and retained features of the LA407 stem vascular morphology. Marker-trait analysis of vascular structure in a cross between IBL 2353 and L. esculentum showed significant (0.0001 ≤ P ≤ 0.0375) associations between markers on chromosome 2 and the size of primary vascular bundles, the shape of the vascular system, and the thickness of the secondary vascular tissue. Families with LA407 DNA for the markers on chromosome 2 had larger primary vascular bundles, more developed secondary vascular tissue, and a triangular vascular shape. These results suggest that the distal portion of chromosome 2 in LA407 contains a locus or loci affecting vascular morphology and development.
Active Defence Responses Associated with Non-host Resistance of Arabidopsis Thaliana to the Oomycete Pathogen Phytophthora Infestans
Molecular Plant Pathology. Nov, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 20569408
SUMMARY The molecular basis of non-host resistance, or species-specific resistance, remains one of the major unknowns in the study of plant-microbe interactions. In this paper, we describe the characterization of a non-host pathosystem involving the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the economically important and destructive oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Cytological investigations into the early stages of this interaction revealed the germination of P. infestans cysts on Arabidopsis leaves, direct penetration of epidermal cells, formation of infection vesicles and occasionally secondary hyphae, followed by a typical hypersensitive response. P. infestans biomass dynamics during infection of Arabidopsis was monitored using kinetic PCR, revealing an increase in biomass during the first 24 h after inoculation, followed by a decrease in the later stages. Transgenic reporter lines and RNA blot analyses were used to characterize the defence responses induced following P. infestans infection. Significant induction of PDF1.2 was observed at 48 h after inoculation, whereas elevated levels of PR gene expression were detected three days after inoculation. To further characterize this defence response, DNA microarray analyses were carried out to determine the expression profiles for c. 11 000 Arabidopsis cDNAs 16 h after infection. These analyses revealed a significant overlap between Arabidopsis non-host response and other defence-related treatments described in the literature. In particular, non-host response to P. infestans was clearly associated with activation of the jasmonate pathway. The described Arabidopsis-P. infestans pathosystem offers excellent prospects for improving our understanding of non-host resistance.
Clinical Nuclear Medicine. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15311137
Transplantation. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15316369
A systematic review was undertaken to assess the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic live-donor nephrectomy (LLDN) compared with open live-donor nephrectomy (OLDN).
Proteomic Analysis of Resistance Mediated by Rcm 2.0 and Rcm 5.1, Two Loci Controlling Resistance to Bacterial Canker of Tomato
Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15384492
Two quantitative trait loci from Lycopersicon hirsutum, Rcm 2.0 and Rcm 5.1, control resistance to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato. Lines containing Rcm 2.0 and Rcm 5.1 and a susceptible control line were compared at 72 and 144 h postinoculation, using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis to identify proteins regulated in response to C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis infection. A total of 47 proteins were subjected to tandem mass spectrometry. Database queries with resulting spectra identified tomato genes for 26 proteins. The remaining 21 proteins were either identified in other species or possessed no homology to known proteins. Spectra were interpreted to deduce peptide amino acid sequences that were then used to query publicly available data. This approach identified tomato genes or expressed sequence tags for 44 of the proteins analyzed. Three superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes were differentially regulated among genotypes, and patterns of hydrogen peroxide accumulation were genotype- and tissue-specific, indicating a role for oxidative stress in response to C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Steady-state mRNA and protein levels for SOD, thioredoxin M-type, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, and pathogenesis-related proteins demonstrated similar patterns of differential regulation. Lines containing Rcm 2.0 and Rcm 5.1 accumulate different proteins and steady-state mRNAs in response to inoculation, suggesting that the two loci may confer resistance through distinct mechanisms.
