Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (60)
- Infection and Immunity
- Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
- Infection and Immunity
- Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
- Infection and Immunity
- Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation : Official Publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
- Infection and Immunity
- Molecular Microbiology
- Journal of Bacteriology
- International Microbiology : the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
- FEMS Microbiology Reviews
- Infection and Immunity
- Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
- Infection and Immunity
- Journal of Clinical Microbiology
- The Indian Journal of Medical Research
- Methods (San Diego, Calif.)
- The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
- Infection and Immunity
- Revista Cubana De Medicina Tropical
- Current Protocols in Microbiology
- Microbiology (Reading, England)
- PLoS Medicine
- Journal of Clinical Microbiology
- Infection and Immunity
- Microbiology (Reading, England)
- Infection and Immunity
- Journal of Clinical Microbiology
- Infection and Immunity
- The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics : JMD
- PloS One
- Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI
- Journal of Clinical Microbiology
- Journal of Clinical Microbiology
- Journal of Clinical Microbiology
- Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering : Structures, Devices, and Systems
- PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
- PloS One
- The Journal of Urology
- Analytical Chemistry
- JALA (Charlottesville, Va.)
- Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases
- Molecular Microbiology
- Infection and Immunity
- PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
- Analytical Chemistry
- Conference Proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference
- Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
- Analytica Chimica Acta
- PloS One
- Biosensors & Bioelectronics
- Current Microbiology
- BMC Microbiology
- Journal of Clinical Microbiology
- Microbiology (Reading, England)
- PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
- Journal of Bacteriology
- Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI
This translation into Russian was automatically generated.
English Version | Other Languages
Articles by David Haake in JoVE
Иммуно-флуоресценции Проба лептоспирозный поверхности, подвергшихся воздействию белки
Marija Pinne1,2, David Haake3,4
1Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 2Research service, 151, Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, 3Departments of Medicine, Urology at David Geffen School of Medicine and Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Gentics, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), 4Division of Infectious Diseases, 111F, Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Health Care System
Эффективным методом для оценки поверхностной воздействия лептоспирозный белков описывается. Метод разработан специально, чтобы избежать разрушения хрупкой внешней мембраны лептоспирозный клеток. Этот метод требует применения нескольких отрицательных контролей для оценки целостности наружной мембраны и специфичность реакции антител.
Other articles by David Haake on PubMed
Novel 45-kilodalton Leptospiral Protein That is Processed to a 31-kilodalton Growth-phase-regulated Peripheral Membrane Protein
Infection and Immunity. Jan, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11748198
Leptospiral protein antigens are of interest as potential virulence factors and as candidate serodiagnostic and immunoprotective reagents. We identified leptospiral protein antigens by screening a genomic expression library with serum from a rabbit hyperimmunized with formalin-killed, virulent Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa. Genes expressing known outer membrane lipoproteins LipL32 and LipL41, the heat shock protein GroEL, and the alpha, beta, and beta' subunits of RNA polymerase were isolated from the library. In addition, a new leptospiral gene that in Escherichia coli expressed a 45-kDa antigen with an amino-terminal signal peptide followed by the spirochetal lipobox Val(-4)-Phe(-3)-Asn(-2)-Ala(-1) (downward arrow)Cys(+1) was isolated. We designated this putative lipoprotein LipL45. Immunoblot analysis of a panel of Leptospira strains probed with LipL45 antiserum demonstrated that many low-passage strains expressed LipL45. In contrast, LipL45 was not detected in high-passage, culture-attenuated strains, suggesting that LipL45 is a virulence-associated protein. In addition, all leptospiral strains tested, irrespective of culture passage, expressed a 31-kDa antigen that was recognized by LipL45 antiserum. Southern blot and peptide mapping studies indicated that this 31-kDa antigen was derived from the carboxy terminus of LipL45; therefore, it was designated P31(LipL45). Membrane fractionation studies demonstrated that P31(LipL45) is a peripheral membrane protein. Finally, we found that P31(LipL45) levels increased as Leptospira entered the stationary phase, indicating that P31(LipL45) levels were regulated. Hamsters infected with L. kirschneri formed an antibody response to LipL45, indicating that LipL45 was expressed during infection. Furthermore, the immunohistochemistry of kidneys from infected hamsters indicated that LipL45 was expressed by L. kirschneri that colonized the renal tubule. These observations suggest that expression of LipL45 responds to environmental cues, including those encountered during infection of a mammalian host.
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. May, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11941571
Recreational activities, such as water sports and adventure travel, are emerging as an important risk factor for leptospirosis, a potentially fatal zoonosis. We report the clinical course of 2 patients who acquired leptospirosis through participation in water sports. Physicians caring for patients who participate in adventure travel involving water sports should be familiar with the risk factors for and diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of leptospirosis.
Infection and Immunity. May, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11953365
Recombinant leptospiral outer membrane proteins (OMPs) can elicit immunity to leptospirosis in a hamster infection model. Previously characterized OMPs appear highly conserved, and thus their potential to stimulate heterologous immunity is of critical importance. In this study we undertook a global analysis of leptospiral OMPs, which were obtained by Triton X-114 extraction and phase partitioning. Outer membrane fractions were isolated from Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai grown at 20, 30, and 37 degrees C with or without 10% fetal calf serum and, finally, in iron-depleted medium. The OMPs were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Gel patterns from each of the five conditions were compared via image analysis, and 37 gel-purified proteins were tryptically digested and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS). Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS was used to rapidly identify leptospiral OMPs present in sequence databases. Proteins identified by this approach included the outer membrane lipoproteins LipL32, LipL36, LipL41, and LipL48. No known proteins from any cellular location other than the outer membrane were identified. Tandem electrospray MS was used to obtain peptide sequence information from eight novel proteins designated pL18, pL21, pL22, pL24, pL45, pL47/49, pL50, and pL55. The expression of LipL36 and pL50 was not apparent at temperatures above 30 degrees C or under iron-depleted conditions. The expression of pL24 was also downregulated after iron depletion. The leptospiral major OMP LipL32 was observed to undergo substantial cleavage under all conditions except iron depletion. Additionally, significant downregulation of these mass forms was observed under iron limitation at 30 degrees C, but not at 30 degrees C alone, suggesting that LipL32 processing is dependent on iron-regulated extracellular proteases. However, separate cleavage products responded differently to changes in growth temperature and medium constituents, indicating that more than one process may be involved in LipL32 processing. Furthermore, under iron-depleted conditions there was no concomitant increase in the levels of the intact form of LipL32. The temperature- and iron-regulated expression of LipL36 and the iron-dependent cleavage of LipL32 were confirmed by immunoblotting with specific antisera. Global analysis of the cellular location and expression of leptospiral proteins will be useful in the annotation of genomic sequence data and in providing insight into the biology of Leptospira.
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12173102
Some cases of late-onset (regressive) autism may involve abnormal flora because oral vancomycin, which is poorly absorbed, may lead to significant improvement in these children. Fecal flora of children with regressive autism was compared with that of control children, and clostridial counts were higher. The number of clostridial species found in the stools of children with autism was greater than in the stools of control children. Children with autism had 9 species of Clostridium not found in controls, whereas controls yielded only 3 species not found in children with autism. In all, there were 25 different clostridial species found. In gastric and duodenal specimens, the most striking finding was total absence of non-spore-forming anaerobes and microaerophilic bacteria from control children and significant numbers of such bacteria from children with autism. These studies demonstrate significant alterations in the upper and lower intestinal flora of children with late-onset autism and may provide insights into the nature of this disorder.
Characterization of the Leptospiral Outer Membrane and Description of Three Novel Leptospiral Membrane Proteins
Infection and Immunity. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12183539
The outer membrane (OM) of the mammalian pathogen Leptospira kirschneri was isolated in the form of membrane vesicles by alkaline plasmolysis and separated from the protoplasmic cylinder by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. All four components of the alkaline plasmolysis buffer, including 1.0 M NaCl, 27% sucrose (wt/vol), 2 mM EDTA, and 10 mM Tris (pH 9), were required for efficient OM release, as judged by recovery of leptospiral lipopolysaccharide. Two populations of OM vesicles (OMVs) were recovered, with peak concentrations found in the sucrose gradient at densities of 1.16 and 1.18 g/ml. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the more buoyant OMV population was smaller (<0.1 micro m in diameter) than the denser OMV population (0.2 to 0.3 micro m in diameter). The densities of both populations of OMVs were distinct from that of the protoplasmic-cylinder material, which was found in the sucrose gradient at a density of 1.20 g/ml. The OMV fractions were free of protoplasmic-cylinder material, as judged by immunoblotting with antibodies to the endoflagellar sheath protein, heat shock protein GroEL, and two novel cytoplasmic membrane proteins, lipoprotein LipL31 and transmembrane protein ImpL63. The protein components of the OMVs were characterized by one- and two-dimensional immunoblotting and found to include previously described OM proteins (OMPs), including the porin OmpL1; the lipoproteins LipL32, LipL36, and LipL41; and the peripheral membrane protein P31(LipL45). A number of less well-characterized OMPs were also identified, including those with molecular masses of 16, 21, 21.5, 22, 31, 36, 44, 48, 90, and 116 kDa. The 48-kDa OMP was identified as a novel OM lipoprotein designated LipL48. The use of membrane-specific markers in OM isolation techniques facilitates an accurate description of the leptospiral OM and its components.
