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In JoVE (1)
- Harvesting and Cryo-cooling Crystals of Membrane Proteins Grown in Lipidic Mesophases for Structure Determination by Macromolecular Crystallography
Other Publications (11)
- Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Biological Crystallography
- Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry : JBIC : a Publication of the Society of Biological Inorganic Chemistry
- Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Biological Crystallography
- Journal of Bacteriology
- FEBS Letters
- Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Biological Crystallography
- Biophysical Journal
- Journal of Applied Crystallography
- Crystal Growth & Design
Articles by David Aragao in JoVE
Harvesting and Cryo-cooling Crystals of Membrane Proteins Grown in Lipidic Mesophases for Structure Determination by Macromolecular Crystallography
Dianfan Li, Coilín Boland, David Aragao, Kilian Walsh, Martin Caffrey
Membrane Structural and Functional Biology Group, Schools of Medicine and Biochemistry & Immunology, Trinity College Dublin
Herein is described procedures implemented in the Caffrey Membrane Structural and Functional Biology Group to harvest and cryo-cool membrane protein crystals grown in lipidic cubic and sponge phases for use in structure determination using macromolecular X-ray crystallography.
Other articles by David Aragao on PubMed
Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Biological Crystallography. Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12657783
The structure of dimeric cytochrome c(3) from the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio gigas, diDg, obtained by ab initio methods was further refined to 1.2 A resolution, giving final reliability factors of R(free) = 14.8% and R = 12.4%. This cytochrome is a dimer of tetraheme cytochrome c(3) molecules covalently linked by two solvent-accessible disulfide bridges, a characteristic unique to members of the cytochrome c(3) superfamily. Anisotropic analysis using the semi-rigid TLS method shows different behaviour for analogous loops in each monomer arising from their different packing environments. A detailed sequence and structural comparison with all other known cytochrome c(3) domains in single- and multi-domain cytochromes c(3) shows the presence of structurally conserved regions in this family, despite the high variability of the amino-acid sequence. An internal water molecule is conserved in a common structural arrangement in all c(3) tetraheme domains, indicating a probable electron-transfer pathway between hemes I and II. Unique features of diDg are an internal methionine residue close to heme I and to one of the axial ligands of heme III, where all other structures of the cytochrome c(3) superfamily have a phenylalanine, and a rather unusual CXXXCH heme-binding motif only found so far in this cytochrome.
Reduced Hybrid Cluster Proteins (HCP) from Desulfovibrio Desulfuricans ATCC 27774 and Desulfovibrio Vulgaris (Hildenborough): X-ray Structures at High Resolution Using Synchrotron Radiation
Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry : JBIC : a Publication of the Society of Biological Inorganic Chemistry. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12764602
The hybrid cluster proteins from the sulfate reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 ( Dd) and Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain Hildenborough ( Dv) have been isolated and crystallized anaerobically. In each case, the protein has been reduced with dithionite and the crystal structure of the reduced form elucidated using X-ray synchrotron radiation techniques at 1.25 A and 1.55 A resolution for Dd and Dv, respectively. Although the overall structures of the proteins are unchanged upon reduction, there are significant changes at the hybrid cluster centres. These include significant movements in the position of the iron atom linked to the persulfide moiety in the oxidized as-isolated proteins and the sulfur atom of the persulfide itself. The nature of these changes is described and the implications with respect to the function of hybrid cluster proteins are discussed.
Structure of the Hybrid Cluster Protein (HCP) from Desulfovibrio Desulfuricans ATCC 27774 Containing Molecules in the Oxidized and Reduced States
Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Biological Crystallography. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14646063
The hybrid cluster protein (HCP) from the sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 has been isolated and crystallized anaerobically. The protein sample used in the crystallization studies was several months old, having been stored at 193 K, and initial crystal structure studies were unable to fully resolve details of the hybrid cluster despite the use of high-resolution data to 1.25 A collected at the ESRF, Grenoble, France. Full elucidation of the structure has only become possible with the complete knowledge of the as-isolated and fully reduced crystal structures. The analysis clarifies the significant movements in the position of the Fe atom linked to the persulfide moiety in the oxidized as-isolated protein and the S atom of the persulfide itself as the protein is reduced. The structures of the as-isolated and reduced states are discussed in terms of the putative function of the HCP proteins.