Resistance in Lycopersicon Esculentum Intraspecific Crosses to Race T1 Strains of Xanthomonas Campestris Pv. Vesicatoria Causing Bacterial Spot of Tomato
Phytopathology. May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 18943317
ABSTRACT We used molecular markers to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that confer resistance in the field to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria race T1, a causal agent of bacterial spot of tomato. An F(2) population derived from a cross between Hawaii 7998 (H 7998) and an elite breeding line, Ohio 88119, was used for the initial identification of an association between molecular markers and resistance as measured by bacterial populations in individual plants in the greenhouse. Polymorphism in this cross between a Lycopersicon esculentum donor of resistance and an elite L. esculentum parent was limited. The targeted use of a core set of 148 polymerase chain reaction-based markers that were identified as polymorphic in L. esculentum x L. esculentum crosses resulted in the identification of 37 markers that were polymorphic for the cross of interest. Previous studies using an H 7998 x L. pennellii wide cross implicated three loci, Rx1, Rx2, and Rx3, in the hypersensitive response to T1 strains. Markers that we identified were linked to the Rx1 and Rx3 loci, but no markers were identified in the region of chromosome 1 where Rx2 is located. Single marker-trait analysis suggested that chromosome 5, near the Rx3 locus, contributed to reduced bacterial populations in lines carrying the locus from H 7998. The locus on chromosome 5 explained 25% of the phenotypic variation in bacterial populations developing in infected plants. An advanced backcross population and subsequent inbred backcross lines developed using Ohio 88119 as a recurrent parent were used to confirm QTL associations detected in the F(2) population. Markers on chromosome 5 explained 41% of the phenotypic variation for resistance in replicated field trials. In contrast, the Rx1 locus on chromosome 1 did not play a role in resistance to X. campestris pv. vesicatoria race T1 strains as measured by bacterial populations in the greenhouse or symptoms in the field. A locus from H 7998 on chromosome 4 was associated with susceptibility to disease and explained 11% of the total phenotypic variation. Additional variation in resistance was explained by plant maturity (6%), with early maturing families expressing lower levels of resistance, and plant habit (6%), with indeterminate plants displaying more resistance. The markers linked to Rx3 will be useful in selection for resistance in elite x elite crosses.
Pediatric Nephrology (Berlin, Germany). Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16252110
The rates of ureteric obstruction and complications for use of externally draining uretero-vesico-cutaneous (external) stents (Group 1: n=39) and the use of internal uretero-vesical (double-J) stents (Group 2: n=16), in 55 of 64 consecutive paediatric renal-transplant recipients, performed at our institution between January 1996 and December 2003, have been compared. Serum creatinine levels pre and post-operatively and pre and post-stent removal were recorded. The diagnosis of ureteric obstruction was based on an increase in serum creatinine of >or=20%, in conjunction with ultrasound evidence of hydronephrosis or hydroureter, where other causes of renal dysfunction were excluded. Ureteric obstruction occurred in 13 of the 39 patients (33.3%) in Group 1, compared with only one case of ureteric obstruction in the 16 patients (6.25%) in Group 2 (OR=7.5, 95% CI=0.8-70, P=0.038). There was no evidence of a difference in the number of urinary tract infections (9/39 in Group 1, 6/16 in Group 2, OR=0.5, 95% CI=0.14 to 1.8, P=0.275) or the mean length of hospital stay (10.9 days in Group 1, 10.1 days in Group 2, 95% CI=-2.3 to 4 days, P=0.565) between the two groups. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) improved in the week after stent removal in Group 2, but deteriorated in Group 1 (P=0.07). This non-randomised comparison of stent types supports the use of prophylactic double-J stents in paediatric renal transplantation- in terms of decreased ureteric complications and improved renal function post-stent removal.
ANZ Journal of Surgery. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17305990
Many haemodialysis patients are unable to have or maintain distal upper limb arteriovenous (AV) fistulas because of inadequate veins or arteries and therefore require more proximal access. We have reviewed our experience with a two-stage brachiobasilic AV haemodialysis fistula fashioned in the arm.