An Improved Immunohistochemical Diagnostic Technique for Canine Leptospirosis Using Antileptospiral Antibodies on Renal Tissue
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation : Official Publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc. Jan, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12680639
The purpose of this study was to compare the immunoreactivity in canine renal tissues stained with antisera specific for 3 leptospiral antigens and those processed with traditional staining methods. In addition, immunoglobulin staining was done on tissues with immunoreactivity to leptospiral antigens. Formalin-fixed renal sections from 12 dogs with chronic interstitial nephritis suspected or proven to have leptospirosis (6 dogs with silver-stained leptospires and 6 dogs in which silver-stained leptospires were not detected) were used. Antibodies consisted of a monoclonal antibody to Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 2 polyclonal antibodies to outer membrane proteins, including OmpL1, a leptospiral porin, and LipL41, an outer membrane lipoprotein. The murine monoclonal antisera against LPS (F71C2-1) had the most abundant and consistent immunoreactivity. Immunoreactive areas were present in 6 of 6 sections positive by silver staining and included extracellular granular debris in intertubular areas, debris in macrophages, organisms in tubular lumina, and cytoplasmic granules in tubular epithelia. Antisera with specificity for the outer membrane proteins OmpL1 and LipL41 detected only intact organisms in tubular lumina. Immunoreactivity to OmpL1 (polyclonal 338) occurred in 4 of 5 sections positive by silver staining, but immunoreactivity to LipL41 (polyclonal 813) occurred in only 1 of 6 silver-positive sections. Each of the kidney sections in which leptospiral antigens were detected by immunohistochemistry also was positive by silver staining. Sections negative by silver staining were also negative by immunostaining. Although immunohistochemistry did not enhance sensitivity, amplification of signal by secondary antibody and hematoxylin counterstaining improved the ease of diagnosis and allowed better evaluation of tissue morphology than did silver staining methods. IgG was the most abundant immunoglobulin. IgG immunoreactivity occurred predominantly in plasma cells within interstitial infiltrates. Interstitial infiltrates contained abundant immunoreactivity to LPS, but immunoreactivity to OmpL1 and LipL41 was not noted.
Infection and Immunity. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12704111
Leptospira is the etiologic agent of leptospirosis, a bacterial zoonosis distributed worldwide. Leptospiral lipopolysaccharide is a protective immunogen, but the extensive serological diversity of leptospires has inspired a search for conserved outer membrane proteins (OMPs) that may stimulate heterologous immunity. Previously, a global analysis of leptospiral OMPs (P. A. Cullen, S. J. Cordwell, D. M. Bulach, D. A. Haake, and B. Adler, Infect. Immun. 70:2311-2318, 2002) identified pL21, a novel 21-kDa protein that is the second most abundant constituent of the Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai outer membrane proteome. In this study, we identified the gene encoding pL21 and found it to encode a putative lipoprotein; accordingly, the protein was renamed LipL21. Southern hybridization analysis revealed the presence of lipL21 in all of the pathogenic species but in none of the saprophytic species examined. Alignment of the LipL21 sequence from six strains of Leptospira revealed 96 to 100% identity. When specific polyclonal antisera to recombinant LipL21 were used, LipL21 was isolated together with other known leptospiral OMPs by both Triton X-114 extraction and sucrose density gradient membrane fractionation. All nine strains of pathogenic leptospires investigated by Western blotting, whether culture attenuated or virulent, were found to express LipL21. In contrast, the expression of LipL21 or an antigenically related protein could not be detected in nonpathogenic L. biflexa. Infected hamster sera and two of eight human leptospirosis sera tested were found to react with recombinant LipL21. Native LipL21 was found to incorporate tritiated palmitic acid, consistent with the prediction of a lipoprotein signal peptidase cleavage site. Biotinylation of the leptospiral surface resulted in selective labeling of LipL21 and the previously known OMPs LipL32 and LipL41. These findings show that LipL21 is a surface-exposed, abundant outer membrane lipoprotein that is expressed during infection and conserved among pathogenic Leptospira species.
Pathogenic Leptospira Species Express Surface-exposed Proteins Belonging to the Bacterial Immunoglobulin Superfamily
Molecular Microbiology. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12890019
Proteins with bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, such as the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin and Escherichia coli intimin, are surface-expressed proteins that mediate host mammalian cell invasion or attachment. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a new family of Big domain proteins, referred to as Lig (leptospiral Ig-like) proteins, in pathogenic Leptospira. Screening of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri expression libraries with sera from leptospirosis patients identified 13 lambda phage clones that encode tandem repeats of the 90 amino acid Big domain. Two lig genes, designated ligA and ligB, and one pseudogene, ligC, were identified. The ligA and ligB genes encode amino-terminal lipoprotein signal peptides followed by 10 or 11 Big domain repeats and, in the case of ligB, a unique carboxy-terminal non-repeat domain. The organization of ligC is similar to that of ligB but contains mutations that disrupt the reading frame. The lig sequences are present in pathogenic but not saprophytic Leptospira species. LigA and LigB are expressed by a variety of virulent leptospiral strains. Loss of Lig protein and RNA transcript expression is correlated with the observed loss of virulence during culture attenuation of pathogenic strains. High-pressure freeze substitution followed by immunocytochemical electron microscopy confirmed that the Lig proteins were localized to the bacterial surface. Immunoblot studies with patient sera found that the Lig proteins are a major antigen recognized during the acute host infection. These observations demonstrate that the Lig proteins are a newly identified surface protein of pathogenic Leptospira, which by analogy to other bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily virulence factors, may play a role in host cell attachment and invasion during leptospiral pathogenesis.
Molecular Evolution and Mosaicism of Leptospiral Outer Membrane Proteins Involves Horizontal DNA Transfer
Journal of Bacteriology. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15090524
Leptospires belong to a genus of parasitic bacterial spirochetes that have adapted to a broad range of mammalian hosts. Mechanisms of leptospiral molecular evolution were explored by sequence analysis of four genes shared by 38 strains belonging to the core group of pathogenic Leptospira species: L. interrogans, L. kirschneri, L. noguchii, L. borgpetersenii, L. santarosai, and L. weilii. The 16S rRNA and lipL32 genes were highly conserved, and the lipL41 and ompL1 genes were significantly more variable. Synonymous substitutions are distributed throughout the ompL1 gene, whereas nonsynonymous substitutions are clustered in four variable regions encoding surface loops. While phylogenetic trees for the 16S, lipL32, and lipL41 genes were relatively stable, 8 of 38 (20%) ompL1 sequences had mosaic compositions consistent with horizontal transfer of DNA between related bacterial species. A novel Bayesian multiple change point model was used to identify the most likely sites of recombination and to determine the phylogenetic relatedness of the segments of the mosaic ompL1 genes. Segments of the mosaic ompL1 genes encoding two of the surface-exposed loops were likely acquired by horizontal transfer from a peregrine allele of unknown ancestry. Identification of the most likely sites of recombination with the Bayesian multiple change point model, an approach which has not previously been applied to prokaryotic gene sequence analysis, serves as a model for future studies of recombination in molecular evolution of genes.
International Microbiology : the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15179605
Transmission of leptospirosis is facilitated by the survival of pathogenic leptospires in moist environments outside their mammalian host. In the present study, the survival mechanisms of Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola in aqueous conditions and lack of nutrients were investigated. In distilled water, leptospires were able to remain motile for 110 days (pH 7.2). However, when incubated in a semi-solid medium composed of distilled water and 0.5% purified agarose (pH 7.2), they survived 347 days. In this viscous environment, aggregates of live spirochetes were observed. Neither antibiotics (e.g. tetracycline and ampicillin) nor nutrients inhibited leptospiral aggregation. Immunoblot analysis suggested that cells incubated in water down-regulate the expression of LipL31, an inner-membrane protein, but retain expression of other membrane proteins. These studies provide insights into the mechanisms by which pathogenic Leptospira survives for prolonged periods of time in natural aqueous environments, a key stage in the leptospiral lifecycle.
FEMS Microbiology Reviews. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15449605
Pathogenic spirochetes are the causative agents of several important diseases including syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, swine dysentery, periodontal disease and some forms of relapsing fever. Spirochetal bacteria possess two membranes and the proteins present in the outer membrane are at the site of interaction with host tissue and the immune system. This review describes the current knowledge in the field of spirochetal outer membrane protein (OMP) biology. What is known concerning biogenesis and structure of OMPs, with particular regard to the atypical signal peptide cleavage sites observed amongst the spirochetes, is discussed. We examine the functions that have been determined for several spirochetal OMPs including those that have been demonstrated to function as adhesins, porins or to have roles in complement resistance. A detailed description of the role of spirochetal OMPs in immunity, including those that stimulate protective immunity or that are involved in antigenic variation, is given. A final section is included which covers experimental considerations in spirochetal outer membrane biology. This section covers contentious issues concerning cellular localization of putative OMPs, including determination of surface exposure. A more detailed knowledge of spirochetal OMP biology will hopefully lead to the design of new vaccines and a better understanding of spirochetal pathogenesis.