The Complex of Sphingomonas Elodea ATCC 31461 Glucose-1-phosphate Uridylyltransferase with Glucose-1-phosphate Reveals a Novel Quaternary Structure, Unique Among Nucleoside Diphosphate-sugar Pyrophosphorylase Members
Journal of Bacteriology. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17434970
Gellan gum is a widely used commercial material, available in many different forms. Its economic importance has led to studies into the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharide gellan gum, which is industrially prepared in high yields using Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461. Glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase mediates the reversible conversion of glucose-1-phosphate and UTP into UDP-glucose and pyrophosphate, which is a key step in the biosynthetic pathway of gellan gums. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure of the glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase from S. elodea. The S. elodea enzyme shares strong monomeric similarity with glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase, several structures of which are known, although the quaternary structures of the active enzymes are rather different. A detailed comparison between S. elodea glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase and available thymidylyltransferases is described and shows remarkable structural similarities, despite the low sequence identities between the two divergent groups of proteins.
Crystallographic Analysis of the Intact Metal Centres [3Fe-4S](1+/0) and [4Fe-4S](2+/1+) in a Zn(2+) -containing Ferredoxin
FEBS Letters. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18258200
Detailed structural models of di-cluster seven-iron ferredoxins constitute a valuable resource for folding and stability studies relating the metal cofactors' role in protein stability. The here reported, hemihedric twinned crystal structure at 2.0 A resolution from Acidianus ambivalens ferredoxin, shows an integral 103 residues, physiologically relevant native form composed by a N-terminal extension comprising a His/Asp Zn(2+) site and the ferredoxin (betaalphabeta)(2) core, which harbours intact clusters I and II, a [3Fe-4S](1+/0) and a [4Fe-4S](2+/1+) centres. This is in contrast with the previously available ferredoxin structure from Sulfolofus tokodai, which was obtained from an artificial oxidative conversion with two [3Fe-4S](1+/0) centres and poor definition around cluster II.
Structural and Functional Relationships in the Hybrid Cluster Protein Family: Structure of the Anaerobically Purified Hybrid Cluster Protein from Desulfovibrio Vulgaris at 1.35 A Resolution
Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Biological Crystallography. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18560155
The hybrid cluster protein (HCP) from the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain Hildenborough has been isolated and crystallized anaerobically. The phase problem was solved for a P2(1)2(1)2(1) crystal form using multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction data collected in the vicinity of the Fe K absorption edge. Although the overall protein structure is essentially the same as that previously obtained, it shows that the nature of the hybrid cluster has particular differences when isolated and crystallized in the absence of oxygen and this provides insight into the structural features associated with changes in the oxidation state. A comparison between HCPs and carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CoDs) shows that they possess a similar fold and that the dehydrogenases have a related cluster at the equivalent HCP hybrid cluster position. This helps to understand the nature of the hybrid cluster and to predict a dimeric structure for class 3 HCPs, which lack the N-terminal region.
Biophysical Journal. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20682243
Structure determination of membrane proteins by crystallographic means has been facilitated by crystallization in lipidic mesophases. It has been suggested, however, that this so-called in meso method, as originally implemented, would not apply to small protein targets having =4 transmembrane crossings. In our study, the hypothesis that the inherent flexibility of the mesophase would enable crystallogenesis of small proteins was tested using a transmembrane pentadecapeptide, linear gramicidin, which produced structure-grade crystals. This result suggests that the in meso method should be considered as a viable means for high-resolution structure determination of integral membrane peptides, many of which are predicted to be coded for in the human genome.