Lycopene from Heat-induced Cis-isomer-rich Tomato Sauce is More Bioavailable Than from All-trans-rich Tomato Sauce in Human Subjects
The British Journal of Nutrition. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17391568
Lycopene is present mainly as cis-isomers in human serum and tissues whereas all-trans-lycopene predominates in tomato products, suggesting that all-trans-lycopene is isomerised in the body or is less bioavailable. The objectives of the present study were to develop processing conditions for tomatoes to obtain products with different cis-trans-lycopene isomer distribution and to assess their bioavailability. Healthy adult subjects (n 12) were recruited for this randomised cross-over trial. Each intervention was preceded by a 2-week washout period. Two tomato sauces, one rich in all-trans-lycopene (32.5 mg total lycopene/100 g sauce; 5 % cis-isomers), the other high in cis-lycopene (26.4 mg total lycopene/100 g sauce; 45 % cis-isomers), were produced by different heat-processing techniques. Each sauce (150 g) was served in a standardised meal at 08.00 hours after overnight fasting. Plasma TAG-rich lipoprotein fractions over 9.5 h following test-meal consumption as a measure of lycopene absorption were obtained and expressed as baseline-corrected area under the concentration v. time curves (AUC), using HPLC-electrochemical detection. AUC values adjusted for the amount lycopene consumed showed that total, total cis-, and all-trans-lycopene responses were significantly higher from the cis-isomer-rich sauce, compared with the all-trans-rich sauce, being 7.30 (sem 1.45) v. 4.74 (sem 1.08) nmol x h/l (P = 0.002), 3.80 (sem 0.76) v. 1.98 (sem 0.37) nmol x h/l (P = 0.0005) and 3.50 (sem 0.76) v. 2.76 (sem 0.76) nmol x h/l (P = 0.01), respectively. The present study demonstrates significant lycopene bioavailability from cis-lycopene-rich tomato sauce and highlights the importance of considering isomer-distribution for lycopene bioavailability. Furthermore, processing parameters can be controlled to alter isomer patterns of tomato products and influence lycopene bioavailability.
The Medical Journal of Australia. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17767439
We report a successful kidney transplant (A1 donor to an O recipient), with antibody removal pre- and post-transplant, and pre-transplant administration of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab), intravenous immunoglobulin, and conventional transplant immunosuppression. The transplant, which was performed without splenectomy, is the first such transplant in Australia. At 20 months, the patient's creatinine level was 110-130 micromol/L, with no evidence of rejection and no complications. ABO-incompatible transplantation should increase "live donor" kidney transplantation, reduce waiting times, and improve patient outcomes.
Stressor- and Corticotropin Releasing Factor-induced Reinstatement and Active Stress-related Behavioral Responses Are Augmented Following Long-access Cocaine Self-administration by Rats
Psychopharmacology. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17899015
Stressful events during periods of drug abstinence likely contribute to relapse in cocaine-dependent individuals. Excessive cocaine use may increase susceptibility to stressor-induced relapse through alterations in brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) responsiveness.
Optimizing Sampling of Tomato Fruit for Carotenoid Content with Application to Assessing the Impact of Ripening Disorders
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18092756
Color defines one aspect of quality for tomato and tomato products. Carotenoid pigments are responsible for the red and orange colors of tomato fruit, and thus color is also of dietary interest. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the relative importance of field sampling and analytical replication when measuring lycopene and beta-carotene in tomato fruit and (2) to determine the effect of yellow shoulder disorder (YSD) on the content of lycopene and beta-carotene in tomato juice and tissue. Our results show that increasing biological replications is an efficient strategy for reducing the experimental error associated with measurements of lycopene and beta-carotene. Analytical replications did not contribute significantly to observed variation, and therefore experimental efficiency will be gained by reducing analytical replications while increasing field replication. We found that YSD significantly reduces lycopene in affected tissue and in juice made from affected fruit. In contrast, beta-carotene concentrations were only reduced in affected tissue but were not significantly reduced in juice. With increasing interest in biofortified crops, modulating the carotenoid profile in tomato by minimizing YSD symptoms represents a strategy for improving tomato fruit quality that is currently supported by grower contract structure and processor grades.
Surgical Adrenalectomy with Diurnal Corticosterone Replacement Slows Escalation and Prevents the Augmentation of Cocaine-induced Reinstatement in Rats Self-administering Cocaine Under Long-access Conditions
Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17534378
The loss of control over cocaine use and persistently heightened susceptibility to drug relapse that define human cocaine addiction are consequences of drug-induced neuroplasticity and can be studied in rats self-administering cocaine under conditions of daily long access (LgA) as escalating patterns of drug intake and heightened susceptibility to reinstatement. This study investigated the potential contribution of elevated glucocorticoids at the time of LgA cocaine self-administration (SA) to these behavioral indices of addiction-related neuroplasticity. Rats provided 14 days of 6-h access (LgA) to cocaine showed a progressive escalation of SA and were more susceptible to cocaine-induced reinstatement (10 mg/kg, i.p.) compared to rats self-administering under short-access (ShA; 2 h) conditions. A surgical adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement (ADX/C) regimen that eliminated SA-induced increases in corticosterone (CORT) while maintaining the diurnal pattern of secretion failed to alter SA or reinstatement in ShA rats but slowed escalation and attenuated later reinstatement in LgA rats when applied before but not after chronic LgA SA testing. Although the contribution of other adrenal hormones cannot be ruled out, these data suggest that elevated glucocorticoids at the time of cocaine exposure may be required for the effects of LgA SA on cocaine intake and later reinstatement. The inability of daily CORT administration before daily ShA SA, at a dose that reproduced the response during LgA SA, to mimic the effects of LgA SA suggests that elevated glucocorticoids during SA may play a permissive role in cocaine-induced neuroplasticity that contributes to addiction.