Osmolarity, a Key Environmental Signal Controlling Expression of Leptospiral Proteins LigA and LigB and the Extracellular Release of LigA
Infection and Immunity. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15618142
The high-molecular-weight leptospiral immunoglobulin-like repeat (Lig) proteins are expressed only by virulent low-passage forms of pathogenic Leptospira species. We examined the effects of growth phase and environmental signals on the expression, surface exposure, and extracellular release of LigA and LigB. LigA was lost from stationary-phase cells, while LigB expression was maintained. The loss of cell-associated LigA correlated with selective release of a lower-molecular-weight form of LigA into the culture supernatant, while LigB and the outer membrane lipoprotein LipL41 remained associated with cells. Addition of tissue culture medium to leptospiral culture medium induced LigA and LigB expression and caused a substantial increase in released LigA. The sodium chloride component of tissue culture medium was primarily responsible for the enhanced release of LigA. Addition of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, or sodium sulfate to leptospiral medium to physiological osmolarity caused the induction of both cell-associated LigA and LigB, indicating that osmolarity regulates the expression of Lig proteins. Osmotic induction of Lig expression also resulted in enhanced release of LigA and increased surface exposure of LigB, as determined by surface immunofluorescence. Osmolarity appears to be a key environmental signal that controls the expression of LigA and LigB.
Rapid, Species-specific Detection of Uropathogen 16S RDNA and RRNA at Ambient Temperature by Dot-blot Hybridization and an Electrochemical Sensor Array
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15639199
Development of rapid molecular approaches for pathogen detection is key to improving treatment of infectious diseases. For this study, the kinetics and temperature-dependence of DNA probe hybridization to uropathogen species-specific sequences were examined. A set of oligonucleotide probes were designed based on variable regions of the 16S gene of the Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A universal bacterial probe and probes-specific for gram-positive and gram-negative organisms were also included. The oligonucleotide probes discriminated among 16S genes derived from 11 different species of uropathogenic bacteria applied to nylon membranes in a dot-blot format. Significant binding of oligonucleotide probes to target DNA and removal of nonspecific binding by membrane washing could both be achieved rapidly, requiring as little as 10 min. An oligonucleotide probe from the same species-specific region of the E. coli 16S gene was used as a capture probe in a novel electrochemical 16-sensor array based on microfabrication technology. Sequence-specific hybridization of target uropathogen 16S rDNA was detected through horseradish peroxidase acting as an electrochemical transducer via a second, detector probe. The sensor array demonstrated rapid, species-specific hybridization in a time course consistent with the rapid kinetics of the dot-blot hybridization studies. As in the dot-blot hybridization studies, species-specific detection of bacterial nucleic acids using the sensor array approach was demonstrated both at 65 degrees C and at room temperature. These results demonstrate that molecular hybridization approaches can be adapted to rapid, room temperature conditions ideal for an electrochemical sensor array platform.
Infection and Immunity. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16040999
The identification of the subset of outer membrane proteins exposed on the surface of a bacterial cell (the surfaceome) is critical to understanding the interactions of bacteria with their environments and greatly narrows the search for protective antigens of extracellular pathogens. The surfaceome of Leptospira was investigated by biotin labeling of viable leptospires, affinity capture of the biotinylated proteins, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry (MS). The leptospiral surfaceome was found to be predominantly made up of a small number of already characterized proteins, being in order of relative abundance on the cell surface: LipL32 > LipL21 > LipL41. Of these proteins, only LipL32 had not been previously identified as surface exposed. LipL32 surface exposure was subsequently verified by three independent approaches: surface immunofluorescence, whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunoelectron microscopy. Three other proteins, Q8F8Q0 (a putative transmembrane outer membrane protein) and two proteins of 20 kDa and 55 kDa that could not be identified by MS, one of which demonstrated a high degree of labeling potentially representing an additional, as-yet-uncharacterized, surface-exposed protein. Minor labeling of p31(LipL45), GroEL, and FlaB1 was also observed. Expression of the surfaceome constituents remained unchanged under a range of conditions investigated, including temperature and the presence of serum or urine. Immunization of mice with affinity-captured surface components stimulated the production of antibodies that bound surface proteins from heterologous leptospiral strains. The surfaceomics approach is particularly amenable to protein expression profiling using small amounts of sample (<10(7) cells) offering the potential to analyze bacterial surface expression during infection.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15695723
We describe a U.S. Army Ranger returning from duty in Afghanistan and Iraq with life-threatening infection due to Plasmodium vivax. Morphological variants were observed in blood films prepared using samples collected by venipuncture. The patient's multiple relapses indicate infection with primaquine-tolerant P. vivax. Strategies for relapse prevention using primaquine are reviewed.
The Indian Journal of Medical Research. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15802754
Methods (San Diego, Calif.). Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16213156
Electrochemical biosensors have revolutionized glucose monitoring but have not yet fulfilled their promise of a low cost, direct detection replacement for genetic amplification tests such as PCR [K. Kerman, M. Kobayashi, E. Tamiya, Recent trends in electrochemical DNA biosensor technology, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15 (2004) R1-R11; A. Chaubey, B.D. Malhotra, Mediated biosensors. Biosens. Bioelectron. 17 (6-7) (2002) 441-456]. It has been anticipated that the integration of nanoscale chemical structures such as self-assembled monolayers with electrochemical biosensors would increase sensitivity by decreasing inherent system noise. We have designed a novel biosensing approach incorporating such integration and achieved rapid, ultra-low concentration sensitivities without target amplification. Raw samples are mixed with lysis buffer to allow hybridization of nucleic acid targets with anchor and signal probes before immobilizing a signaling enzyme proximate to the biosensor surface. A bias potential is subsequently applied and the secondary byproduct of a cyclic peroxidase reaction measured. Further studies have demonstrated the application of our approach in protein, clinical chemistry, and ionic assays.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16222003
Leptospirosis is a global zoonotic disease with a variety of clinical manifestations. We report an outbreak of leptospirosis in the Yaeyama Islands, Japan, in the summer of 1999 associated with heavy rainfall. Fourteen people were diagnosed with leptospirosis and required hospitalization. All cases were found to have exposure to contaminated soil or water. A history of recreational activities involving water sports was more frequent (71%) than occupational risk factors related to agriculture or construction (29%). Fever was the primary symptom in all cases, followed by chills (93%), headache (86%), myalgias (57%) and conjunctival suffusion (57%). All cases were successfully treated with antimicrobial therapy except one patient who improved spontaneously. Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions were seen in six cases (43%). The increasing incidence of leptospirosis related to recreational sports is an important public health problem in resort areas. A high-index of suspicion, early treatment, and prevention are crucial in this latently endemic area.
LruA and LruB, Novel Lipoproteins of Pathogenic Leptospira Interrogans Associated with Equine Recurrent Uveitis
Infection and Immunity. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16239521
Recurrent uveitis as a sequela to Leptospira infection is the most common infectious cause of blindness and impaired vision of horses worldwide. Leptospiral proteins expressed during prolonged survival in the eyes of horses with lesions of chronic uveitis were identified by screening a phage library of Leptospira interrogans DNA fragments with eye fluids from uveitic horses. Inserts of reactive phages encoded several known leptospiral proteins and two novel putative lipoproteins, LruA and LruB. LruA was intrinsically labeled during incubation of L. interrogans in medium containing [14C]palmitic acid, confirming that it is a lipoprotein. lruA and lruB were detected by Southern blotting in infectious Leptospira interrogans but not in nonpathogenic Leptospira biflexa. Fractionation data from cultured Leptospira indicate that LruA and LruB are localized in the inner membrane. Uveitic eye fluids contained significantly higher levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG specific for each protein than did companion sera, indicating strong local antibody responses. Moreover, LruA- and LruB-specific antisera reacted with equine ocular components, suggesting an immunopathogenic role in leptospiral uveitis.
[Expression in Escherichia Coli of the Gspd(l) Gene of the Type II Secretion System in Leptospira Borgpetersenii Serovariety Hardjo]
Revista Cubana De Medicina Tropical. Jan-Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 17966476
A fragment of 1.539 pb of the gene homologous to gspD of Hardjobovis was clonated in the pET28a vector and it was transformed into E. coli C43 and Rosetta strains. The sequence of GspD(L) showed 46 % of similitude with E. coli GspD secretin. The expression of recombinant GspD(L) was obtained in Rosetta strain.
Current Protocols in Microbiology. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 18770576
This unit describes the techniques involved in the hamster model of leptospirosis. Hamsters are exquisitely susceptible to infection with pathogenic Leptospira species. The LD(50) of virulent Leptospiral strains by intraperitoneal inoculation of 3- to 4-week-old hamsters is as low as a single organism. The pathogenesis of severe leptospirosis in the hamster is a model of accidental infections observed in nature in many mammals, including humans. Animal husbandry issues and the reproducibility of the hamster model make it the animal model of choice for Leptospiral vaccine and antibiotic treatment studies.