Nature. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21228876
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are eukaryotic integral membrane proteins that modulate biological function by initiating cellular signalling in response to chemically diverse agonists. Despite recent progress in the structural biology of GPCRs, the molecular basis for agonist binding and allosteric modulation of these proteins is poorly understood. Structural knowledge of agonist-bound states is essential for deciphering the mechanism of receptor activation, and for structure-guided design and optimization of ligands. However, the crystallization of agonist-bound GPCRs has been hampered by modest affinities and rapid off-rates of available agonists. Using the inactive structure of the human β(2) adrenergic receptor (β(2)AR) as a guide, we designed a β(2)AR agonist that can be covalently tethered to a specific site on the receptor through a disulphide bond. The covalent β(2)AR-agonist complex forms efficiently, and is capable of activating a heterotrimeric G protein. We crystallized a covalent agonist-bound β(2)AR-T4L fusion protein in lipid bilayers through the use of the lipidic mesophase method, and determined its structure at 3.5 Å resolution. A comparison to the inactive structure and an antibody-stabilized active structure (companion paper) shows how binding events at both the extracellular and intracellular surfaces are required to stabilize an active conformation of the receptor. The structures are in agreement with long-timescale (up to 30 μs) molecular dynamics simulations showing that an agonist-bound active conformation spontaneously relaxes to an inactive-like conformation in the absence of a G protein or stabilizing antibody.
Journal of Applied Crystallography. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21808424
This paper reports on several developments of X-ray fluorescence techniques for macromolecular crystallography recently implemented at the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and National Cancer Institute beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source. These include (i) three-band on-the-fly energy scanning around absorption edges with adaptive positioning of the fine-step band calculated from a coarse pass; (ii) on-the-fly X-ray fluorescence rastering over rectangular domains for locating small and invisible crystals with a shuttle-scanning option for increased speed; (iii) fluorescence rastering over user-specified multi-segmented polygons; and (iv) automatic signal optimization for reduced radiation damage of samples.
Membrane Protein Crystallization in Lipidic Mesophases. Hosting Lipid Affects on the Crystallization and Structure of a Transmembrane Peptide
Crystal Growth & Design. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22933857
Gramicidin is an apolar pentadecapeptide antibiotic consisting of alternating D-and L-amino acids. It functions, in part, by creating pores in membranes of susceptible cells rendering them leaky to monovalent cations. The peptide should be able to traverse the host membrane either as a double stranded, intertwined double helix (DSDH) or as a head-to-head single stranded helix (HHSH). Current structure models are based on macromolecular X-ray crystallography (MX) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). However, the HHSH form has only been observed by NMR. The shape and size of the different gramicidin conformations differ. We speculated therefore that reconstituting it into a lipidic mesophase with bilayers of different microstructures would preferentially stabilize one form over the other. By using such mesophases for in meso crystallogenesis the expectation was that at least one would generate crystals of gramicidin in the HHSH form for structure determination by MX. This was tested using commercial and in-house synthesised lipids that support in meso crystallogenesis. Lipid acyl chain lengths were varied from 14 to 18 carbons to provide mesophases with a range of bilayer thicknesses. Unexpectedly, all lipids produced high quality, structure-grade crystals with gramicidin only in the DSDH conformation.
Nature. Jul, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22763450
Cytochrome c oxidase is a member of the haem copper oxidase superfamily (HCO). HCOs function as the terminal enzymes in the respiratory chain of mitochondria and aerobic prokaryotes, coupling molecular oxygen reduction to transmembrane proton pumping. Integral to the enzyme's function is the transfer of electrons from cytochrome c to the oxidase via a transient association of the two proteins. Electron entry and exit are proposed to occur from the same site on cytochrome c. Here we report the crystal structure of the caa3-type cytochrome oxidase from Thermus thermophilus, which has a covalently tethered cytochrome c domain. Crystals were grown in a bicontinuous mesophase using a synthetic short-chain monoacylglycerol as the hosting lipid. From the electron density map, at 2.36 Å resolution, a novel integral membrane subunit and a native glycoglycerophospholipid embedded in the complex were identified. Contrary to previous electron transfer mechanisms observed for soluble cytochrome c, the structure reveals the architecture of the electron transfer complex for the fused cupredoxin/cytochrome c domain, which implicates different sites on cytochrome c for electron entry and exit. Support for an alternative to the classical proton gate characteristic of this HCO class is presented.