Characterization of Hypersensitive Resistance to Bacterial Spot Race T3 (Xanthomonas Perforans) from Tomato Accession PI 128216
Phytopathology. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19671005
Bacterial spot of tomato is caused by four species of Xanthomonas. The accession PI 128216 (Solanum pimpinellifolium) displays a hypersensitive reaction (HR) to race T3 strains (predominantely Xanthomonas perforans). We developed an inbred backcross (IBC) population (BC(2)S(5), 178 families) derived from PI 128216 and OH88119 (S. lycopersicum) as the susceptible recurrent parent for simultaneous introgression and genetic analysis of the HR response. These IBC families were evaluated in the greenhouse for HR to race T3 strain Xcv761. The IBC population was genotyped with molecular markers distributed throughout the genome in order to identify candidate loci conferring resistance. We treated the IBC population as a hypothesis forming generation to guide validation in subsequent crosses. Nonparametric analysis identified an association between HR and markers clustered on chromosome 11 (P < 0.05 to 0.0001) and chromosome 6 (0.04 > P > 0.002). Further analysis of the IBC population suggested that markers on chromosome 6 and 11 failed to assort independently, a phenomenon known as gametic phase disequilibrium. Therefore, to validate marker-trait linkages, resistant IBC plants were crossed with OH88119 and BC(3)F(2) progeny were evaluated for HR in the greenhouse. In these subsequent populations, the HR response was associated with the chromosome 11 markers (P < 0.0002) but not with the markers on chromosome 6 (P > 0.25). Independent F(2) families were developed by crossing resistant IBC lines to OH8245, OH88119, and OH7530. These populations were genotyped, organized into classes based on chromosome 11 markers, and evaluated for resistance in the field. The PI 128216 locus on chromosome 11 provided resistance that was dependent on gene dosage and genetic background. These results define a single locus, Rx-4, from PI 128216, which provides resistance to bacterial spot race T3, has additive gene action, and is located on chromosome 11.
Oligonucleotide Array Discovery of Polymorphisms in Cultivated Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) Reveals Patterns of SNP Variation Associated with Breeding
BMC Genomics. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19818135
Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) has narrow genetic diversity that makes it difficult to identify polymorphisms between elite germplasm. We explored array-based single feature polymorphism (SFP) discovery as a high-throughput approach for marker development in cultivated tomato.
ANZ Journal of Surgery. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20002989
Decision making is an integral part of surgical practice and is a skill that is as important as the ability to operate. Sound decision making is the result of acquiring 'surgical wisdom', which is achieved through learning, experience and reflection. This paper reviews the processes of surgical decision making with respect to choosing the correct procedure and deciding when to operate, and how operative decisions are made, together with the factors that influence our surgical decisions.
Journal of Experimental Botany. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20110265
Senescence represents the last phase of petal development during which macromolecules and organelles are degraded and nutrients are recycled to developing tissues. To understand better the post-transcriptional changes regulating petal senescence, a proteomic approach was used to profile protein changes during the senescence of Petuniaxhybrida 'Mitchell Diploid' corollas. Total soluble proteins were extracted from unpollinated petunia corollas at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after flower opening and at 24, 48, and 72 h after pollination. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to identify proteins that were differentially expressed in non-senescing (unpollinated) and senescing (pollinated) corollas, and image analysis was used to determine which proteins were up- or down-regulated by the experimentally determined cut-off of 2.1-fold for P <0.05. One hundred and thirty-three differentially expressed protein spots were selected for sequencing. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to determine the identity of these proteins. Searching translated EST databases and the NCBI non-redundant protein database, it was possible to assign a putative identification to greater than 90% of these proteins. Many of the senescence up-regulated proteins were putatively involved in defence and stress responses or macromolecule catabolism. Some proteins, not previously characterized during flower senescence, were identified, including an orthologue of the tomato abscisic acid stress ripening protein 4 (ASR4). Gene expression patterns did not always correlate with protein expression, confirming that both proteomic and genomic approaches will be required to obtain a detailed understanding of the regulation of petal senescence.