Microbiology (Reading, England). Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16385121
Lipoproteins are of great interest in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of spirochaetes. Because spirochaete lipobox sequences exhibit more plasticity than those of other bacteria, application of existing prediction algorithms to emerging sequence data has been problematic. In this paper a novel lipoprotein prediction algorithm is described, designated SpLip, constructed as a hybrid of a lipobox weight matrix approach supplemented by a set of lipoprotein signal peptide rules allowing for conservative amino acid substitutions. Both the weight matrix and the rules are based on a training set of 28 experimentally verified spirochaetal lipoproteins. The performance of the SpLip algorithm was compared to that of the hidden Markov model-based LipoP program and the rules-based algorithm Psort for all predicted protein-coding genes of Leptospira interrogans sv. Copenhageni, L. interrogans sv. Lai, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia garinii, Treponema pallidum and Treponema denticola. Psort sensitivity (13-35 %) was considerably less than that of SpLip (93-100 %) or LipoP (50-84 %) due in part to the requirement of Psort for Ala or Gly at the -1 position, a rule based on E. coli lipoproteins. The percentage of false-positive lipoprotein predictions by the LipoP algorithm (8-30 %) was greater than that of SpLip (0-1 %) or Psort (4-27 %), due in part to the lack of rules in LipoP excluding unprecedented amino acids such as Lys and Arg in the -1 position. This analysis revealed a higher number of predicted spirochaetal lipoproteins than was previously known. The improved performance of the SpLip algorithm provides a more accurate prediction of the complete lipoprotein repertoire of spirochaetes. The hybrid approach of supplementing weight matrix scoring with rules based on knowledge of protein secretion biochemistry may be a general strategy for development of improved prediction algorithms.
PLoS Medicine. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16933961
Use of Electrochemical DNA Biosensors for Rapid Molecular Identification of Uropathogens in Clinical Urine Specimens
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16455913
We describe the first species-specific detection of bacterial pathogens in human clinical fluid samples using a microfabricated electrochemical sensor array. Each of the 16 sensors in the array consisted of three single-layer gold electrodes-working, reference, and auxiliary. Each of the working electrodes contained one representative from a library of capture probes, each specific for a clinically relevant bacterial urinary pathogen. The library included probes for Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterocococcus spp., and the Klebsiella-Enterobacter group. A bacterial 16S rRNA target derived from single-step bacterial lysis was hybridized both to the biotin-modified capture probe on the sensor surface and to a second, fluorescein-modified detector probe. Detection of the target-probe hybrids was achieved through binding of a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-fluorescein antibody to the detector probe. Amperometric measurement of the catalyzed HRP reaction was obtained at a fixed potential of -200 mV between the working and reference electrodes. Species-specific detection of as few as 2,600 uropathogenic bacteria in culture, inoculated urine, and clinical urine samples was achieved within 45 min from the beginning of sample processing. In a feasibility study of this amperometric detection system using blinded clinical urine specimens, the sensor array had 100% sensitivity for direct detection of gram-negative bacteria without nucleic acid purification or amplification. Identification was demonstrated for 98% of gram-negative bacteria for which species-specific probes were available. When combined with a microfluidics-based sample preparation module, the integrated system could serve as a point-of-care device for rapid diagnosis of urinary tract infections.
Effects of Temperature on Gene Expression Patterns in Leptospira Interrogans Serovar Lai As Assessed by Whole-genome Microarrays
Infection and Immunity. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16988264
Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Humans become infected via exposure to pathogenic Leptospira spp. from infected animals or contaminated water or soil. The availability of genome sequences for Leptospira interrogans, serovars Lai and Copenhageni, has opened up opportunities to examine global transcription profiles using microarray technology. Temperature is a key environmental factor known to affect leptospiral protein expression. Leptospira spp. can grow in artificial media at a range of temperatures reflecting conditions found in the environment and the mammalian host. Therefore, transcriptional changes were compared between cultures grown at 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 37 degrees C, and 39 degrees C to represent ambient temperatures in the environment, growth under laboratory conditions, and temperatures in healthy and febrile hosts. Data from direct pairwise comparisons of the four temperatures were consolidated to examine transcriptional changes at two generalized biological conditions representing mammalian physiological temperatures (37 degrees C and 39 degrees C) versus environmental temperatures (20 degrees C and 30 degrees C). Additionally, cultures grown at 30 degrees C then shifted overnight to 37 degrees C were compared with those grown long-term at 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C to identify genes potentially expressed in the early stages of infection. Comparison of data sets from physiological versus environmental experiments with upshift experiments provided novel insights into possible transcriptional changes at different stages of infection. Changes included differential expression of chemotaxis and motility genes, signal transduction systems, and genes encoding proteins involved in alteration of the outer membrane. These findings indicate that temperature is an important factor regulating expression of proteins that facilitate invasion and establishment of disease.
LipL46 is a Novel Surface-exposed Lipoprotein Expressed During Leptospiral Dissemination in the Mammalian Host
Microbiology (Reading, England). Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17159228
Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by invasive spirochaetes belonging to the genus Leptospira. Pathogenic leptospires disseminate via the bloodstream to colonize the renal tubules of reservoir hosts. Little is known about leptospiral outer-membrane proteins expressed during the dissemination stage of infection. In this study, a novel surface-exposed lipoprotein is described; it has been designated LipL46 to distinguish it from a previously described 31 kDa peripheral membrane protein, P31(LipL45), which is exported as a 45 kDa probable lipoprotein. The lipL46 gene encodes a 412 aa polypeptide with a 21 aa signal peptide. Lipid modification of cysteine at the lipoprotein signal peptidase cleavage site FSISC is supported by the finding that Leptospira interrogans intrinsically labels LipL46 during incubation in medium containing [(14)C]palmitate. LipL46 appears to be exported to the leptospiral outer membrane as a 46 kDa lipoprotein, based on Triton X-114 solubilization and phase partitioning studies, which included the outer and inner membrane controls LipL32 and LipL31, respectively. Surface immunoprecipitation and whole-cell ELISA experiments indicate that LipL46 is exposed on the leptospiral surface. Immunohistochemistry studies demonstrated expression of LipL46 by leptospires found in the bloodstream of acutely infected hamsters. Leptospires expressing LipL46 were also found in the intercellular spaces of the liver, within splenic phagocytes, and invading the glomerular hilum of the kidney. Infection-associated expression is supported by the finding that LipL46 is a major antigen recognized by sera from infected hamsters. These findings indicate that LipL46 may be important in leptospiral dissemination, and that it may serve as a useful serodiagnostic antigen.
Physiological Osmotic Induction of Leptospira Interrogans Adhesion: LigA and LigB Bind Extracellular Matrix Proteins and Fibrinogen
Infection and Immunity. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17296754
Transmission of leptospirosis occurs through contact of mucous membranes and abraded skin with freshwater contaminated by pathogenic Leptospira spp. Exposure to physiological osmolarity induces leptospires to express high levels of the Lig surface proteins containing imperfect immunoglobulin-like repeats that are shared or differ between LigA and LigB. We report that osmotic induction of Lig is accompanied by 1.6- to 2.5-fold increases in leptospiral adhesion to immobilized extracellular matrix and plasma proteins, including collagens I and IV, laminin, and especially fibronectin and fibrinogen. Recombinant LigA-unique and LigB-unique repeat proteins bind to these same host ligands. We found that the avidity of LigB in binding fibronectin is comparable to that of the Staphylococcus aureus FnBPA D repeats. Both LigA- and LigB-unique repeats interact with the amino-terminal fibrin- and gelatin-binding domains of fibronectin, which are also recognized by fibronectin-binding proteins mediating the adhesion of other microbial pathogens. In contrast, repeats common to both LigA and LigB do not bind these host proteins, and nonrepeat sequences in the carboxy-terminal domain of LigB show only weak interaction with fibronectin and fibrinogen. A functional role for the binding activity of LigA and LigB is suggested by the ability of the recombinants to inhibit leptospiral adhesion to fibronectin by 28% and 21%, respectively. The binding of LigA and LigB to multiple ligands present in different tissues suggests that these adhesins may be involved in the initial colonization and dissemination stages of leptospirosis. The characterization of the Lig adhesin function should aid the design of Lig-based vaccines and serodiagnostic tests.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17360842
There is an urgent need for improved diagnosis of leptospirosis, an emerging infectious disease which imparts a large disease burden in developing countries. We evaluated the use of Leptospira immunoglobulin (Ig)-like (Lig) proteins as a serodiagnostic marker for leptospirosis. Lig proteins have bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) tandem repeat domains, a moiety found in virulence factors in other pathogens. Sera from patients identified during urban outbreaks in Brazil reacted strongly with immunoblots of a recombinant fragment comprised of the second to sixth Big domains of LigB from L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni, the principal agent for transmission in this setting. Furthermore, the sera recognized an analogous LigB fragment derived from L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, a pathogenic serovar which is not endemic to the study area. The immunoblot assay detected anti-LigB IgM antibodies in sera from 92% (95% confidence interval, 85 to 96%) of patients during acute-phase leptospirosis. The assay had a sensitivity of 81% for sera from patients with less than 7 days of illness. Anti-LigB antibodies were found in sera from 57% of the patients who did not have detectable anti-whole-Leptospira responses as detected by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and microagglutination test. The specificities of the assay were 93 to 100% and 90 to 97% among sera from healthy individuals and patients with diseases that have clinical presentations that overlap with those of leptospirosis, respectively. These findings indicate that the antibody response to this putative virulence determinant is a sensitive and specific marker for acute infection. The use of this marker may aid the prompt and timely diagnosis required to reduce the high mortality associated with severe forms of the disease.