Discovery of Intron Polymorphisms in Cultivated Tomato Using Both Tomato and Arabidopsis Genomic Information
TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische Und Angewandte Genetik. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20552324
A low level of genetic variation has limited the application of molecular markers for characterizing important traits in cultivated tomato. To detect polymorphisms in tomato conserved ortholog sets (COS), expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were searched against tomato and Arabidopsis genomic sequences to define the positions of introns. Introns were amplified from 12 different accessions of tomato by polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequences were determined by sequencing. Results indicated that there was a possibility of 71% to amplify introns from tomato genomic DNA through this approach. A total of 201 introns were sequenced from 86 COS unigenes. The intron positions and numbers were conserved between tomato and Arabidopsis, but average intron length was three times longer in tomato than in Arabidopsis. A total of 307 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 75 indels were detected in introns of 57 COS unigenes among 12 tomato lines. Within cultivated tomato germplasm 172 SNPs and 47 indels were detected in introns of 33 COS unigenes. In addition, 41 SNPs were identified in the exons of 27 COS unigenes. The frequency of SNPs was 2.4 times higher in introns than in exons in the 22 COS unigenes having both intronic and exonic polymorphisms. These results indicate that intronic regions may contain sufficient variation to develop sufficient marker resources for genome-wide analysis in cultivated tomato.
TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische Und Angewandte Genetik. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20563547
Bacterial spot of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), caused by several Xanthomonas sp., is a serious but difficult disease to control by chemical means. Development of resistance has been hindered by emergence of races virulent to tomato, by the quantitative inheritance of resistance, and by a low correlation between seedling assays and resistance in the field. Resistance to multiple races, including race T4, has been described in the S. lycopersicum var. cerasiformae accession PI 114490. We used molecular markers to identify associations with quantitative trait loci (QTL) in an elite inbred backcross (IBC) population derived from OH 9242, PI 114490 and Fla. 7600, a breeding line with tomato accession Hawaii 7998 (H7998) in its pedigree. Race T4 resistance has also been described in the advanced breeding lines Fla. 8233, Fla. 8517, and Fla. 8326, and a selective genotyping approach was used to identify introgressions associated with resistance in segregating progeny derived from crosses with these lines. In the IBC population, loci on chromosomes 11 and 3, respectively, explained as much as 29.4 and 4.8% of resistance variation. Both these loci were also confirmed by selective genotyping: PI 114490 and H7998 alleles on chromosome 11 each provided resistance. The PI 114490 allele on chromosome 3 was confirmed in the Fla. 8517 population, and an allele of undetermined descent was confirmed at this locus in the Fla. 8326 population. A chromosome 12 allele was associated with susceptibility in the Fla. 8517 population. Additional loci contributing minor effects were also implicated in the IBC population or by selective genotyping. Selection for the major QTL in a marker-directed phenotyping approach should significantly improve the efficiency of breeding for resistance to bacterial spot race T4, although as yet undetected QTL would be necessary to carry out strict marker assisted selection.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20593824
A study was conducted to characterize the storage stability of lycopene in hot-break tomato juice prepared from two different cultivars and processed by various pressure-heat combinations. Samples were subjected to pressure assisted thermal processing (PATP; 600 MPa, 100 degrees C, 10 min), high pressure processing (HPP; 700 MPa, 45 degrees C, 10 min), and thermal processing (TP; 0.1 MPa, 100 degrees C, 35 min). Processed samples were stored at 4, 25, and 37 degrees C for upto 52 weeks. HPP and PATP treatments significantly improved the extractability of lycopene over TP and control. All-trans lycopene was found to be fairly stable to isomerization during processing, and the cis isomer content of the control and processed juice did not differ significantly. During storage, lycopene degradation varied as a function of the cultivar, processing method, storage temperature, and time. This study shows that combined pressure-temperature treatments could be an attractive alternative to thermal sterilization for preserving tomato juice quality.
Carotenoid Stability During Production and Storage of Tomato Juice Made from Tomatoes with Diverse Pigment Profiles Measured by Infrared Spectroscopy
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20681659
Chemical changes in carotenoids and lipids were studied during production and storage of canned tomato juice using ATR infrared spectroscopy and HPLC. Samples from 10 groups of tomatoes with different carotenoid profiles were analyzed fresh, after hot-break and screening, after canning, and at five different time points during 1 year of storage. An apparent increase of carotenoids was observed after hot-break due to improved extraction efficiency. This increase was accompanied by some degree of lipid oxidation and carotenoid isomerization. Canning produced the most intense changes in the lipid profile with breakdown of triglycerides ( approximately 1743 cm(-1)), formation of fatty acids ( approximately 1712 cm(-1)), and degradation and isomerization of trans-carotenoids ( approximately 960 and approximately 3006 cm(-1)). Isomerization was corroborated by the relative increase of HPLC areas corresponding to carotenoid cis isomers. Canning reduced trans-lycopene, trans-delta-carotene, trans-beta-carotene, and trans-lutein by 30, 34, 43, and 67%, respectively. HPLC data indicate that canning causes a drastic reduction of tetra-cis-lycopene and promotes its isomerization to other geometric forms, including all-trans-lycopene. Infrared spectra of tomato juice lipid fractions correlated well with the number of days in storage (SECV < 11 days, r values > 0.99), demonstrating continuous degradation of lipids. Results demonstrated that individual carotenoids and their isomeric forms behave differently during production and storage of canned tomato juice. Information collected by infrared spectroscopy complemented well that of HPLC, providing marker bands to further the understanding of chemical changes taking place during processing and storage of tomato juice.
Cancer Metastasis Reviews. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20803054
Evidence derived from a vast array of laboratory studies and epidemiological investigations have implicated diets rich in fruits and vegetables with a reduced risk of certain cancers. However, these approaches cannot demonstrate causal relationships and there is a paucity of randomized, controlled trials due to the difficulties involved with executing studies of food and behavioral change. Rather than pursuing the definitive intervention trials that are necessary, the thrust of research in recent decades has been driven by a reductionist approach focusing upon the identification of bioactive components in fruits and vegetables with the subsequent development of single agents using a pharmacologic approach. At this point in time, there are no chemopreventive strategies that are standard of care in medical practice that have resulted from this approach. This review describes an alternative approach focusing upon development of tomato-based food products for human clinical trials targeting cancer prevention and as an adjunct to therapy. Tomatoes are a source of bioactive phytochemicals and are widely consumed. The phytochemical pattern of tomato products can be manipulated to optimize anticancer activity through genetics, horticultural techniques, and food processing. The opportunity to develop a highly consistent tomato-based food product rich in anticancer phytochemicals for clinical trials targeting specific cancers, particularly the prostate, necessitates the interactive transdisciplinary research efforts of horticulturalists, food technologists, cancer biologists, and clinical translational investigators.
Physiological and Morphological Adaptations in Relation to Water Use Efficiency in Mediterranean Accessions of Solanum Lycopersicum
Plant, Cell & Environment. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20955222
The physiological traits underlying the apparent drought resistance of 'Tomàtiga de Ramellet' (TR) cultivars, a population of Mediterranean tomato cultivars with delayed fruit deterioration (DFD) phenotype and typically grown under non-irrigation conditions, are evaluated. Eight different tomato accessions were selected and included six TR accessions, one Mediterranean non-TR accession (NTR(M)) and a processing cultivar (NTR(O)). Among the TR accessions two leaf morphology types, normal divided leaves and potato-leaf, were selected. Plants were field grown under well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS) treatments, with 30 and 10% of soil water capacity, respectively. Accessions were clustered according to the leaf type and TR phenotype under WW and WS, respectively. Correlation among parameters under the different water treatments suggested that potential improvements in the intrinsic water-use efficiency (A(N)/g(s)) are possible without negative impacts on yield. Under WS TR accessions displayed higher A(N)/g(s), which was not due to differences in Rubisco-related parameters, but correlated with the ratio between the leaf mesophyll and stomatal conductances (g(m)/g(s)). The results confirm the existence of differential traits in the response to drought stress in Mediterranean accessions of tomato, and demonstrate that increases in the g(m)/g(s) ratio would allow improvements in A(N)/g(s) in horticultural crops.