Response of Leptospira Interrogans to Physiologic Osmolarity: Relevance in Signaling the Environment-to-host Transition
Infection and Immunity. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17371863
Transmission of pathogenic Leptospira between mammalian hosts usually involves dissemination via soil or water contaminated by the urine of carrier animals. The ability of Leptospira to adapt to the diverse conditions found inside and outside the host is reflected in its relatively large genome size and high percentage of signal transduction genes. An exception is Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, which is transmitted by direct contact and appears to have lost genes necessary for survival outside the mammalian host. Invasion of host tissues by Leptospira interrogans involves a transition from a low osmolar environment outside the host to a higher physiologic osmolar environment within the host. Expression of the lipoprotein LigA and LigB adhesins is strongly induced by an upshift in osmolarity to the level found in mammalian host tissues. These data suggest that Leptospira utilizes changes in osmolarity to regulate virulence characteristics. To better understand how L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni adapts to osmolar conditions that correspond with invasion of a mammalian host, we quantified alterations in transcript levels using whole-genome microarrays. Overnight exposure in leptospiral culture medium supplemented with sodium chloride to physiologic osmolarity significantly altered the transcript levels of 6% of L. interrogans genes. Repressed genes were significantly more likely to be absent or pseudogenes in L. borgpetersenii, suggesting that osmolarity is relevant in studying the adaptation of L. interrogans to host conditions. Genes induced by physiologic osmolarity encoded a higher than expected number of proteins involved in signal transduction. Further, genes predicted to encode lipoproteins and those coregulated by temperature were overrepresented among both salt-induced and salt-repressed genes. In contrast, leptospiral homologues of hyperosmotic or general stress genes were not induced at physiologic osmolarity. These findings suggest that physiologic osmolarity is an important signal for regulation of gene expression by pathogenic leptospires during transition from ambient conditions to the host tissue environment.
The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics : JMD. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17384207
Electrochemical sensors have the capacity for rapid and accurate detection of a wide variety of target molecules in biological fluids. We have developed an electrochemical sensor assay involving hybridization of bacterial 16S rRNA to fluorescein-modified detector probes and to biotin-modified capture probes anchored to the sensor surface. Signal is generated by an oxidation-reduction current produced by the action of horseradish peroxidase conjugated to an anti-fluorescein monoclonal Fab. A previous study found that this electrochemical sensor strategy could identify uropathogens in clinical urine specimens. To improve assay sensitivity, we examined the key steps that affect the current amplitude of the electrochemical signal. Efficient lysis and release of 16S rRNA from both gram-negative and -positive bacteria was achieved with an initial treatment with Triton X-100 and lysozyme followed by alkaline lysis, resulting in a 12-fold increase in electrochemical signal compared with alkaline lysis alone. The distance in nucleotides between the target hybridization sites of the detector and capture probes and the location of fluorescein modification on the detector probe contributed to a 23-fold change in signal intensity. These results demonstrate the importance of target-probe and probe-probe interactions in the detection of bacterial 16S rRNA using an electrochemical DNA sensor approach.
The Terminal Portion of Leptospiral Immunoglobulin-like Protein LigA Confers Protective Immunity Against Lethal Infection in the Hamster Model of Leptospirosis
Vaccine. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17629368
Subunit vaccines are a potential intervention strategy against leptospirosis, which is a major public health problem in developing countries and a veterinary disease in livestock and companion animals worldwide. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins are a family of surface-exposed determinants that have Ig-like repeat domains found in virulence factors such as intimin and invasin. We expressed fragments of the repeat domain regions of LigA and LigB from Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni. Immunization of Golden Syrian hamsters with Lig fragments in Freund's adjuvant induced robust antibody responses against recombinant protein and native protein, as detected by ELISA and immunoblot, respectively. A single fragment, LigANI, which corresponds to the six carboxy-terminal Ig-like repeat domains of the LigA molecule, conferred immunoprotection against mortality (67-100%, P<0.05) in hamsters which received a lethal inoculum of L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni. However, immunization with this fragment did not confer sterilizing immunity. These findings indicate that the carboxy-terminal portion of LigA is an immunoprotective domain and may serve as a vaccine candidate for human and veterinary leptospirosis.
Leptospira Interrogans Endostatin-like Outer Membrane Proteins Bind Host Fibronectin, Laminin and Regulators of Complement
PloS One. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18000555
The pathogenic spirochete Leptospira interrogans disseminates throughout its hosts via the bloodstream, then invades and colonizes a variety of host tissues. Infectious leptospires are resistant to killing by their hosts' alternative pathway of complement-mediated killing, and interact with various host extracellular matrix (ECM) components. The LenA outer surface protein (formerly called LfhA and Lsa24) was previously shown to bind the host ECM component laminin and the complement regulators factor H and factor H-related protein-1. We now demonstrate that infectious L. interrogans contain five additional paralogs of lenA, which we designated lenB, lenC, lenD, lenE and lenF. All six genes encode domains predicted to bear structural and functional similarities with mammalian endostatins. Sequence analyses of genes from seven infectious L. interrogans serovars indicated development of sequence diversity through recombination and intragenic duplication. LenB was found to bind human factor H, and all of the newly-described Len proteins bound laminin. In addition, LenB, LenC, LenD, LenE and LenF all exhibited affinities for fibronectin, a distinct host extracellular matrix protein. These characteristics suggest that Len proteins together facilitate invasion and colonization of host tissues, and protect against host immune responses during mammalian infection.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18184827
There is an urgent need for the development of serodiagnostic approaches with improved sensitivity for patients with acute leptospirosis. Immunoblots were performed on 188 sera collected from 74 patients with laboratory-confirmed early leptospiral infection to detect immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to antigens pooled from 10 leptospiral strains prevalent in Thailand. Sera from patients with other febrile diseases served as controls. IgM reactivity to seven distinct antigens, with apparent molecular masses of 14 to 18, 19 to 23, 24 to 30, 32, 35/36, 37, and 41/42 kDa, was observed. The low-molecular-mass 14- to 18-kDa band was the most frequently detected antigen, being recognized in sera from 82.4% of patients during the first 3 days after the onset of symptoms. We evaluated the accuracy of the IgM immunoblot (IgM-IB) test by using reactivity to the 14- to 18-kDa band and/or at least two bands among the 19- to 23-, 24- to 30-, 32-, 35/36-, 37-, and 41/42-kDa antigens as the diagnostic criterion. The sensitivities of the IgM-IB test and the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) were 88.2% and 2.0%, respectively, with sera from patients 1 to 3 days after the onset of symptoms. In contrast, the IgM-IB test was positive with only 2/48 (4.2%) sera from patients with other febrile illnesses. The high sensitivity and specificity of the IgM-IB test for acute leptospirosis would provide greatly improved diagnostic accuracy for identification of patients who would benefit from early antibiotic intervention. In addition, the antigens identified by the IgM-IB test may serve as components of a rapid, accurate, point-of-care diagnostic test for early leptospirosis.
Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Determination of Uropathogens in Clinical Urine Specimens by Use of ATP Bioluminescence
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18272708
We describe the first direct testing of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacterial pathogens in human clinical fluid samples by the use of ATP bioluminescence. We developed an ATP bioluminescence assay that eliminates somatic sources of ATP to selectively quantify the bacterial load in clinical urine specimens with a sensitivity of <1,000 CFU per milliliter. There was a log-log relationship between light emission and the numbers of CFU in clinical urine specimens. A clinical study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the ATP bioluminescence assay for determination of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of uropathogens in clinical urine specimens tested in a blinded manner. ATP bioluminescent bacterial density quantitation was used to determine the inoculation volume in growth medium with and without antibiotics. After incubation at 37 degrees C for 120 min, the ATP bioluminescence assay was repeated to evaluate the uropathogen response to antibiotics. The ability of the ATP bioluminescence assay to discriminate between antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance was determined by comparison of the results obtained by the ATP bioluminescence assay with the results obtained by standard clinical microbiology methods. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal threshold for discriminating between susceptibility and resistance. Susceptibility and resistance were correctly predicted in 87% and 95% of cases, respectively, for an overall unweighted accuracy of 91%, when the results were stratified by antibiotic. For samples in which the pathogen was susceptible, the accuracy improved to 95% when the results for samples with less than a 25-fold increase in the amount of bacterial ATP in the medium without antibiotics were excluded. These data indicate that a rapid bioluminescent antimicrobial susceptibility assay may be useful for the management of urinary tract infections.
Optimal Probe Length and Target Location for Electrochemical Detection of Selected Uropathogens at Ambient Temperature
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18562584
We have previously demonstrated the clinical validity of the rapid detection of uropathogens by use of a DNA biosensor. This assay involves the hybridization of capture and detector probe pairs with bacterial 16S rRNA target molecules to form a DNA-RNA sandwich on the sensor surface. Horseradish peroxidase-conjugated antibody binds to the detector probe to enzymatically amplify the hybridization signal. These previous studies involved the hybridization of bacterial 16S rRNA target sequences with 35-mer oligonucleotide probe pairs at 65 degrees C. Achievement of point-of-care technology will be greatly facilitated by ambient-temperature detection. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of probe length and target location on signal intensity using hybridization temperatures of 20 to 25 degrees C. Signal intensity was found to vary dramatically with hybridization location in the species-specific bulge region of 16S rRNA helix 18. Probe pairs of as short as 10 nucleotides in length were able to produce a significant electrochemical signal, and signal intensity was correlated with probe length for probes of 10 to 20 nucleotides in length. The sensitivity of the Escherichia coli-specific 15-mer probe pairs was approximately 330 cells. These shorter probes allowed differentiation of Klebsiella pneumoniae from Proteus mirabilis 16S rRNA target sequences differing by a single nucleotide. A panel of oligonucleotide probe pairs ranging from 11 to 23 nucleotides in length was able to distinguish among seven groups of urinary tract pathogens. In conclusion, we have developed short oligonucleotide probe pairs for the species-specific identification of uropathogens at ambient temperature by use of an electrochemical sensor.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18842936
Uropathogens other than Escherichia coli occur with greater frequency in patients with risk factors for urinary tract infection (UTI). However, little is known about associations between uropathogen species and host characteristics. Three hundred nineteen urine specimens containing a balanced distribution of uropathogen species were selected from inpatients and outpatients at a university hospital clinical microbiology laboratory. Information on host characteristics was retrospectively collected by chart review. Differences in the frequencies of host characteristics in UTI groups, as defined by the causative uropathogen, were compared by chi-square/Fisher analysis. Multivariate classification and regression tree analysis were used to identify host characteristic subsets that distinguish among uropathogen groups. In this exploratory study, several uropathogen species were found to be strongly linked to host characteristics relevant to UTI. Patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa UTIs were more likely to have undergone urinary tract procedures (43% versus 15% overall), to have a neurogenic bladder (29% versus 12% overall), to have received recent antibiotic therapy (52% versus 24% overall), and to be male (76% versus 28% overall). Patients with Proteus mirabilis UTIs were more likely to have a foreign body in the lower urinary tract (48% versus 30% overall). The classification tree identified males over the age of 27 years who had undergone a prior urinary tract procedure as belonging to a host characteristic profile associated with P. aeruginosa UTI: 38% of patients with P. aeruginosa UTIs fit this profile. These data may be useful for planning future targeted prophylaxis studies.
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering : Structures, Devices, and Systems. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19177174
An unsteady microfluidic T-form mixer driven by pressure disturbances was designed and investigated. The performance of the mixer was examined both through numerical simulation and experimentation. Linear Stokes equations were used for these low Reynolds number flows. Unsteady mixing in a micro-channel of two aqueous solutions differing in concentrations of chemical species was described using a convection-dominated diffusion equation. The task was greatly simplified by employing linear superimposition of a velocity field for solving a scalar species concentration equation. Low-order-based numerical codes were found not to be suitable for simulation of a convection-dominated mixing process due to erroneous computational dissipation. The convection-dominated diffusion problem was addressed by designing a numerical algorithm with high numerical accuracy and computational-cost effectiveness. This numerical scheme was validated by examining a test case prior to being applied to the mixing simulation. Parametric analysis was performed using this newly developed numerical algorithm to determine the best mixing conditions. Numerical simulation identified the best mixing condition to have a Strouhal number (St)of 0.42. For a T-junction mixer (with channel width = 196 μm), about 75% mixing can be finished within a mixing distance of less than 3 mm (i.e. 15 channel width) at St = 0.42 for flow with a Reynolds number less than 0.24. Numerical results were validated experimentally by mixing two aqueous solutions containing yellow and blue dyes. Visualization of the flow field under the microscope revealed a high level of agreement between numerical simulation and experimental results.
Leptospira Interrogans Stably Infects Zebrafish Embryos, Altering Phagocyte Behavior and Homing to Specific Tissues
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19547748
Leptospirosis is an extremely widespread zoonotic infection with outcomes ranging from subclinical infection to fatal Weil's syndrome. Despite the global impact of the disease, key aspects of its pathogenesis remain unclear. To examine in detail the earliest steps in the host response to leptospires, we used fluorescently labelled Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni to infect 30 hour post fertilization zebrafish embryos by either the caudal vein or hindbrain ventricle. These embryos have functional innate immunity but have not yet developed an adaptive immune system. Furthermore, they are optically transparent, allowing direct visualization of host-pathogen interactions from the moment of infection. We observed rapid uptake of leptospires by phagocytes, followed by persistent, intracellular infection over the first 48 hours. Phagocytosis of leptospires occasionally resulted in formation of large cellular vesicles consistent with apoptotic bodies. By 24 hours, clusters of infected phagocytes were accumulating lateral to the dorsal artery, presumably in early hematopoietic tissue. Our observations suggest that phagocytosis may be a key defense mechanism in the early stages of leptospirosis, and that phagocytic cells play roles in immunopathogenesis and likely in the dissemination of leptospires to specific target tissues.
A Comprehensive Approach to Identification of Surface-exposed, Outer Membrane-spanning Proteins of Leptospira Interrogans
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19562037
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution caused by pathogenic spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira. The leptospiral life cycle involves transmission via fresh water and colonization of the renal tubules of their reservoir hosts or infection of accidental hosts, including humans. Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs), particularly those with surface-exposed regions, play crucial roles in virulence mechanisms of pathogens and the adaptation to various environmental conditions, including those of the mammalian host. Little is known about the surface-exposed OMPs in Leptospira, particularly those with outer membrane-spanning domains. Herein, we describe a comprehensive strategy for identification and characterization of leptospiral transmembrane OMPs. The genomic sequence of L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130 allowed us to employ the beta-barrel prediction programs, PRED-TMBB and TMBETA-NET, to identify potential transmembrane OMPs. Several complementary methods were used to characterize four novel OMPs, designated OmpL36, OmpL37, OmpL47 and OmpL54. In addition to surface immunofluorescence and surface biotinylation, we describe surface proteolysis of intact leptospires as an improved method for determining the surface exposure of leptospiral proteins. Membrane integration was confirmed using techniques for removal of peripheral membrane proteins. We also demonstrate deficiencies in the Triton X-114 fractionation method for assessing the outer membrane localization of transmembrane OMPs. Our results establish a broadly applicable strategy for the elucidation of novel surface-exposed outer membrane-spanning proteins of Leptospira, an essential step in the discovery of potential virulence factors, diagnostic antigens and vaccine candidates.
Multiplex Pathogen Identification for Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infections Using Biosensor Technology: a Prospective Clinical Study
The Journal of Urology. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19837423
Rapid diagnosis of urinary tract infection would have a significant beneficial impact on clinical management, particularly in patients with structural or functional urinary tract abnormalities who are highly susceptible to recurrent polymicrobial infections. We examined the analytical validity of an electrochemical biosensor array for rapid molecular diagnosis of urinary tract infection in a prospective clinical study in patients with neurogenic bladder.
Potentiometric Detection of DNA Hybridization Using Enzyme-induced Metallization and a Silver Ion Selective Electrode
Analytical Chemistry. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19908886
Here, we report on a highly sensitive potentiometric detection of DNA hybridization. The new assay uses a low-volume solid-contact silver ion-selective electrode (Ag(+)-ISE) to monitor the depletion of silver ions induced by the biocatalytic reaction of the alkaline-phosphatase enzyme tag. The resultant potential change of the Ag(+)-ISE, thus, serves as the hybridization signal. Factors affecting the potentiometric hybridization response have been optimized to offer a detection limit of 50 fM (0.2 amol) DNA target. The new potentiometric assay was applied successfully to the monitoring of the 16S rRNA of E. coli pathogenic bacteria to achieve a low detection limit of 10 CFU in the 4 microL sample. Such potentiometric transduction of biocatalytically induced metallization processes holds great promise for monitoring various bioaffinity assays involving common enzyme tags.
JALA (Charlottesville, Va.). Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20161584
Cartridge-based microfluidics is a promising technology for clinical diagnostics. By miniaturizing the fluid-handling processes required for genomic and proteomic analyses, reagent and specimen volume is minimized along with the size of the system. We demonstrate an automated microfluidic system capable of performing six multiplexed genomic and proteomic analyses simultaneously, by means of an integrated electrochemical sensor and embedded controls.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19028604
Recent serologic, immunoprotection, and pathogenesis studies identified the Lig proteins as key virulence determinants in interactions of leptospiral pathogens with the mammalian host. We examined the sequence variation and recombination patterns of ligA, ligB, and ligC among 10 pathogenic strains from five Leptospira species. All strains were found to have intact ligB genes and genetic drift accounting for most of the ligB genetic diversity observed. The ligA gene was found exclusively in L. interrogans and L. kirschneri strains, and was created from ligB by a two-step partial gene duplication process. The aminoterminal domain of LigB and the LigA paralog were essentially identical (98.5+/-0.8% mean identity) in strains with both genes. Like ligB, ligC gene variation also followed phylogenetic patterns, suggesting an early gene duplication event. However, ligC is a pseudogene in several strains, suggesting that LigC is not essential for virulence. Two ligB genes and one ligC gene had mosaic compositions and evidence for recombination events between related Leptospira species was also found for some ligA genes. In conclusion, the results presented here indicate that Lig diversity has important ramifications for the selection of Lig polypeptides for use in diagnosis and as vaccine candidates. This sequence information will aid the identification of highly conserved regions within the Lig proteins and improve upon the performance characteristics of the Lig proteins in diagnostic assays and in subunit vaccine formulations with the potential to confer heterologous protection.