Mapping and Linkage Disequilibrium Analysis with a Genome-wide Collection of SNPs That Detect Polymorphism in Cultivated Tomato
Journal of Experimental Botany. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21193580
The history of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) improvement includes genetic bottlenecks, wild species introgressions, and divergence into distinct market classes. This history makes tomato an excellent model to investigate the effects of selection on genome variation. A combination of linkage mapping in two F(2) populations and physical mapping with emerging genome sequence data was used to position 434 PCR-based markers including SNPs. Three-hundred-and-forty markers were used to genotype 102 tomato lines representing wild species, landraces, vintage cultivars, and contemporary (fresh market and processing) varieties. Principal component analysis confirmed genetic divergence between market classes of cultivated tomato (P <0.0001). A genome-wide survey indicated that linkage disequilibrium (LD) decays over 6-8 cM when all cultivated tomatoes, including vintage and contemporary, were considered together. Within contemporary processing varieties, LD decayed over 6-14 cM, and decay was over 3-16 cM within fresh market varieties. Significant inter-chromosomal (gametic phase) LD was detected in both fresh market and processing varieties between chromosomes 2 and 3, and 2 and 4, but in distinct chromosomal locations for each market class. Additional LD was detected between chromosomes 3 and 4, 3 and 11, and 4 and 6 in fresh market varieties and chromosomes 3 and 12 in processing varieties. These results suggest that breeding practices for market specialization in tomato have led to a genetic divergence between fresh market and processing types.
Molecular Mapping of Hypersensitive Resistance from Tomato 'Hawaii 7981' to Xanthomonas Perforans Race T3
Phytopathology. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21916626
Bacterial spot of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is caused by four species of Xanthomonas. The disease causes significant yield losses and a reduction in fruit quality. Physiological races have been described with tomato race 3 (T3) corresponding to strains of Xanthomonas perforans. The breeding line Hawaii 7981 (hereafter H7981) shows a hypersensitive reaction (HR) to race T3 strains conditioned by the interaction of the host resistance locus Xv3 and the bacterial effector avrXv3. The Xv3 gene is required for H7981-derived resistance to be effective under field conditions, though its expression is subject to genetic background. The segregation of HR in F(2) populations derived from H7981 crossed to processing tomato parents OH88119 and OH7870 was studied in 331 progeny, with the two independent crosses providing validation. We screened 453 simple-sequence repeat, insertion/deletion, and single-nucleotide polymorphism markers and identified 44 polymorphic markers each for the OH88119 and OH7870 populations covering 84.6 and 73.3% of the genome, respectively, within 20 centimorgans (cM). Marker-trait analysis using all polymorphic markers demonstrated that Xv3-mediated resistance maps to chromosome 11 in the two independent crosses. Allelism tests were conducted in crosses between lines carrying Xv3 derived from H7981, Rx-4 derived from plant introduction (PI) 128216, and resistance derived from PI 126932. These allelism tests suggested that the loci conditioning HR to race T3 strains are linked within 0.1 cM, are allelic, or are the same gene.
Fine Mapping and Analysis of a Candidate Gene in Tomato Accession PI128216 Conferring Hypersensitive Resistance to Bacterial Spot Race T3
TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische Und Angewandte Genetik. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22038434
Bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, X. vesicatoria, X. perforans and X. gardneri is one of the most destructive diseases in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) growing in tropical and subtropical regions. Exploring resistance genes from diverse germplasm and incorporating them into cultivated varieties are critical for controlling this disease. The S. pimpinellifolium accession PI128216 was reported to carry the Rx4 gene on chromosome 11 conferring hypersensitivity and field resistance to race T3. To facilitate the use of marker-assisted selection in breeding and map-based cloning of the gene, an F(2) population derived from a cross between the susceptible variety OH88119 and the resistant accession PI128216 was created for fine mapping of the Rx4 gene. Using 18 markers developed through various approaches, we mapped the gene to a 45.1-kb region between two markers pcc17 and pcc14 on chromosome 11. A NBS-LRR class of resistance gene was identified as the candidate for the Rx4 gene based on annotation results from the International Tomato Annotation Group. Comparison of the genomic DNA sequences of the Rx4 alleles in PI128216 and OH88119 revealed a 6-bp insertion/deletion (InDel) and eight SNPs. The InDel marker was successfully used to distinguish resistance and susceptibility in 12 tomato lines. These results will facilitate cloning the Rx4 gene and provide a useful tool for marker-assisted selection of this gene in tomato breeding programs.