Molecular Microbiology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20598085
Summary Leptospira is a genus of spirochaetes that includes organisms with a variety of lifestyles ranging from aquatic saprophytes to invasive pathogens. Adaptation to a wide variety of environmental conditions has required leptospires to acquire a large genome and a complex outer membrane with features that are unique among bacteria. The most abundant surface-exposed outer membrane proteins are lipoproteins that are integrated into the lipid bilayer by amino-terminal fatty acids. In contrast to many spirochaetes, the leptospiral outer membrane also includes lipopolysaccharide and many homologues of well-known beta-barrel transmembrane outer membrane proteins. Research on leptospiral transmembrane outer membrane proteins has lagged behind studies of lipoproteins because of their aberrant behaviour by Triton X-114 detergent fractionation. For this reason, transmembrane outer membrane proteins are best characterized by assessing membrane integration and surface exposure. Not surprisingly, some outer membrane proteins that mediate host-pathogen interactions are strongly regulated by conditions found in mammalian host tissues. For example, the leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) repeat proteins are dramatically induced by osmolarity and mediate interactions with host extracellular matrix proteins. Development of molecular genetic tools are making it possible to finally understand the roles of these and other outer membrane proteins in mechanisms of leptospiral pathogenesis.
Transcriptional Response of Leptospira Interrogans to Iron Limitation and Characterization of a PerR Homolog
Infection and Immunity. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20805337
Leptospirosis is a globally significant zoonosis caused by Leptospira spp. Iron is essential for growth of most bacterial species. Since iron availability is low in the host, pathogens have evolved complex iron acquisition mechanisms to survive and establish infection. In many bacteria, expression of iron uptake and storage proteins is regulated by Fur. L. interrogans encodes four predicted Fur homologs; we have constructed a mutation in one of these, la1857. We conducted microarray analysis to identify iron-responsive genes and to study the effects of la1857 mutation on gene expression. Under iron-limiting conditions, 43 genes were upregulated and 49 genes were downregulated in the wild type. Genes encoding proteins with predicted involvement in inorganic ion transport and metabolism (including TonB-dependent proteins and outer membrane transport proteins) were overrepresented in the upregulated list, while 54% of differentially expressed genes had no known function. There were 16 upregulated genes of unknown function which are absent from the saprophyte L. biflexa and which therefore may encode virulence-associated factors. Expression of iron-responsive genes was not significantly affected by mutagenesis of la1857, indicating that LA1857 is not a global regulator of iron homeostasis. Upregulation of heme biosynthetic genes and a putative catalase in the mutant suggested that LA1857 is more similar to PerR, a regulator of the oxidative stress response. Indeed, the la1857 mutant was more resistant to peroxide stress than the wild type. Our results provide insights into the role of iron in leptospiral metabolism and regulation of the oxidative stress response, including genes likely to be important for virulence.
The OmpL37 Surface-exposed Protein is Expressed by Pathogenic Leptospira During Infection and Binds Skin and Vascular Elastin
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20844573
Pathogenic Leptospira spp. shed in the urine of reservoir hosts into freshwater can be transmitted to a susceptible host through skin abrasions or mucous membranes causing leptospirosis. The infection process involves the ability of leptospires to adhere to cell surface and extracellular matrix components, a crucial step for dissemination and colonization of host tissues. Therefore, the elucidation of novel mediators of host-pathogen interaction is important in the discovery of virulence factors involved in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis. In this study, we assess the functional roles of transmembrane outer membrane proteins OmpL36 (LIC13166), OmpL37 (LIC12263), and OmpL47 (LIC13050), which we recently identified on the leptospiral surface. We determine the capacity of these proteins to bind to host tissue components by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. OmpL37 binds elastin preferentially, exhibiting dose-dependent, saturating binding to human skin (K(d), 104±19 nM) and aortic elastin (K(d), 152±27 nM). It also binds fibrinogen (K(d), 244±15 nM), fibrinogen fragment D (K(d), 132±30 nM), plasma fibronectin (K(d), 359±68 nM), and murine laminin (K(d), 410±81 nM). The binding to human skin elastin by both recombinant OmpL37 and live Leptospira interrogans is specifically enhanced by rabbit antiserum for OmpL37, suggesting the involvement of OmpL37 in leptospiral binding to elastin and also the possibility that host-generated antibodies may promote rather than inhibit the adherence of leptospires to elastin-rich tissues. Further, we demonstrate that OmpL37 is recognized by acute and convalescent leptospirosis patient sera and also by Leptospira-infected hamster sera. Finally, OmpL37 protein is detected in pathogenic Leptospira serovars and not in saprophytic Leptospira. Thus, OmpL37 is a novel elastin-binding protein of pathogenic Leptospira that may be promoting attachment of Leptospira to host tissues.
Ternary Surface Monolayers for Ultrasensitive (Zeptomole) Amperometric Detection of Nucleic Acid Hybridization Without Signal Amplification
Analytical Chemistry. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20883023
A ternary surface monolayer, consisting of coassembled thiolated capture probe, mercaptohexanol and dithiothreitol, is shown to offer dramatic improvements in the signal-to-noise characteristics of electrochemical DNA hybridization biosensors based on common self-assembled monolayers. Remarkably low detection limits down to 40 zmol (in 4 μL samples) as well as only 1 CFU Escherichia coli per sensor are thus obtained without any additional amplification step in connection to the commonly used horseradish peroxidase/3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine system. Such dramatic improvements in the detection limits (compared to those of common binary alkanethiol interfaces and to those of most electrochemical DNA sensing strategies without target or signal amplification) are attributed primarily to the remarkably higher resistance to nonspecific adsorption. This reflects the highly compact layer (with lower pinhole density) produced by the coupling of the cyclic- and linear-configuration "backfillers" that leads to a remarkably low background noise even in the presence of complex sample matrixes. A wide range of surface compositions have been investigated, and the ternary mixed monolayer has been systematically optimized. Detailed impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies shed useful insights into the surface coverage. The impressive sensitivity and high specificity of the simple developed methodology indicate great promise for a wide range of nucleic acid testing, including clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, food safety, and forensic analysis.
Conference Proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21096997
A system was built to test the efficacy of bacterial biofilm disruption using laser generated shockwaves. The system is based on a Q-switched, ND:YAG pulsed laser operating at a rep rate of 10 Hz with 1500 mJ pulses centered at 1064 nm. The laser pulses were used to create shockwave pulses in Al coated polycarbonate substrates and a resulting peak stress of greater than 50 MPa was measured. These stress pulses were coupled to bacteria grown to confluence on agar plates and cell death as a result of shockwave stress was assessed. The results show a 55% reduction in the number living bacteria between shocked and control samples. This type of biofilm disruption method could prove useful in the treatment of infected wounds where standard treatment methods such as debridement and topical antibiotics have proven to be ineffectual or harmful.
Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21335826
Bacterial biofilm-related infections are a burden on the healthcare industry. The effect of laser generated shockwaves through polycarbonate, a flexible polymer, is explored for its ability to generate high peak stresses, and also for its ability to conform to complex wound surfaces. Shockwave pulses in Al coated polycarbonate substrates and a resulting peak stress of greater than 60 MPa was measured which should provide sufficient pressure to kill bacteria.
Redox Cycling Amplified Electrochemical Detection of DNA Hybridization: Application to Pathogen E. Coli Bacterial RNA
Analytica Chimica Acta. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21338752
An electrochemical genosensor in which signal amplification is achieved using p-aminophenol (p-AP) redox cycling by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is presented. An immobilized thiolated capture probe is combined with a sandwich-type hybridization assay, using biotin as a tracer in the detection probe, and streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase as reporter enzyme. The phosphatase liberates the electrochemical mediator p-AP from its electrically inactive phosphate derivative. This generated p-AP is electrooxidized at an Au electrode modified self-assembled monolayer to p-quinone imine (p-QI). In the presence of NADH, p-QI is reduced back to p-AP, which can be re-oxidized on the electrode and produce amplified signal. A detection limit of 1 pM DNA target is offered by this simple one-electrode, one-enzyme format redox cycling strategy. The redox cycling design is applied successfully to the monitoring of the 16S rRNA of E. coli pathogenic bacteria, and provides a detection limit of 250 CFU μL(-1).
The Multifunctional LigB Adhesin Binds Homeostatic Proteins with Potential Roles in Cutaneous Infection by Pathogenic Leptospira Interrogans
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21347378
Leptospirosis is a potentially fatal zoonotic disease in humans and animals caused by pathogenic spirochetes, such as Leptospira interrogans. The mode of transmission is commonly limited to the exposure of mucous membrane or damaged skin to water contaminated by leptospires shed in the urine of carriers, such as rats. Infection occurs during seasonal flooding of impoverished tropical urban habitats with large rat populations, but also during recreational activity in open water, suggesting it is very efficient. LigA and LigB are surface localized proteins in pathogenic Leptospira strains with properties that could facilitate the infection of damaged skin. Their expression is rapidly induced by the increase in osmolarity encountered by leptospires upon transition from water to host. In addition, the immunoglobulin-like repeats of the Lig proteins bind proteins that mediate attachment to host tissue, such as fibronectin, fibrinogen, collagens, laminin, and elastin, some of which are important in cutaneous wound healing and repair. Hemostasis is critical in a fresh injury, where fibrinogen from damaged vasculature mediates coagulation. We show that fibrinogen binding by recombinant LigB inhibits fibrin formation, which could aid leptospiral entry into the circulation, dissemination, and further infection by impairing healing. LigB also binds fibroblast fibronectin and type III collagen, two proteins prevalent in wound repair, thus potentially enhancing leptospiral adhesion to skin openings. LigA or LigB expression by transformation of a nonpathogenic saprophyte, L. biflexa, enhances bacterial adhesion to fibrinogen. Our results suggest that by binding homeostatic proteins found in cutaneous wounds, LigB could facilitate leptospirosis transmission. Both fibronectin and fibrinogen binding have been mapped to an overlapping domain in LigB comprising repeats 9-11, with repeat 11 possibly enhancing binding by a conformational effect. Leptospirosis patient antibodies react with the LigB domain, suggesting applications in diagnosis and vaccines that are currently limited by the strain-specific leptospiral lipopolysaccharide coats.
Ternary Monolayers As DNA Recognition Interfaces for Direct and Sensitive Electrochemical Detection in Untreated Clinical Samples
Biosensors & Bioelectronics. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21377347
Detection of specific DNA sequences in clinical samples is a key goal of studies on DNA biosensors and gene chips. Herein we present a highly sensitive electrochemical genosensor for direct measurements of specific DNA sequences in undiluted and untreated human serum and urine samples. Such genosensing relies on a new ternary interface involving hexanedithiol (HDT) co-immobilized with the thiolated capture probe (SHCP) on gold surfaces, followed by the incorporation of 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MCH) as diluent. The performance of ternary monolayers prepared with linear dithiols of different lengths was systematically examined, compared and characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, with HDT exhibiting the most favorable analytical performance. The new SHCP/HDT+MCH monolayer led to a 80-fold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for 1 nM target DNA in undiluted human serum over the common SHCP+MCH binary alkanethiol interface, and allowed the direct quantification of the target DNA down to 7 pM (28 amol) and 17 pM (68 amol) in undiluted/untreated serum and urine, respectively. It also displayed attractive antifouling properties, as indicated from the favorable S/N obtained after a prolonged exposure (24h) to untreated biological matrices. These attractive features of the SHCP/HDT+MCH sensor interface indicate considerable promise for a wide range of clinical applications.
Current Microbiology. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21479795
Leptospires can persist for months in nutrient-poor aqueous environments prior to transmission to a mammalian host. Interactions with environmental bacteria and biofilm formation are possible mechanisms of persistence of leptospires in the environment. Bacteria isolated from rivers in the Ecuadorian rainforest were tested for their ability to support leptospiral viability. We found that co-culture with Sphingomonas spp., but not Flavobacterium spp. or Delftia spp., enabled survival of L. biflexa and L. meyeri for up to a year in distilled water. We also found that L. interrogans biofilms formed in distilled water contained viable organisms that rapidly dispersed into the planktonic phase in the presence of nutrients in serum or EMJH medium. These data inform our understanding of leptospiral survival strategies that enable long-term persistence in nutrient-poor conditions yet allow rapid mobilization when nutrients become available.
Heterologous Expression of Pathogen-specific Genes LigA and LigB in the Saprophyte Leptospira Biflexa Confers Enhanced Adhesion to Cultured Cells and Fibronectin
BMC Microbiology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21658265
In comparison to other bacterial pathogens, our knowledge of the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of leptospirosis is extremely limited. An improved understanding of leptospiral pathogenetic mechanisms requires reliable tools for functional genetic analysis. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins are surface proteins found in pathogenic Leptospira, but not in saprophytes. Here, we describe a system for heterologous expression of the Leptospira interrogans genes ligA and ligB in the saprophyte Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc.
Highly Sensitive Disposable Nucleic Acid Biosensors for Direct Bioelectronic Detection in Raw Biological Samples
Talanta. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21807191
The development of rapid, low-cost and reliable diagnostic methods is crucial for the identification and treatment of many diseases. Screen-printed gold electrodes (Au/SPEs), coated with a ternary monolayer interface, involving hexanedithiol (HDT), a specific thiolated capture probe (SHCP), and 6-mercapto-1 hexanol (MCH) (SHCP/HDT/MCH) are shown here to offer direct and sensitive detection of nucleic acid hybridization events in untreated raw biological samples (serum, urine and crude bacterial lysate solutions). The composition of the ternary monolayer was modified and tailored to the surface of the Au/SPE. The resulting SHCP/HDT/MCH monolayer has demonstrated to be extremely useful for enhancing the performance of disposable nucleic acid sensors based on screen-printed electrodes. Compared to common SHCP/MCH binary interfaces, the new ternary self-assembled monolayer (SAM) resulted in a 10-fold improvement in the signal (S)-to-noise (N) ratio (S/N) for 1 nM target DNA. The SHCP/HDT/MCH-modified Au/SPEs allowed the direct quantification of the target DNA down to 25 pM (0.25 fmol) and 100 pM (1 fmol) in undiluted/untreated serum and urine samples, respectively, and of 16S rRNA Escherichia coli (E. coli) corresponding to 3000 CFU μL(-1) in raw cell lysate samples. The new SAM-coated screen-printed electrodes also displayed favorable non-fouling properties after a 24h exposure to raw human serum and urine samples, offering great promise as cost-effective nucleic acid sensors for a wide range of decentralized genetic tests.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21940468
We report the concentration and purification of bacterial 16S rRNA by the use of a biotinylated DNA target-specific capture (TSC) probe. For both cultivated bacterial and urine specimens from urinary tract infection patients, TSC resulted in a 5- to 8-fold improvement in the sensitivity of bacterial detection in a 16S rRNA electrochemical sensor assay.
Methylation and in Vivo Expression of the Surface-exposed Leptospira Interrogans Outer Membrane Protein OmpL32
Microbiology (Reading, England). Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22174381
Recent studies have revealed that bacterial protein methylation is a widespread post-translational modification that is required for virulence in selected pathogenic bacteria. In particular, altered methylation of outer membrane proteins has been shown to modulate the effectiveness of the host immune response. In this study, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry identified a Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130 protein, corresponding to open reading frame (ORF) LIC11848, which undergoes extensive and differential methylation of glutamic acid residues. Immunofluorescence microscopy implicated LIC11848 as a surface-exposed outer membrane protein, prompting the designation OmpL32. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy of golden Syrian hamster liver and kidney sections revealed expression of OmpL32 during colonization of these organs. Identification of methylated surface-exposed outer membrane proteins, such as OmpL32, provides a foundation for delineating the role of this post-translational modification in leptospiral virulence.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22180800
The leptospiral LigA protein consists of 13 bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains and is the only purified recombinant subunit vaccine that has been demonstrated to protect against lethal challenge by a clinical isolate of Leptospira interrogans in the hamster model of leptospirosis. We determined the minimum number and location of LigA domains required for immunoprotection. Immunization with domains 11 and 12 was found to be required but insufficient for protection. Inclusion of a third domain, either 10 or 13, was required for 100% survival after intraperitoneal challenge with Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130. As in previous studies, survivors had renal colonization; here, we quantitated the leptospiral burden by qPCR to be 1.2×10(3) to 8×10(5) copies of leptospiral DNA per microgram of kidney DNA. Although renal histopathology in survivors revealed tubulointerstitial changes indicating an inflammatory response to the infection, blood chemistry analysis indicated that renal function was normal. These studies define the Big domains of LigA that account for its vaccine efficacy and highlight the need for additional strategies to achieve sterilizing immunity to protect the mammalian host from leptospiral infection and its consequences.
Three-Dimensional Structures of Pathogenic and Saprophytic Leptospira Revealed by Cryo-Electron Tomography
Journal of Bacteriology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22228733
Leptospira interrogans is the primary causative agent of the most widespread zoonotic disease, leptospirosis. An in-depth structural characterization of L. interrogans is needed to understand its biology and pathogenesis. In this study, cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) was used to compare pathogenic and saprophytic species and examine the unique morphological features of this group of bacteria. Specifically, our study revealed a structural difference between the cell envelopes of L. interrogans and L. biflexa involving variations in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer. Through cryo-ET and subvolume averaging, we determined the first three-dimensional (3-D) structure of the flagellar motor of leptospira, with novel features in the flagellar C ring, export apparatus and stator. Together with direct visualization of chemoreceptor arrays, DNA packing, periplasmic filaments, spherical cytoplasmic bodies, and a unique "cap" at the cell end, this report provides structural insights into these fascinating Leptospira.
Antibodies to a Novel Leptospiral Protein, LruC, in the Eye Fluids and Sera of Horses with Leptospira-associated Uveitis
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22237897
Screening of an expression library of Leptospira interrogans with eye fluids from uveitic horses resulted in identification of a novel protein, LruC. LruC is located in the inner leaflet of leptospiral outer membrane and an lruC gene was detected in all tested pathogenic L. interrogans. LruC-specific antibody levels were significantly higher in eye fluids and sera of uveitic horses than healthy horses. These findings suggest that LruC may play a role in equine leptospiral uveitis.